Fourth Wave: Transient Ecstatic Disturbances


Fourth Wave: Transient Ecstatic Disturbances


athocyante trayas-triṃśad-bhāvā ye vyabhicāriṇaḥ |
viśeṣeṇābhimukhyena caranti sthāyinaṃ prati ||2.4.1||

“Hereafter the 33 vyabhicārī-bhāvas will be described. They are called vyabhicārī-bhāvas because the move (caranti) against the sthāyī-bhāva, while assisting it in a distinctive way (viśeṣena abhimukhyena).”

vāg-aṅga-sattva-sūcyā jñeyās te vyabhicāriṇaḥ |
sañcārayanti bhāvasya gatiṃ sañcāriṇo’pi ||2.4.2||

“The vyabhicārī-bhāvas reveal themselves by words, by eyebrows and other bodily parts, and by external actions (anubhāvas) that arise from overwhelming emotions (sattva). Since they set in motion (sañcārayanti) the course of the sthāyi-bhāva, they are called sañcārī-bhāvas.”

unmajjanti nimajjanti sthāyiny amṛta-vāridhau |
ūrmivad vardhayanty enaṃ yānti tad-rūpatāṃ ca te ||2.4.3||

“All the vyabhicārī-bhāvas, rising and falling like waves in the sweet ocean of the sthāyi-bhāva, increase the sthāyī-bhāva and then merge into it.”


“The vyabhicārī-bhāvas are as follows:

  1. self-disgust (nirveda)
  2. remorse (viṣāda)
  3. thinking oneself unqualified (dainyam or dīnatā)
  4. debility (glāni or mlāni)
  5. fatigue (śrama)
  6. rapture (mada)
  7. pride (garva)
  8. apprehension (śaṅka)
  9. sudden fear (trāsa)
  10. confusion of the mind (āvega)
  11. insanity (unmāda)
  12. epilepsy (apasmṛti)
  13. sickness (vyādhi)
  14. loss of internal awareness (moha)
  15. death-like symptoms (mṛti)
  16. sloth (ālasyam)
  17. indecision (jāḍyam)
  18. shame (vrīḍā)
  19. concealment (avahitthā)
  20. remembrance (smṛti)
  21. conjecture (vitarka)
  22. pondering (cintā)
  23. finding meaning through scriptural reference (mati)
  24. steadiness (dhṛti)
  25. joy (harṣa)
  26. impatience (autsukhyam)
  27. ferocity (augrya)
  28. indignation (amarṣa)
  29. fault-finding (asūyā)
  30. insolence (cāpalya)
  31. sleep (nidrā)
  32. dreaming (supti)
  33. enlightenment (bodha)”


“Self-disgust arising from great sorrow, separation, hatred or worrying about doing what should not be done, or not doing what should be done, is called nirveda. In this state worry, tears, change of color, feeling of lack of qualification (dainyam) and sighing occur.”


From great sorrow:
“O Yaśodā! What is to be gained from continuing to maintain this sinful, unfortunate body? Come! We will immediately offer our bodies in the lake of Kāliya filled with the fire of poison.”


From separation:
“Without the presence of the sweetness of Mādhava, Vṛndāvan became withered, without charm and devoid of flowers. How does this unfortunate, strong bee continue to live?”


From Dāna-keli-kaumudī [20]:
“O friend! Without hearing the words of Mādhava, my ears may as well become deaf. Without seeing the form of Mādhava, my eyes may as well become blind.”


From anger, in the words of Satyabhāmā, from Hari-vaṃśa [2.67.11]:
“O Kṛṣṇa! If Nārada is praising Rukmiṇī in front of You, he is calling upon her a misfortune similar to mine. ”


Through discrimination, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.51.47]:
“I have wasted all this time, O unconquerable one, becoming more and more intoxicated by my domain and opulence as an earthly king. Misidentifying the mortal body as the self, becoming attached to children, wives, treasury and land, I suffered endless anxiety.”


“Though it is inauspicious, Bharata Muni has mentioned nirveda as the first vyabhicārī-bhāva, since it is the sthāyi-bhāva for śānta-rasa. This is the opinion of some persons.”


“Remorse or despair arising from failure to attain one’s desired object, from failure to accomplish a task, from occurrence of a disaster, or from committing an offense is called viṣāda. In this state, there is worry, search for a means of accomplishing, search for assistance, weeping, moaning, heavy breathing, change of color and drying of the mouth.”


From not attaining one’s desired object:
“O Kṛṣṇa, killer of the Agha demon! My body is afflicted with age, my words are uncontrolled and my mind is without power of memory. What to speak of attaining the moon of bliss on seeing You, I have not even attained the opportunity of desiring to worship You!”


From failure to accomplish an action:
“Today in a dream I was picking flowers and very carefully made a garland from them. But just when I thought of offering it to the heart of Mukunda, my sleep broke.”


Remorse arising from impending disaster:
“I am so unfortunate! Why did I take my son to Mathurā? Why did I not forcibly keep Him in my house? In Mathurā the elephant desires to afflict my son just as Rahu desires to afflict the moon.”


Remorse arising from committing an offense, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.9]:

“My Lord, just see my uncivilized impudence! To test Your power I tried to extend my illusory potency to cover You, the unlimited and primeval Supersoul, who bewilder even the masters of illusion. What am I compared to You? I am just like a small spark in the presence of a great fire.”


Another example of remorse arising from committing an offense:
“Having stolen the Syamantaka jewel, I have fallen into the mouth of terrible hell. Having fallen into the Vaitaraṇī River, what boat should I use to cross over it?”


“Thinking oneself a low creature because of sorrow, fear or offense is called dainyam or dīnatā. In this state there are words of flattery, feebleness of the heart, impurity of the heart, thinking various thoughts and immobility of the limbs


Humility arising from sorrow, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.51.57]:
“For so long I have been pained by troubles in this world and have been burning with lamentation. My six enemies are never satiated, and I can find
no peace. Therefore, O giver of shelter, O Supreme Soul, please protect me. O Lord, in the midst of danger I have by good fortune approached Your lotus feet, which are the Absolute Truth and thus make one fearless and free of sorrow.”


Lowness arising from fear, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.8.10]:
“O my Lord, You are all-powerful. A fiery iron arrow is coming towards me fast. My Lord, let it burn me personally, if You so desire, but please do not let it burn and abort my embryo. Please do me this favor, my Lord.”


Lowness arising from committing an offense, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.10]:

“Therefore, O infallible Lord, kindly excuse my offenses. I have taken birth in the mode of passion and am therefore simply foolish, presuming myself a controller independent of Your Lordship. My eyes are blinded by the darkness of ignorance, which causes me to think of myself as the unborn creator of the universe. But please consider that I am Your servant and therefore worthy of Your compassion.”


The word adya in duḥkha-trāsāparādhādyair [verse 21] indicates that dainyam also arises from shame. This is illustrated in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.22.14]:
“Dear Kṛṣṇa, don't be unfair! We know that You are the respectable son of Nanda and that You are honored by everyone in Vraja. You are also very dear to us. Please give us back our clothes. We are shivering in the cold water.”


Ojas, whose ruling deity is the moon, produces strength and nourishment in the body. When it decreases by physical exertion, mental anxiety or the sexual act, the weakened state is called glāni or mlāni. In the state of glāni or languishing there is trembling, indecision, change of color, becoming thin and throwing glances here and there.”


Glāni arising from physical exertion:

“Once Rādhā was churning yogurt for Kṛṣṇa. At that time the jewel-studded bracelet on Her hand began to shake. Her lips began to sing the glories of Kṛṣṇa living in Vraja. Her eyes began to move about in fear of Her elders. Churning the yogurt in this way, She became extremely tired, and could not move Her limbs.”


Another example:
“To string an incomparable garland for Kṛṣṇa, doe-eyed Rādhā went into an inaccessible forest. While picking the beautiful flowers, for a few moments She became very weak due to exhaustion.”


Fatigue due to mental anxiety:
“Because of the summer’s heat, the lake dries up and becomes devoid of lotuses and water birds. O Mādhava! In a similar way, Your mother Yaśoda, devoid of happiness, has become weakened in separation. Her soul has departed and her body is withering away.”


Fatigue arising from amorous activities, from Rasa-sadhākara:
“At the conclusion of amorous activities, Kṛṣṇa raised Rādhā very carefully from the bed. Rādhā then held His hand and came to the veranda of the house, shining in the moonlight.”


“Fatigue arising from losing the way, dancing or amorous activities is called śrama. In this state, sleep, perspiration, rubbing the body, yawning and heavy breathing appear.”


Fatigue from losing the way:
“When Kṛṣṇa offended His mother and fled away, she pursued her son in
Vraja. Her hair became unbound and she began to perspire.”


From dancing:
“At a festival performed for Kṛṣṇa, Baladeva, surrounded by His singing friends on the bank of the Yamunā, began to dance, moving His body about while His pearl necklace shook. His body became covered in perspiration.”


From amorous actions, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.33.20]:
“Seeing that the gopīs were fatigued from conjugal enjoyment, my dear King, merciful Kṛṣṇa lovingly wiped their faces with His comforting hand.”


“Rapture that destroys all sense of discriminating power is called mada. There are two types: arising from intoxication and arising from extreme transformations due to love. In this state there is stumbling while walking,

uncoordinated movement of the limbs, and uncoordinated speaking. The eyes roll, and the face becomes red.”


Rapture from intoxication, from Lalita-mādhava [5.41]:
“Baladeva arrived with disheveled hair, fully intoxicated with liquor. He began to shout, ‘The ant-like kings, being defeated, are hiding in some hole. I will smash the whole universe. O Indra, plaything of Śacī! Why are you laughing?”


Another example of intoxication, from a traditional work:
“ ‘O Kṛṣṇa! Tell me immediately! Is the earth swerving? Is the moon wobbling? O Yadus, why are you laughing? Give Me some wine in a glass!’ Balarāma stuttered, speaking in this way while sitting in His house. May that Balarāma give you blessings!”


“When a person becomes intoxicated with liquor, the superior person falls asleep. The second-class person laughs and sings. The third-class person shouts, uses rough words and weeps.”


“There are three types of intoxication according to the stage of intoxication. However these will not be discussed in this work as they are not very useful to the topic.”


Rapture arising from love:
“O Vṛndā! See this astonishing thing! Rādhā, in the rapture of new love, gazing at Kṛṣṇa in front of Her, sometimes frowns, sometimes wanders about, sometimes laughs, sometimes weeps, sometimes covers Her face, sometimes prattles and sometimes repeatedly offers respects to Her friends.”


“Treating others with contempt due to one’s own good fortune, due to youthful beauty, due to one’s good qualities, due to taking shelter of the Lord or sue to attaining one’s object of love, is called garva or haughtiness.”


“In this state there are joking words, not giving answers by one’s own choice, showing off one’s body, concealing one’s intentions and not hearing others’ words.”


Haughtiness from good fortune, from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:

“O Kṛṣṇa! Is it really astonishing if You can give up holding My hand? I will consider You a real man if You take take Yourself from My heart.”


Haughtiness arising from beauty:
“Endowed with the beauty of youth, my friend Rādhā is fortunate, having taken shelter of the form of natural sweetness. How can She glance at You, who have enjoyed hundreds of women of Vraja and then abandoned them?”


Haughtiness arising from good qualities:
“The cowherd boys can make unlimited garlands of the most beautiful fragrant flowers. But Kṛṣṇa will eagerly hold My garland over His heart, showing great astonishment at the skill in its making.”


From taking shelter of the Lord, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.2.33]:
“O Mādhava, Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord of the goddess of fortune, if devotees completely in love with You sometimes fall from the path of devotion, they do not fall like nondevotees, for You still protect them. Thus

they fearlessly traverse the heads of their opponents and continue to progress in devotional service.”


Haughtiness from attaining one’s desired object:
“O moon of Vṛndāvan! Receiving Your excellent mercy, in great bliss, I have become proud. Today my heart does not even desire the mercy of the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha which is sought by the sages.”


“Apprehension due to committing theft, offense or others’ cruelty is called śaṅkā. In this state there is drying of the mouth, change of complexion, glancing in all directions and hiding oneself.”


Apprehension from theft:
“After stealing the calves and cowherd boys out of pride, Brahmā desiring to disappear from Kṛṣṇa’s presence, out of great apprehension glanced with his eight eyes in the eight directions.”


Another example:
“Akrura thought, ‘I have hidden the Syamantaka jewel which gives wealth, and fled away. In anxiety because of this despicable act, until today, happiness has disappeared from my heart.’ ”


Apprehension from offense:
“O Indra! As long as you pour rain upon Nanda’s fields, you will be despondent. Listen as I tell you something for your benefit: You will enjoy full powers as Indra without apprehension in your heart by surrendering completely to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.”


Apprehension on seeing others’ cruelty, from Padyāvalī [331]:
“O friend! Thinking of Kṛṣṇa living in Mathurā surrounded by the ferocious demons of Kaṃsa, I am deeply afflicted. In the same way I feel affliction in separation from Kṛṣṇa.”


“This apprehension (śaṅkā) becomes fear (bhaya) in the best of women, because they have a timid nature.”


“The disturbance arising in the heart from lightning, fearful creatures or a loud sound is called trāsa (terror). In this state a person grasps nearby objects for support, his hairs stand on end, he quivers, becomes paralyzed and wanders about.”


Terror from lightning:
“When the eyes of the cowherd boys became pained by the flashing of lightning, they began to shout, ‘O Kṛṣṇa, please protect us!’ ”


Terror from ferocious beasts:
“When Vṛṣāsura approached, taking the form of a bull, some of the gopīs began to tremble. Suddenly embracing a tamāla tree, mistaking it for Kṛṣṇa, they could not move.”


Terror arising from frightening sounds:
“When the very wise Yaśodā heard the terrifying howling of wolves echoing in all directions, which gave pain to the ears, she kept Kṛṣṇa continually within her vision for some days.”


“Disturbance of the heart that suddenly produces shaking of the limbs is called trāsa. This is different from fear. Fear arises after deliberating on previous and subsequent events.”


“Confusion of the mind is called āvega. It is of eight types, arising from dear things, detested objects, fire, wind, rain, calamity, elephants or enemies.”


“In āvega arising from dear objects, standing of the hair on end, words of affection, fickleness and rising to one’s feet appear. In āvega arising from detested objects, falling on the ground, shouting and wandering about appear.”


“In āvega arising from fire, the actions are retreating, shaking of the body, closing the eyes and tears. In āvega from wind, the actions are covering the body, walking swiftly and rubbing the eyes.”


“In āvega arising from rain, the actions are running, holding an umbrella and crouching down. In āvega arising from calamity, the actions are discoloration of the face, astonishment and strong shaking of the body.”


“In āvega from elephants, the actions are fleeing, strong shaking, trāsa and looking behind. In āvega arising from enemies, the actions are taking up armor and weapons, abandoning one’s house and going elsewhere.”


Āvega arising from seeing the object of one’s affection:

“When Yaśodā the queen of Gokula saw Kṛṣṇa returning from the forest of Vṛndāvan, her hair stood on end. She became perplexed and milk began to flow from her breasts.”


Āvega arising from hearing about one’s object of affection, from the Tenth

Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.23.18]:
“The wives of the brāhmaṇas were always eager to see Kṛṣṇa, for their minds had been enchanted by descriptions of Him. Thus as soon as they heard that He had come, they became very excited.”


From seeing something detestable:
“Hearing a terrifying sound and seeing Kṛṣṇa on the chest of Pūtanā during a dream, Yaśodā wailed in a loud voice, ‘What is this? What is this?’ She began wandering about in confusion.”


Hearing something detestable:
“Hearing the Kṛṣṇa was situated between two Arjuna trees on the bank of the Yamunā, Yaśoda with eyes turned upwards, became struck with confusion and could not decide what to do.”


Āvega arising from fire:
“O Kṛṣṇa with peacock feather! See the fire making a constantly ferocious sound. It is touching the Mandākinī River of Svarga with its long flames, as if sipping its waters. You are the jewel that protects the life of Your friends. Seeing You standing in the midst of the deep forest to protect the cows, our hearts have become bewildered.”


Āvega arising from wind:
“When Tṛṇāvarta, making a terrifying sound, endowed with great strength to uproot large forest trees, spreading clouds of dust, carrying cow dung, dust, grass and stones, began to sway the branches of the Bhāṇḍira tree, Yaśodā, the wife of Nanda, not seeing her son Kṛṣṇa on the ground, was overcome with great confusion.”


Āvega arising from rain, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.25.11]:
“The cows and other animals, shivering from the excessive rain and wind, and the cowherd men and ladies, pained by the cold, all approached Lord Govinda for shelter.”


Another example:
“Showers of rain and hail are falling profusely like juice from the foreheads of elephants. The young men have become confused. You are just a boy;
therefore do not try to go out of the house.”


Āvega resulting from calamity:
“Becoming perplexed, Yaśodā said, ‘The broad earth is suddenly shaking. Meteors are making a terrifying sound in the sky. My young boy has just now gone to the shore of the Yamunā contaminated with poison. What should I do?’ ”


Āvega arising from elephants:
“O Śyāmasundara! Flee quickly! Flee quickly! There is a terrifying elephant in front of You. Because of Your sweet glances, the hearts of us fickle Mathurā women have become completely disturbed.”

gajena duṣṭa-sattvo’nyaḥ paśv-ādir upalakṣyate ||2.4.74||

“By mentioning elephants, other wicked animals such as horses should be understood as well.”


Another example:
“O mother! The horse demon Keśī blinds the heavenly damsels of Indra by raising the dust in the stables with his hooves. By shaking his mane he whips the horses pulling the chariot of the sun and makes them flee away. But let that demon horse come towards Me! My long arm is ready for him! Why are you so disturbed?”


Disturbance arising from enemies, from Lalita-mādhava:
“Here is the lowest demon Śaṅkhacūḍa, sturdy in body, with arms as long as tāla trees and chest as broad as a mountain plateau. What a match for the beautiful child resembling Cupid, soft as the bud of a new tamāla tree! Is

there no skillful person here to help us? O queen of Vraja, I cannot understand where all the results of your austerities have gone today.”


Another example, also from Lalita-mādhava:
“When Kṛṣṇa stole Rukmiṇī at the svayaṃvara, the kings spoke to their servants, ‘My horse, chariot, elephants, bow quiver and sword are here. What fear do I have? You should be quick! The lusty cowherd has stolen the daughter of a king!’ ”


“Though the above example is only an ābhāsa of āvega, being the sentiment of āvega in nondevotees taking Kṛṣṇa as the enemy, it is given as an example because it reveals the superior nature of Kṛṣṇa.”


“Confused understanding caused by extreme bliss, calamity or separation is called unmāda (insanity). In this state the actions are loud laughing, dancing, singing, useless actions, prattling, running, shouting and performing activities opposite to what are usually performed.”


Insanity arising from intense bliss, from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:
“May Rādhā who, having surrendered Her heart to Kṛṣṇa, churned an empty yogurt pot, purify the world. And may Kṛṣṇa, whose eyes like bees hovered upon Rādhā’s breasts which were like clusters of flowers, and who with mind absorbed in Rādhā, began milking a bull, purify the world.”


Insanity arising from calamity:
“What a calamity! When Kṛṣṇa entered the lake of Kāliya, Yaśodā became insane, and thinking the animals were knowers of mantras, folded her hands and began offering them respects. Thinking the trees were doctors, she asked them for medicine to counteract the poison.”


Insanity arising from separation, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam [10.30.4]:
“Singing loudly of Kṛṣṇa, they searched for Him throughout the Vṛndāvana forest like a band of madwomen. They even asked the trees about Him, who as the Supersoul is present inside and outside of all created things, just like the sky.”


“Insanity could be included within sickness (vyādhiṣu, meaning ‘among different types of sicknesses’). However it is described separately because in states such as separation, it induces a unique variety of actions.”


“When a person attains the stage of bewilderment in the adhirūḍha stage of mahā-bhāva, unmāda takes on another form called divyonmāda.”


“A condition of almost total lack of consciousness arising from disturbance of the dhātus due to grief is called apasmāra (epilepsy). In that state there is falling to the ground, running about, pain in the limbs, confusion, shaking of the body, foaming at the mouth, flailing the arms and shouting.”


An example:
“O best of the Yadus! Now our mother Yaśodā, because of pain sue to separation from You for a long time, is foaming at the mouth like the shore of the ocean. Her arms are moving about like waves in the ocean. She sometimes whirls about, sometimes rolls on the ground, makes sounds and sometimes remains motionless.”


Another example:
“Crown jewel of the Yadus! Hearing that You killed Kaṃsa, Kaṃsa’s close friends underwent unspeakable, terrible transformations. They wander on the beach whirling about like wheels and cannot stop. Foam flows from their mouths in great quantities and their arms flail about.”


“This sickness called apasmāra has been described separately from sickness, as in the case of unmāda, since it produces an extremely astonishing state with a hint of bhayānaka-rasa (fear).”


“Sickness such as fever generated from extreme sorrow at hearing of contempt for Kṛṣṇa by the demons, or from separation or other events is
called vyādhi or disease; but in this book vyādhi refers to symptoms caused by an emotional state rather than from disturbance of the dhātus arising from that separation. In this state, paralysis, slackness of the limbs, heavy breathing, anxiety and fatigue occur.”


“O Kṛṣṇa! Separated from You for a long time, Your associates in Vraja are afflicted. Their bodies are burning and remain motionless. Their nostrils quiver because of heavy breathing, and they roll on the ground.”


“A complete lack of awareness (internal inaction) arising from joy, separation, fear or lamentation is called moha. In this state there is falling on the ground, absence of sense perceptions, wandering about and inactivity.”


Moha arising from joy, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.12.44]:
“O Śaunaka, greatest of saints and devotees, when Mahārāja Parīkṣit inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī in this way, Śukadeva Gosvāmī, immediately remembering subject matters about Kṛṣṇa within the core of his heart, externally lost contact with the actions of his senses. Thereafter, with great difficulty, he revived his external sensory perception and began to speak to Mahārāja Parīkṣit about kṛṣṇa-kathā.”


Another example of moha arising from joy:
“Seeing Kṛṣṇa alone in Kurukṣetra, the women of Vraja stopped breathing, stopped blinking their eyes, stopped all actions and became devoid of consciousness. They remained standing there like golden statues.”


Moha arising from separation, from Haṃsadūta:
“Once Rādhā, to assuage the fire of separation in Her heart, went to the bank of the Yamunā with Her friends, but seeing the there the familiar bower of creepers, Her heart became covered with a blank state of mind—which was Her dear friend, like deep sleep.”


Moha arising from fear:
“When Kṛṣṇa showed His universal form, Arjuna, who had the insignia of Hanumān on his flag, dropped his Gāṇḍīva bow. However, being in a state of moha, he was not aware of this.”


Moha arising from despair, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.11.49]:
“When Balarāma and the other boys saw that Kṛṣṇa had been devoured by the gigantic duck, they became almost unconscious, like senses without life.”


“When the devotees develop moha, they lose awareness of objects including their own bodies, but awareness of Kṛṣṇa never disappears.”


“Giving up life because of grief, sickness, fear, beating or exhaustion is called mṛti (death). In this state, unclear speaking, change of bodily color, feeble breathing and hiccups occur.”


“The pious persons of Mathurā, with weak breathing, eyes glancing sideways and upwards, taking on a unique complexion in their bodies and hiccuping loudly, gave up their lives while uttering Kṛṣṇa’s name unclearly.”


Another example:
“The sun in the form of Kṛṣṇa drank up the deep darkness of life of the midnight in the form of Pūtanā. Her eyes lit up for a moment beyond her control and then died out, like the glowing of fireflies in the night. That midnight suddenly disappeared with the loud hooting of owns in the form of her death groans.”


“The state of consciousness just before death is generally called mṛti. However, some say that mṛti should be considered only an external similarity to death (anubhāva). It has been described in the enemies of Kṛṣṇa (although in that case it is not the vyābhicārī-bhāva called mṛti) just to show His power.”


“Lack of enthusiasm to perform activities because of satiation or fatigue, even though one has the ability to do them, is called ālasya.”


“In this state, stretching the limbs, yawning, disgust with work, rubbing the eyes, lying down, fondness for sitting down, exhaustion and sleep occur.”


Ālasya arising from satiation:

“O king of the cowherds! At the festival of Govardhana we have become so satisfied that we cannot even give blessings.”


Ālasya arising from fatigue:

“After arm-wrestling with Me to please Me, he cannot do any activity now and is stretching his limbs. You should not call him to fight immediately.”


“Absence of the ability to decide anything, which arises from hearing or seeing desirable or undesirable things or from separation, is called jāḍyam. This occurs previous to or following moha (inoperative mind). In this state blinking of the eyes, silence and forgetfulness occur.”


Jāḍyam from hearing what is desirable, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.21.13]:
“Using their upraised ears as vessels, the cows are drinking the nectar of the flute-song flowing out of Kṛṣṇa’s mouth. The calves, their mouths full of milk from their mothers' moist nipples, stand still as they take Govinda within themselves through their tear-filled eyes and embrace Him within their


Jāḍyam from hearing what is undesirable:
“Hearing Keśava call out someone else’s name, the heart of Lakṣmaṇā, one of the leaders of the gopīs, was pained. Her eyes stopped blinking and she did
not utter a word.”


Jāḍyam from seeing the object of desire, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.71.39]:
“King Yudhiṣṭhira respectfully brought Lord Govinda, the Supreme God of gods, to his personal quarters. The King was so overcome with joy that he could not remember all the rituals of worship.”


Jāḍyam from seeing the undesirable, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.39.36]:
“Sending their minds after Kṛṣṇa, the gopīs stood as motionless as figures in a painting. They remained there as long as the flag atop the chariot was visible, and even until they could no longer see the dust raised by the chariot wheels.”


Jāḍyam from separation:
“Your friends, pained by long separation from You, remain on this earth like the Deities of neglectful brāhmaṇas which are without ornaments, wearing soiled cloth which is falling off, with limbs dirty and thin.”


“The state of bashfulness, the opposite of audacity, arising from just meeting one’s lover, from performing forbidden actions, from praise or neglect is

called vrīḍā (shyness). In this state there is silence, anxiety, covering the head, writing on the ground and hanging the head.”


Vrīḍā from meeting the Lord for the first time, from Padyāvalī:
“O lotus-eyed friend! Blinded with love, you have offered your beautiful body to Govinda. O friend! Do not be miserly by showing yourself to Him only a little. The purchased elephant does not quarrel with the goad.”


Shame arising from forbidden activities:
“O Indra! You should not hang down your head in shame and remain silent. Take the parijāta tree and go. Otherwise how can you show your face to your wife?”


Shame from being praised:
“When Kṛṣṇa praised Uddhava, listing all his good qualities, Uddhava lowered his head and took on a unique attractiveness.”


Shame arising from neglect, from Hari-vaṃśa, in a statement by Satyā: “Raivataka Mountain is always glorious with spring flowers. How can I look upon that mountain when I have lost the affection of Kṛṣṇa, though once I was most dear to Him?”


“The external action of wanting to hide one’s external symptoms because of thinking oneself low is called avahitthā.


“In this state, hiding one’s limbs so others will think one is something else, glancing elsewhere, useless actions and clever use of words occur.”


“The ancient authorities say that the bhāva which conceals one’s anubhāvas
(external symptoms) is called avahitthā-vyabhicārī-bhāva.”


An example of avahitthā from deceit, Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.32.16]:
“Śrī Kṛṣṇa had awakened romantic desires within the gopīs, and they honored Him by glancing at Him with playful smiles, gesturing amorously with their eyebrows, and massaging His hands and feet as they held them in their laps. Even while worshiping Him, however, they felt somewhat angry, and thus they addressed Him as follows.”


An example of avahitthā from mild nature:
“When Madhusūdana brought the parijāta tree to the house of Satyabhāmā, though Rukmiṇī was filled with anger, no one could detect that deception because of her mildness.”


Concealment out of bashfulness, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.32]:
“The insuperable ecstasy was so strong that the queens, who were shy, first embraced the Lord in the innermost recesses of their hearts. Then they embraced Him visually, and then they sent their sons to embrace Him [which is equal to personal embracing]. But, O chief amongst the Bhṛgus, though they tried to restrain their feelings, they inadvertently shed tears.”


Concealment from deceit and bashfulness:
“O messenger! Will a respectable woman desire such a snake among cowherds? Remembering Him, the hairs of my body are standing on end out of fear.”


Concealment by good qualities:
“Though Rādhā’s attachment to Kṛṣṇa increased to the extreme, by the wealth of Her self-control, she concealed it so that no one could doubt Her.”


Concealment out of respect:
“When Kṛṣṇa began to joke among His laughing cowherd friends, His servant Patrī became jubilant. Out of respect, he hung his head and with great difficulty covered his laughing.”

||2.4.127|| ||2.4.128||

“Three bhāvas will be seen operating in this situation: one as a cause, one that is concealed and one bhāva that conceals another. Individually or as a group, the bhāvas may act as a cause, being concealed or concealing.”


“Scrutiny of previous experience, that arises from strict practice or from
seeing similar objects, is called smṛti (remembrance). In this state, shaking the head and moving the brows occur.”


Smṛti arising from seeing a similar object:
“O Mukunda! When lotus-eyed Rādhā saw a dark cloud, She remembered
You and experienced the force of love.”


Smṛti arising from determined practice:

“Spontaneously, without concentrating, the lotus feet of the Lord now appear in my heart at any time or place.”


“Arriving at a conclusion based on error, doubt or inference is called vitarka (conjecture). In this state, moving the brows, and moving the head and fingers occur.”


Vitarka arising from inference, from Vidagdha-mādhava:

“O elephant who sports in the houses of Vṛndāvan! The peacock feather has fallen from Your head to the ground, but You are unaware of that. There is a prepared garland lying in front of You, but You do not put it on. From that I can infer that the power of the bees, in the form of Rādhā’s eyes, has agitated You.”


Vitarka arising from doubt:
“Is that a tamāla tree? It cannot be, for why would it be endowed with such pure, clear movements? Is it a cloud? No, it cannot be, for a spotless moon is residing there. O moon-faced one! It seems that Mukunda, who can enchant the universe with the sound of His flute, is certainly wandering on top of Govardhana Hill.”


“Some say that tarka means to draw conclusions about objects cabale of being judged.”


“Pondering, arising from not attaining a desired object or from attaining an undesirable object, is called cintā. In this state, there is heavy breathing, hanging of the head, writing on the ground, change of color, sleeplessness, prattle and fever.”


Pondering from not attaining the desired object of love, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.29.29]:
“Their heads hanging down and their heavy, sorrowful breathing drying up their reddened lips, the gopīs scratched the ground with their toes. Tears flowed from their eyes, carrying their kajjala and washing away the vermilion smeared on their breasts. Thus they stood, silently bearing the burden of their unhappiness.”


Another example:
“O killer of Agha! Your affectionate mother, depressed and thin from thinking of You, remained sitting on the veranda for a long time, and having waited until evening, she now wanders within the house. How astonishing it is! Though You experienced such fun there, You have completely forgotten about Your house.”


Cintā arising from attaining something undesirable:

“Do not remain sleepless, absorbed in intense deliberation, with hot tears withering your lotus face. I will go to Mathurā with Akrura and bring back your son very soon.”


“Ascertaining a meaning after consulting scripture is called mati.”


“In this state performing necessary actions after cutting doubts and illusions, giving instructions to students and defeating others’ arguments and opposite conclusions occur.”


From the Padma Purāṇa, Vaiśākhā-mahātmya:
“Let the Purāṇas and other scriptures glorify the greatness of their devatās here and there for a kalpa to produce illusion in the people of this world. But after taking into account all varieties of interpretation, their conclusion is that Viṣṇu alone is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”


From the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.60.39]:
“Knowing that great sages who have renounced the sannyāsī's daṇḍa proclaim Your glories, that You are the Supreme Soul of all the worlds, and that You are so gracious that You give away even Your own self, I chose You as my husband, rejecting Lord Brahmā, Lord Śiva and the rulers of heaven, whose aspirations are all frustrated by the force of time, which is born from Your eyebrows. What interest, then, could I have in any other suitors?”


“The steadiness of heart arising from attaining realization of the Lord, from absence of suffering in attaining realization of the Lord, and from realizing prema with the Lord is called dhṛti. In this state there is no lamentation for things not attained or for things that have disappeared.”


Dhṛti from attaining realization of the Lord, from Bhartṛhari’s Vairāgya-śataka:
“When I attain knowledge of the Lord, I will eat only begged food and live without clothing. I will sleep on the ground. What is the necessity of serving the king or other authorities?”


Dhṛti from lack of suffering:
“Our cowsheds have become the playground of Lakṣmī and more than 100,000 billion cows are running around. A divine child is playing in the house. I am fully satisfied with the happiness of family life.”


Dhṛti from attaining prema:
“I am situated on the bank of the ocean of nectar consisting of the Lord’s pastimes. Thus my mind is not aware of artha, dharma, kāma and mokṣa, which are now worthless like grass.”


“Happiness of the heart arising from seeing or attaining one’s desired object is called harṣa. In this state standing of the hair on end, perspiration, tears, glowing face, confusion (āvega), insanity (unmāda), indecision (jaḍatā) and fainting (moha) occur.”


Joy on seeing one’s desired object, from Viṣṇu Purāṇa:
“O sage! When Akrura saw Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, his lotus face blossomed with joy and all his hairs stood on end.”


Joy from attaining one’s desired object, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad- Bhāgavatam [10.33.11]:
“Upon the shoulder of one gopī Kṛṣṇa placed His arm, whose natural blue- lotus fragrance was mixed with that of the sandalwood pulp anointing it. As the gopī relished that fragrance, her bodily hair stood on end in jubilation, and she kissed His arm.”


“Inability to tolerate the passing of time, arising from desire to see or attain a desired object is called autsukhyam (impatience). In this state there is drying of the mouth, haste, pondering and prominence of breathing.”


Impatience arising from a desire to see one’s cherished object, from the Tenth
Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.71.33]:
“When the young women of the city heard that Lord Kṛṣṇa, the reservoir of pleasure for human eyes, had arrived, they hurriedly went onto the royal road to see Him. They abandoned their household duties and even left their husbands in bed, and in their eagerness the knots of their hair and garments came loose.”


Another example, from Stavāvalī, Śrī-Rādhikāṣṭaka:
“When Kṛṣṇa revealed His whereabouts in the grove by the sound of His flute, Rādhā coming quickly to the grove with a smiling face, remained waiting with head hung down, eager to hear Kṛṣṇa’s words. When will that Rādhā engage me in Her service?”


Impatience arising from desire to attain one’s object:
“When the gopīs tried to prolong the conversation with Kṛṣṇa by expert joking, and thus delay Him, Rādhā came to the grove quickly, on the pretext of accepting a bunch of flowers.”


“Ferocity arising from offenses and harsh words is called augrya. In that state killing, binding, shaking the head, shouting loudly and beating occur.”


Augrya arising from offense to Kṛṣṇa:

“Garuda said: ‘By my power the snakes have abortions. But Kāliya is offending my Master in my presence. I want to offer him to the fire in my stomach, but I am afraid of Kṛṣṇa’s anger.’ ”


Augrya arising from harsh words against Kṛṣṇa, in a statement by Sahadeva: “I will place my left foot with more force than Yama’s punishment on the head of that person who cannot tolerate the first worship of Kṛṣṇa—who is full of all glories and worshiped by all devatās.”


Baladeva speaks:
“O Lord! These evil men, lowest members of the Kuru dynasty, having attained and given up the qualities of kings, are attached to sitting on the king’s throne. How painful it is to have to hear them today in the assembly boldly insulting Acyuta, worthy of praise by the whole universe.”

||2.4.159|| ||2.4.160||

“Intolerance arising from contempt, insult or other causes is called amarṣa (indignation). In this state perspiration, shaking the head, change of color, pondering, looking for methods, shouting, turning away and beating occur.”


Indignation arising from contempt, from Vidagdha-mādhava:
“Jaṭilā said to Kṛṣṇa: ‘See! My son’s new, auspicious bride, endowed with all the sweetness of the earth, is sitting by my side. O unsteady boy! You cannot disturb me, though You wander fearlessly through Vraja moving Your eyebrows!”


Indignation arising from disrespect, in the words of Padmā:
“O thief in the kadamba forest! Come here quickly and do not use clever words! There is no greater disrespect for a person like me than to directly spoil excellent Candrāvalī in the assembly of gopīs by uttering the unsuitable name of Rādhā.”


Indignation arising from being cheated, indicated by the word ādi, from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.31.17]:
“Dear Acyuta, You know very well why we have come here. Who but a cheater like You would abandon young women who come to see Him in the midle of the night, enchanted with the loud song of His flute? Just to see You, we have completely rejected our husbands, children, ancestors, brothers and other relatives.”


“Hatred arising from others’ increase of good fortune or qualities is called asūyā (envy or fault-finding). In this state, malice, disrespect, insult, fault- finding, speaking ill of others, casting evil glances and miving the eyebrows occur.”


Envy arising from others’ increase of good fortune, from Padyāvalī [302]:
“Do not be proud, now that you attain the glory of a new mañjarī marked with the hand of Kṛṣṇa on your forehead. Can no one else be the recipient of that mark? Others would also have this good fortune if our enemy’s hand did not shake.”


From the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.30.30]:

“These footprints of that special gopī greatly disturb us. Of all the gopīs, She alone was taken away to a secluded place, where She is enjoying the lips of Kṛṣṇa.”


Envy arising from increase of good qualities:
“Balarāma’s team thinks itself strong and able to defeat our team with Kṛṣṇa on our side, but is there anyone weaker than Balarāma’s team in this world?”


Cāpalam (insolence) means inconsiderateness of the heart arising from attraction or repulsion. In this state, lack of judgment, rough words and careless actions occur.”


Cāpalya arising from attachment:
“O unconquerable one, tomorrow when my marriage ceremony is about to begin, You should arrive unseen in Vidarbha and surround Yourself with the leaders of Your army. Then crush the forces of Caidya and Magadhendra and marry me in the Rākṣasa style, winning me with Your valor.”


Cāpalyam arising from hatred:
“May the flute, which loosens the cords tying the clothing of the beautiful women, enter the ocean on the waves of the Yamunā!”


“Suspension of external awareness arising from pondering, lack of energy, natural tendency and fatigue is called nidrā or sleep. In this state, rubbing the limbs, yawning, inaction, heavy breathing and closing the eyes occur.”


Nidrā arising from worry:
“When the sun turned read at sunset and she did not hear the sound of the flute, Yaśodā entered a state of nidrā, being afflicted by excessive pondering of the situation.”


Nidrā arising from lack of energy:
When Yaśodā tied up Kṛṣṇa, she was unable to move her body. She became dizzy. Rubbing her limbs, she entered a state of nidrā.


Nidrā arising from natural urge:
“O killer of Agha! Look! Having extinguished all fears by thinking of Your exploits, the cowherd men have given up locking their doors and sleep at night in the yards of their houses without moving their limbs.”


Nidrā arising from fatigue:
“Viṣākhā, tinged with the colors of Kṛṣṇa’s cosmetics, tired after enjoyment, is sleeping on Kṛṣṇa’s chest.”


“The state just prior to extinguishing of consciousness, in which there is appearance of Kṛṣṇa without particular pastimes, is called nidrā for the devotees.”


“Sleep in which there are various thoughts and experience of objects is called supti or dreaming. In this state there is absence of the functions of the external senses, heavy breathing and closing the eyes.”


An example:
“Baladeva astonished the assembly of the Yadus and made them laugh when He went to sleep. While breathing heavily and heaving His belly, He exclaimed in a dream state, ‘O lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa! You have magnificently

manifested Your wealth of childhood pastimes by powerfully crushing the intolerable pride of Kāliya, the king of snakes.’ ”


“Enlightenment of appearance of knowledge caused by destruction of ignorance, moha and sleep is called bodha.”


Bodha arising from destruction of ignorance:
“Enlightenment occurs after the appearance of knowledge, which occurs after the removal of ignorance. This enlightenment consists of realizing one’s identity with brahman, which destroys unlimited suffering.”


Another example:
“Realizing my svarūpa of eternity and knowledge after attaining the lamp of knowledge, without obstacle, I will now search for the Supreme Brahman personified, composed of concentrated bliss.”


Bodha arising from the destruction of moha:
“When moha is destroyed by the sound, fragrance, touch and taste of the Lord, there is bodha. In this state the eyes are open, hairs stand on end, and there is rising from the ground.”


Bodha from the destruction of moha, arising from the sound of the Lord:
“All of Rādhā’s senses stopped functioning (moha) due to the bliss generated from first seeing Kṛṣṇa. Then when Lalitā uttered the Holy Names of Kṛṣṇa in Her ear, she opened Her eyes.”


Arising from smell:
“Once when Kṛṣṇa disappeared from the presence of Rādhā, She lost control of Her limbs, lost Her color and lost Her breath. She fell on the forest earth. When the fragrance of Kṛṣṇa’s forest garland spread in all directions, Rādhā’s hairs stood on end by smelling the fragrance, and look—She rose from the ground.”


Breaking moha by touch:
“O friend! Whose touch is this, that is soft, blissful and all-conquering? Seeing the bank of the Yamunā I had fainted. The touch of that hand completely removed My fainting condition, which gave Me so much suffering, by force, producing in Me a fainting condition of happiness.”


Destruction of moha caused by taste:
“Younger brother of Balarāma! When You disappeared during the rāsa dance, my friend Rādhā lost control of Her body and became unconscious. But when lotus-eyed Rādhā tasted Your chewed tāmbūla that I placed in Her mouth, Her hairs stood on end.”


Bodha arising from breaking sleep:
“There is bodha when sleep is broken by a dream, by sufficient rest and by noise. In this state rubbing the eyes, rising from bed and rubbing the limbs occurs.”


Bodha arising from breaking sleep through a dream:
“ ‘O Kṛṣṇa! Do not laugh. Stop pulling the edge of My cloth, otherwise I will tell Jaṭilā about Your fickle behavior.’ Saying this, in a dream, Rādhā suddenly awoke. Seeing her elders in front of Her, She became very bashful and hung Her head.”


Bodha arising from breaking sleep sue to sufficient rest:
“Just when the messenger arrived at Her house, Rādhā woke up. It is seen that the attempts of those with sufficient pious credits quickly bear fruit.”


By sound:
“Just as the rumbling of the clouds that gives joy to the peacocks causes the swans to fly away, so the sound of the flute broke the sleep of the gopīs.”


“Thus the thirty-three vyābhicaārī-bhāvas have been described. They should be described as superior, moderate and inferior according to their condition.”

||2.4.192|| ||2.4.193||

“All other conditions such as envy, agitation, deceit, spite, discrimination, coming to conclusion, impotence, toleration, curiosity, longing, modesty, doubt and audacity can be included in the thirty-three vyābhicaārī-bhāvas, and thus have not been described separately.”

||2.4.194|| ||2.4.195||


  • Mātsarya (envy) is included in asūyā-bhāva.
  • Udvega (agitation) is included in trāsa-bhāva.
  • Dambha (deceit) is included in avahitthā-bhāva.
  • Īrṣyā (spite) is included in amarṣa-bhāva.
  • Viveka (discrimination) and nirṇaya (concluding) are included in mati-bhāva.
  • Klaibhyam (impotence) is included in dainyam-bhāva.
  • Kṣamā (tolerance) is included in dhṛti-bhāva.
  • Kutuka (curiosity) and utkaṇṭha (longing) are included in autsukya-bhāva.
  • Vinaya (modesty) is included in lajjā-bhāva.
  • Saṃśaya (doubt) is included in vitarka-bhāva.
  • Dhārṣtya (audacity) is included in cāpala-bhāva.”


“Among the vyābhicārī-bhāvas, some act as cause (vibhāva) and some as effect (anubhāva).”


“Thus īrṣya (malice) is the cause of nirveda (self-disgust) and the effect of asūyā (envy). This has already been stated.”


Cintā (pondering) is the effect of autsukya (impatience) and the cause of nidrā (sleep). In this way one should understand how the vyābhicārī-bhāvas act mutually as anubhāva (actions as effect) and vibhāva (actions as cause).”


“The causes and effects of vyābhicārī-bhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and various other actions should be understood to be similar to situations in the material world.”


“Criticism or other actions are considered to be the cause of change of color (a sāttvika-bhāva) and amarṣa (indignation, a vyābhicārī-bhāva) and the effect of asūyā (envy, a vyābhicārī-bhāva).”


“Beating is the cause of moha (fainting, a vyābhicārī-bhāva) and pralaya (a sāttvika-bhāva). It is also the effect of augrya (ferocity, a vyābhicārī-bhāva). Other states should be understood similarly.”


“The vyābhicārī-bhāvas of trāsa (terror), nidrā (sleep), śrama (disturbance), ālasya (lack of enthusiasm) and māda (madness) arise from intoxication, and bodha arises somewhat as as the effect of rati.”


Rati has no direct relationship with the six vyābhicārī-bhāvas just mentioned. Rati has a relationship with them only because they support rati for encouraging pastimes.”


“Similarly, vitarka (conjecture), mati (scriptural conclusion), nirveda (self- disgust), dhṛti (steadiness of heart), smṛti (remembrance), harṣa (joy) and the type of bodha arising from destruction of ignorance become somewhat the causes of rati. ”


“The vyābhicārī-bhāvas may be either dependent upon or independent [of the primary and secondary ratis].”


“The dependent vyābhicārī-bhāvas are either superior or inferior.”


“The superior dependent vyābhicārī-bhāvas are either direct or indirect.”


“A superior vyābhicārī-bhāva that nourishes a primary rati is called a direct superior dependent vyābhicārī-bhāva.


An example:
“What is the use of eyes that do not see Mathurā, hearing whose name my hairs stand on end?”


“A superior, dependent vyābhicārī-bhāva that nourishes a secondary rati is called an indirect (vyavahita) superior dependent vyābhicārī-bhāva.”


“I am Bhīma. How unfortunate are my two arms, strong as iron beams, if they cannot crush the evil Śiṣupāla, the enemy of Kṛṣṇa!”


“In the above verse, nirveda (self-deprecation) is under the control of the secondary rati of anger. Thus it is called indirect (vyavahita).”


“When the vyābhicārī-bhāva is not a component of either a primary or secondary rasa (does not nourish the rasa) it is called an inferior dependent vyābhicārī-bhāva.


“When Arjuna saw that the universal form of Kṛṣṇa was crushing the heads of the living entities in the universe with the teeth in His shining mouths, his mouth became dry and he forgot himself.”


“Uncontrollable fear appeared when Arjuna experienced the frightful actions of the universal form of the Lord. This covers the normal rati of Arjuna (friendship). The vyābhicārī-bhāva of moha is under the control of fear, which is not a secondary rati [because fear is incompatible with friendship].”


Svatantra (independent) vyābhicārī-bhāvas:

“Though all the vyābhicārī-bhāvas are dependent to some degree [upon the rati of the devotee], they manifest some independence. Though the employees of a king are dependent on the king, at the time of collecting the king’s taxes or during marriages, they show independence from the king.”


“Those knowledgeable of rati divide the independent vyābhicārī-bhāvas into three types: devoid of genuine rati, influenced by genuine rati and having a trace of rati.”


Devoid of genuine rati:
“When vyābhicārī-bhāvas are displayed in a person devoid of genuine rati, but not inimical to Kṛṣṇa, it is called rati-śunya-svatantra-vyābhicārī-bhāva [independent vyābhicārī-bhāva without rati].”


atra svatantro nirvedaḥ |

Independent self-depreciation, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
“To hell with our threefold birth, our vow of celibacy and our extensive learning! To hell with our aristocratic background and our expertise in the rituals of sacrifice! These are all condemned because we were inimical to the transcendental Personality of Godhead.”


Influenced by genuine rati:
“When a vyābhicārī-bhāva appears spontaneously but devoid of even rati- gandha [the third type of independent vyābhicārī-bhāva, having genuine rati as the indirect cause], but is related to genuine rati because the experiencer has genuine permanent rati, it is called raty-anusparśana-svatantra- vyābhicārī-bhāva [independent vyābhicārī-bhāva influenced by rati].”


atra trāsaḥ |

“Hearing the roaring of the terrifying bull demon, the cowherd boys became fearful and almost deaf because of the loud sound. They began to shout
‘Kṛṣṇa! Please help us!’ ”


“When a vyābhicārī-bhāva shows a touch of rati even though it remains independent, it is called rati-gandhi-svatantra-vyābhicārī-bhāva [independent vyābhicārī-bhāva with a touch of rati].”


atra lajjā |

“ ‘O my daughter! I know why you are wearing that yellow cloth on your body. Do not try to hide [your attraction to Kṛṣṇa] from me.’ When Mukharā told this to Rādhā, She quickly hung Her head and covered Her face with the edge of Her cloth to hide Her shame.”


“When these vyābhicārī-bhāvas manifest inappropriately in unqualified persons, they are actually semblances of bhāva or vyābhicārī-bhāvābhāsa. There are two types of inappropriateness: appearing in persons hostile to Kṛṣṇa and being improperly credited.”


Unfavorable vyābhicārī-bhāvābhāsa:
“When the bhāvas are present in those hostile to Kṛṣṇa they are called prātikūlya [unfavorable].”


atra nirvedasyābhāsaḥ |

An example of unfavorable manifestation of self-deprecation:
“When the untrained cowherd boy killed the horse demon who was my very life and soul, what is the need for me, the unfortunate king Kaṃsa, who defeated Indra as play, to maintain my life?”


atrāsūyāyāḥ |

Another example of unfavorable manifestation of bhāva, concerning envy: “O foolish Akrura! This Kāliya is only a harmless water snake. Govardhana Mountain is only a lump of earth. You are attributing the title of Controller of the Universe to a person who has just controlled a harmless snake and lifted a pile of earth!”


“There are two types of inappropriateness: nonexistent [asatya] and unqualified [ayogya]. Nonexistent means attributing vyābhicārī-bhāvas to inanimate objects [which cannot have emotions]. Unqualified means attributing vyābhicārī-bhāvās to animals [who are unqualified for higher emotions].”


atra nirvedasya |

Self-depreciation in trees:
“My life is useless because Kṛṣṇa has not enjoyed the shade of my branches even once.” “O kadamba tree, do not lament! You will attain success in life when Kṛṣṇa jumps from your branches to punish Kāliya!”


atra garvasya |

Pride in animals:

A peacock speaks: “I am very pure. What bird is there to compare with me? Giving up Garuḍa, the Lord enjoys my feather on His head.”


“Consciousness, discrimination and the experience of sweetness described in the kadamba tree and other objects should be understood to be only a semblance to those items because they have only consciousness without discriminating powers.”


“Sometimes four stages are seen in the manifestation of vyabhicārī-bhāvas: appearance, conjunction, conflict and disappearance. Appearance (utpatti) means the initial manifestation of the vyabhicārī-bhāva.


atra harṣotpattiḥ |

Appearance of harṣa:
“When the sun turned red, and Yaśodā heard the sound of the flute close by, her bodice became damp with the flow of milk from her breasts.”


atrāsūyotpattiḥ |

Appearance of asūyā:
“O Viśakhā! When you came to the bower in the morning, your friend Rādhā appeared splendid, even though Her belt was crooked from Her haste in tying in around Her waist. When Kṛṣṇa revealed that confidential matter, Rādhā sent a crooked glance at Him with a frown on Her brow. May that Rādhā purify you!”


“When two versions of the same bhāva or two different bhāvas mix it is called bhāva-sandhi.”


“When the same vyābhicārī-bhāva arises from two different causes and joins, it is called bhāva-sandhi.”


atrāniṣṭeṣṭa-saṃvīkṣākṛtayor jāḍyayor yutiḥ |

Jaḍya caused by favorable and unfavorable circumstances:
“ ‘In the evening, the dead demoness lay on the earth and you son was sitting on her breast laughing.’ When Yaśodā heard this, she remained motionless for some time.”


“When two differing vyābhicārī-bhāvas arising from the same or differing causes join together it is called bhinna-bhāva-sandhi.”


tatra harṣa-śaṅkayoḥ |

Two differing bhāvas arising from one source:
“This child is very fickle. He constantly runs inside and outside in Gokula. His fearlessness causes me both joy (harṣa) and apprehension (śaṅkhā).”


atra harṣa-viṣādayoḥ sandhiḥ |

Two bhāvas, harṣa and viṣāda from differing sources, join together: “Seeing her son with joyful eyes in front of her, and seeing the strong wrestlers as well, Devakī began to shed both cool and hot tears.”


“It is also seen that many bhāvas can join together, arising from one cause or many causes.”


atra harṣautsukya-garvāmarṣāsūyānāṃ sandhiḥ |

Here is a combination of harṣa (joy), autsukya (impatience), garva (pride), amarṣa (indignation) and asūyā (displeasure) arising from one cause: “Rādhā, being stopped forcibly by Kṛṣṇa in the forest on the bank of the
Yamunā, internally smiled at Him. She gracefull glanced at Him with red eyes

and furrowed brows. Her eyes lit up with flickering puils, but She showed contempt for Him. May Rādhā remain glorious!”


atra lajjāmarṣa-harṣa-viṣādānāṃ sandhiḥ |

Many bhāvas arising from many causes. In this example there is lajjā
(shame), amarṣa (envy), harṣa (joy) and viṣāda (despair):
“On the occasion of a festival Rādhā, wearing a necklace given by Kṛṣṇa, saw nearby Her mother and in front of her, smiling Padmā. At a distance, She saw Kṛṣṇa and Her husband, Abhimanyu. She hung Her head in shame on seeing Her mother, threw crooked glances at Padmā in hatred. Her face blossomed with joy on seeing Kṛṣṇa and withered on seeing Her husband.”


“When many bhāvas conflict with one another, the state is called śābalya.”


atra garva-viṣāda-dainya-mati-smṛti-śaṅkāmarṣa-trāsānāṃ śāvalyam |

In this example there is a combination of garva (pride), viṣāda (despair), dainyam (feeling feeble), mati (consideration), smṛti (remembrance), śaṅkā (apprehension), amarṣa (indignation) and trāsa (terror):
“What can that child do? Yet He has killed all of my friends! Should I then surrender to Him? A warrior can never do that. I am preparing huge wrestlers to fight Him; but He has lifted Govardhana with His hand. I should go today to Vraja and attack Him, but my heart is shaking because of Him.”


atra nirveda-garva-śaṅkā-dhṛti-viṣāda-maty-autsukyānāṃ śāvalyam |

Here is a combination of nirveda (self-contempt), garva (pride), śaṅkā (apprehension), dhṛti (steadiness), viṣāda (despair), mati (contemplation) and autsukhya (impatience):
“My long eyes are unfortunate since they do not see Mathurā. My learning has made kings into servants. Time devours everything, but my house is the playground of Lakṣmī. Yet how unfortunate I am! My body grows thinner day by day. Therefore I should sit in my house and worship the Lord, but my heart is attracted to Vṛndāvan.”


“When a bhāva that has become prominent disappears, it is called bhāva-ṣānti.”


atra viṣāda-śāntiḥ |

This is an example of bhāva-ṣānti of viṣāda (despair):
“When the children of Vraja could not see Kṛṣṇa, their faces withered and became pale. They began searching for Kṛṣṇa in the forest. At that time, hearing the soft sound of His flute on a mountaintop, they became filled with joy, with hairs standing on end.”


“Though my words do not have variety in meaning or flavor, examples of vyābhicārī-bhāvas have been presented to indicate their essential nature as far as possible.”


“The forty-one chief bhāvas or emotions are these thirty-three vyābhicārī- bhāvas, the seven secondary sthāyī-bhāvas and the single mukhya-sthāyī- bhāva of the devotee.”


“The transformations of mind created by the appearance of these forty-one bhāvas are said to create transformations in the body and all of the senses.”


“One bhāva is natural to the person, and other bhāvas are incidental. The natural bhāva spreads internally and externally, just as red color is completely identical to natural red substances. Thus, the natural bhāva becomes very apparent just by a slight contact with the cause, Kṛṣṇa.”


Rati (attraction or love) appears by this natural bhāva. Though rati is one in speaking about it generally, it appears in various forms when wishing to describe its various qualities.”


“Just as white cloth appears red when red dye is applied to it, the incidental bhāvas become situated in the devotees by various causes and then become visible.”


“Because of the variety of causes and other elements and the differences in the devotees, there is great diversity in every one of the bhāvas.”


“There is a variety of mentalities of various types of devotees (devotees in śānta-rasa, dāsya-rasa, etc.). According to the variety of mentalities, there are also various gradations of the appearance of the bhāvas because of various natures such as gariṣṭha (heavy-hearted).”


“Even if these bhāvas were to appear strongly in hearts that are gariṣṭha (heavy), gambhīra (deep), mahiṣṭha (expansive) or karkaśa (hard) by nature, ordinary people could not perceive the bhāvas clearly because there would be no external transformations of the body or senses.”


“When these same bhāvas arise even slightly in hearts that are lagiṣṭha (light), uttāna (superficial), kṣodiṣṭha (small) and komala (soft), they can be recognized externally because of extreme transformations of the body and senses.”


“The heavy heart is like a pile of gold. The light heart is like a pile of cotton wool. The bhāvas act like wind in relation to these two types of hearts.”


“The deep heart is like an ocean, and the shallow heart is like a pond. The bhāvas are like pinnacles or high mountains for these two types of hearts.”


“The expansive heart is like a city and the small heart is like a hut. Bhāva is like a lamp or an elephant for these two types of hearts.”


“There are three degrees of hardness: like a thunderbolt, gold and lac. Bhāva
is like a fire in relation to these three types of hardness of heart.”


“The thunderbolt is extremely hard and never becomes soft. This hardness is seen in the hearts of those who perform severe austerities.”


“Gold becomes liquid from intense heating. By very strong heat of bhāva, this heart becomes soft. Lac becomes soft with very little heat. With a very little bhāva, this heart becomes soft.”


“Softness is of three degrees: like beeswax, butter and nectar. In relation to these, bhāva is like the heat of the sun.”


“Beeswax and butter become liqui from different degrees of the sun’s heat. Nectar is naturally liquid. The hearts of the dearest devotees of Govinda are naturally soft like nectar.”


“The mind of a particular devotee may be constantly influenced by a mixture of two or three of the above conditions such as gariṣṭha.”


“But when the principal sthāyī-bhāva becomes very prominent, all types of hearts become completely disturbed by the vyabhicārī-bhāvas.”


“The devotee is like the ocean. As Viṣṇu resides in the milk ocean, so the Lord resides in the heart of the devotee. As the ocean is deep or unfathomable, so the heart of the devotee is inscrutable, not revealing its qualities. As the ocean is unwearied, so the devotee is continuous in his service. As the ocean is difficult to cross, but has a permanent shore, so the

devotee’s qualities are difficult to enumerate, but he appears to limit those qualities. But when the devotee develops full prema he cannot prevent the transformations arising from that prema, just as the ocean cannot prevent the rising of the tide when the moon rises from the ocean.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau dakṣiṇa-vibhāge
bhakti-rasa-sāmānya-nirūpaṇe vyabhicāri-laharī caturthī ||

“Thus ends the Fourth Wave of the Southern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta- sindhu, concerning vyabhicārī-bhāvas.