Fifth Wave: Permanent Ecstatic Mood


Fifth Wave: Permanent Ecstatic Mood


aviruddhān viruddhāṃś ca bhāvān yo vaśatāṃ nayan |
su-rājeva virājeta sa sthāyī bhāva ucyate ||2.5.1||

“That bhāva which, controlling other favorable bhāvas such as hāsya, and contradictory bhāvas such as krodha, presides in the manner of an efficient ruler, is called the sthāyī-bhāva.”

sthāyī bhāvo’tra sa proktaḥ śrī-kṛṣṇa-viṣayā ratiḥ |
mukhyā gauṇī ca sā dvedhā rasa-jñaiḥ parikīrtitā ||2.5.2||

“In this context, the rati directed towards Kṛṣṇa is called the sthāyī-bhāva. Those knowledgeable of rasa say that there are two types of sthāyī-bhāva: mukhya (primary) and gauṇa (secondary).”


Mukhya-rati (primary rati):

“A rati that is śuddha-sattva-viśeṣātmā (composed of the hlādinī and saṃvit śaktis) is called a primary rati. Though this is the primary rati, it takes two forms: svārtha and parārtha.”


“That primary rati that clearly nourishes itself with non-contradictory bhāvas and becomes intolerably depressed with sorrow by contradictory bhāvas is called the svārtha-rati (nourishing itself).”


“The same primary rati that restricting itself, accepts both non-contradictory and contradictory bhāvas (which then become prominent) is called parārtha (nourishing the other bhāvas).”


“A primary rati in these two forms has five varieties: śuddha, prīti (or dāsya),


“The rati takes on a specific type (one of the five) according to the individual nature of the devotee. Just as the sun takes on various forms when reflected through crystals and other items, the rati takes on various forms when manifesting in different individuals.”


“The first rati called śuddha-rati has three types: sāmānya, svaccha and śānta. It produces quivering of the body and closing and opening of the eyes.”


The rati manifested in ordinary people and children for Kṛṣṇa is called sāmānya-rati or ordinary rati. It does not have the distinguishing qualities of even svaccha-rati or śānta-rati.


An example:
“O friend! Please tell me why my mind, like beeswax, has become very soft. Is it because the sweet sun, Kṛṣṇa, has risen on the street of Mathurā before me? I can see no other cause of this happening.”


Another example:
“O old woman! See that child, just three years old, who on seeing Kṛṣṇa in front of her, is running after Him and calling out.”


“When rati manifests many varieties because the practitioner associates with various types of devotees and performs various practices, it is called svaccha- rati (transparent).”


“When a devotee’s rati, like clear crystal, becomes similar in form to that of a devotee to whom he is attached, it is called svaccha-rati.”


An example:
“One brāhmaṇa fixed on following the injunctions of scripture sometimes praised the Lord as Master, sometimes joked with Him as a friend, sometimes protected Him as a son, sometimes craved for Him as a lover, and sometimes meditated in his heart on Him as Paramātmā. In this way, by various modes of service, he was endowed with various inclinations of mind.”


“Those very pure pious persons whose hearts are fickle because of lack of a particular taste for the ocean of happiness of the higher rasas and who thus must conduct themselves according to the rules of the scriptures generally develop svaccha-rati.


“Non-differentiation of the knower and the object within the mind is called śama.”


It is said by the ancients:
“That nature by which a person is situated in the bliss of his own ātmā after giving up the pursuit of material things is called śama.”


“That rati arising in persons with a predominance of śama (ātmā-jñāna), which is devoid of even a trace of possessiveness for the Lord, but which produces attraction for the Lord in the form of Paramātmā is called śānta-rati.”


An example:
“When Nārada sang about the pastimes of the Lord on his vīṇā, Sanaka’s body began to tremble, even though he was a brahma-jñānī.


Another example:
“Because of serving the devotees, I have given up the happiness of liberation as insignificant and surpassing the impersonal brahman, I desire to see the dark-hued Lord, the highest form of brahman.”


“That rati which is not mixed with the tastes found in the other types of rati
starting with prīti-rati, which will be explained later, is called śuddha-rati.”


“The three types of ratiprīti, sakhya and vatsalya—are pleasing to the heart. They arise from deep friendliness to the Lord and are always endowed with possessiveness toward the Lord.”


“When rati (with deep friendship and possessiveness) is found in three types of devotees—recipients of mercy, friends and elders—it becomes prīti-rati, sakhya-rati and vatsalya-rati, respectively.”


“In these three types of rati there is opening of the eyes, stretching the limbs and unsteadiness. These three types have two varieties: kevala and saṅkula.


“When rati has no trace of other kinds of rati it is called kevala- (pure) rati. In Vraja, it is found in Kṛṣṇa’s servants such as Rāsala, in friends such as Śrīdāma and elders such as Nanada.”


“When two or three of the three types of rati are found together in a person, it is called saṅkula-rati (mixed rati). It is found in Uddhava, Bhīma and Mukharā. A person is identified by the rati which is most prominent.”


“When persons identify themselves as inferior to the Lord they are called the recipients of mercy (anugrāhyā). Their rati, in which Kṛṣṇa is perceived as worth of worship, is called prīti-rati.


“This prīti-rati produces attachment for the object of worship, and destroys affection for other objects.”


An example from the Mukunda-māla [8]:
“O destroyer of the demon Naraka! Wherever I live according to Your desire
—in heaven, on earth or in hell—I will remember Your two feet, whose beauty defeats the lotuses blooming in the autumn season, even at the time of death.”


“Those who identify themselves as equal to Mukunda are called sakhas or friends. Their rati, with familiarity arising from a sense of equality, is called sakhya-rati. In this rati there is loud laughing, joking and no sense of reserve.”


An example:
“Today, when I went to see the flowering forests of Vṛndāvan, My friends were suffering by even a moment’s separation from Me. From far off, they said, ‘I will be touched by Him first! I will be touched by Him first!’ With hairs standing on end, they played in this way.”


Another example:
“Śrīdāma said, ‘Your pride has become impoverished enough in being defeated by the strength of my earms. Having boasted, say goodbye to the queen called shame [and defeat me].’ ”


“Those persons whose rati identifies them as superiors to the Lord are known as pūjya, worthy of respect or elders. Their rati, which gives mercy to Kṛṣṇa, is called vātsalya or vatsala. In this rati, there is protecting Kṛṣṇa, blessing Him, kissing Him and touching Him.”


An example:
“The forest is filled with inimical Kaṃsa’s servants, who are more solid than mountains. My tender boy goes constantly to that dense forest. Oh! What should I do?”


Another example:
“Yaśodā, whose heart was soft with affection and whose breasts flowed with milk, caressed her son Kṛṣṇa while holding His chin in her fingers.”


“That rati found in the doe-eyed women and which is the root cause of eight types of enjoyment between the women and Kṛṣṇa is called priyatā-rati. It is also called madhurya-rati. In this rati, there are sidelong glances, moving the eyebrows, affectionate words and slight smiles, etc.”


From the Govinda-vilāsa:
“For a long time, Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa have been longing to see each other. All glories to the new sprout of hope of being able to see each other alone!”


“These five types of rati (from śuddha to priyatā-rati) become progressively more blissful by increasing tastes. The particular taste arises in a devotee according to his previous experiences.”


Gauṇa-rati (secondary rati):
“When a different emotional state arising from the excellence of the ālambana (vibhāva) manifests while the primary rati subdues itself, it is called secondary rati.”


“The seven specific emotions are hāsa (humor), vismaya (astonishment), utsāha (fortitude), śoka (lamentation), krodha (anger), bhaya (fear)and jugupsā (disgust or hatred)”


“Since they are under the control of the primary ratis, Kṛṣṇa acts as the cause for the first six of these ratis, but Kṛṣṇa cannot be the cause of the seventh secondary rati, jugupsa or disgust. The cause of disgust is the material body or other objects.”


“Though these seven bhāvas are different from the primary svārtha-ratis composed of śuddha-sattva-viśeṣa (mukhya-svārtha-ratis), when these seven emotions are conjoined with a primary rati which takes a secondary role as parārtha, the word rati is used to describe the condition of these seven.”


“When hāsa predominates over a mukhya-rati (which becomes parārtha), it is called hāsa-rati. The other six secondary ratis should be similarly understood.”


“When hāsa and other emotions take on beautiful forms by the influence of a primary rati in a particular devotee in a specific pastime and remain for some time, they can be considered sthāyī-bhāvas.”


“Therefore, these seven emotional states manifest for a short time in a person, and are not fixed in any particular person. Even though these seven emotions manifest spontaneously, they disappear by being converted by contrary bhāvas arising from the primary rati.”


“When the primary rati in its essential form does not leave the devotee, it is considered to be the continuous or ātyantika-sthāyī-bhāva. This is present in all types of devotees. Without the continuous sthāyī-bhāva, all the other bhāvas such hāsa are dysfunctional.”


“Though the secondary bhāvas become sthāyī-bhāvas in the enemies of Kṛṣṇa, they are not suitable for bhakti-rasa since they are without a primary rati (positive attraction for Kṛṣṇa).”


“Because all the thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas starting with nirveda, though not connected with hostile emotions, disappear on their own after some time in the devotees, they are not classed as sthāyī-bhāvas.”


“Though some persons would like to consider mati, garva and other vyabhicārī-bhāvas to be sthāyī-bhāvas, they are not classed as such. Bharata Muni and others are the authority for this statement.”


“The seven secondary emotions, being nourished greatly by vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas, take up the status of sthāyī-bhāvas in the devotees and produce a taste in the devotees.”


Therefore it is said:
“In a devotee, one of the five sthāyī-bhāvas and the seven secondary bhāvas, together making eight bhāvas, produce lasting impressions (even though they may externally disappear for some time). Since the impressions of the vyabhicārī-bhāvas disappear after they are covered by these eight, the vyabhicāṛī-bhāvas are not considered to be sthāyī-bhāvas.”


“When there is cheerfulness in the heart from irregularity of speech, dress or actions, it is called hāsa. In this state, the symtoms are fully opening the eyes and quivering of the nose, lips and cheeks.”


“When hāsa arises from actions related to Kṛṣṇa and the primary rasa
assumes a subdued role, hāsa becomes hāsa-rati.”


An example:
“ ‘O beautiful woman! I swear to you that I have not even looked at the
yogurt. But your bold friend is sniffing My mouth in vain. Give instructions to your friend so that she does not accuse innocent persons like Me.’ When the gopī servant heard these words, she could not resist her laughter.”


“On seeing something unusual the mind may inquire, ‘What can this be?’ This disposition is called vismaya or wonder. In this state the symptoms are widening of the eyes, uttering words like ‘very good very good,’ and standing of the hairs on end. The relation of vismaya to vismaya-rati is the same as hāsa to hāsa-rati.”


An example:
“When Brahmā saw all the calves and cowherd boys manifest as forms of the Supreme Brahman—as Nārāyaṇa forms wearing yellow garments and marked with śrīvatsa, who were being praised by all the inhabitants of the universes including many Brahmās—he became astonished and uttered ‘What is this? What is this?’ ”


“Firm and immediate attachment of the mind to activities such as battle, charity, compassion and dharma, whose results are praised by saintly people, is called utsāha.”


Yuddhādi means fighting, charity, compassion and righteous acts. Instead of yuddhādi, svābhīṣṭa (cherished) is sometimes used.”


An example:
“When the air resounded with the sound of the flute, horn and patra (blades of grass) on the bank of the Yamunā, Śrīdāma, desiring to fight with Kṛṣṇa,began roaring and bound up his waist tightly.”


“Intense pain in the heart arising from a separation from a dear one with thoughts that the beloved has perished is called śoka or lamentation. In this state there is wailing, falling on the ground, heavy breathing, drying of the mouth and confusion.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.7.25]:
“When the force of the dust storm and the winds subsided, Yaśodā's friends, the other gopīs, approached mother Yaśodā, hearing her pitiful crying. Not seeing Kṛṣṇa present, they too felt very much aggrieved and joined mother Yaśodā in crying, their eyes full of tears.”


Another example:
“My heart did not shatter on seeing Kṛṣṇa, dearer than a thousand lives, bound up by Kāliya. How hard my heart is!”


“Flaming up of the heart from encountering opposition is called krodha or anger. In this state rough behavior, frowning and reddening of the eyes manifest.”


Krodha-rati arises from krodha in the same way as hāsa-rati arises from hāsa. It has two types: where the stimulus for krodha is Kṛṣṇa and where the stimulus is the enemy of Kṛṣṇa.”


Anger stimulated by Kṛṣṇa:
“When Jaṭilā recognized Rādhā’s shining pearl necklace around the throat of
Kṛṣṇa, she frowned ferociously and glanced at Kṛṣṇa in a terrifying manner.”


Anger stimulated by an enemy:
“When the blazing forest fire, who was actually the brother of Kaṃsa, surrounded Kṛṣṇa, a frown of anger appeared on the forehead of Balarāma like a cloud bank in the sky.”


“When the heart manifests extreme unsteadiness after committing an offense or seeing fearful creatures, it is called bhaya or fear. In this state, the attempt to hide oneself, drying up of the heart, feeling and confusion manifest.”


“The wise say that bhaya is related to bhaya-rati just as hāsa is related to hāsa-rati. As with krodha, bhaya-rati has two types: bhaya whose cause is Kṛṣṇa and bhaya whose cause is the enemy of Kṛṣṇa.”


Kṛṣṇa as the cause of fear:
“When Kṛṣṇa asked Akrura for the Syamantaka jewel in the assembly in a friendly way, Akrura, who was hiding the jewel in his clothing, could not answer. He became fearful of Kṛṣṇa, understanding that Kṛṣṇa knew he was hiding the jewel. His mouth dried up and he became sad.”


The enemy of Kṛṣṇa as the cause of fear:
“When Vṛṣāsura, like a storm cloud, roared in a frightening manner at the entrance of Gokula, Yaśodā, thinking of the protection of her son, began to tremble.”


“Restriction of the heart arising from experiencing disgusting things is called jugupsā or disgust. In this state spitting, curling of the lips and uttering contemptuous words manifest. When jugupsā appears because of rati, it is called jugupsā-rati.”


An example:
“Since my heart has become eager to play at the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa who is the abode of ever-fresh rasa, when I think of association with women, my mouth curls up in distaste and I spit.”


“As long as one among the five primary ratis along with the seven secondary ratis does not attain the state of rasa in an individual, the eight are called sthāyī-bhāvas.”


“If they remain independent, then the thirty-three vyabhicārī-bhāvas, the eight ratis mentioned above and the eight sāttvika-bhāvas are called forty-nine bhāvas or emotional states.”


“These forty-nine states of mind are completely transcendental to the guṇas of matter, and are filled with spiritual bliss, being linked to the appearance of Kṛṣṇa. However, it may appear as if some of these states such as garva (pride), harṣa (jubilation), supti (sleep) and hāsya (joking) arise from the mode of passion, and others such as viṣāda (despair), dīnatā (lowliness), moha (bewilderment) and śoka (lamentation) arise from the mode of ignorance.”


“Among the bhāvas, it would seem that those such as harṣa are filled with happiness and others such as viṣāda are filled with sorrow. But the astonishing fact is that rati filled with sorrow is considered to be the highest, most intense bliss.”


“The rati predominated by sorrow (such as the śoka-rati), when nourished by strong joyful vyabhicārī-bhāvas, becomes joyful. The sorrowful rati, when nourished by sorrowful bhāvas such as viṣāda, becomes more sorrowful and appears to give suffering.”


“The primary and secondary ratis produce vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika- bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas through hearing about, experiencing or remembering Kṛṣṇa. All these combine to become rasa in devotees.”


“As yogurt becomes rasāla by mixing with other ingredients of sugar and pepper, the two types of rati become rasa by combination with the elements of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicārī-bhāva.


“Thus through that rasa, the devotees directly experience an astonishing, deep bliss arising from realization of Kṛṣṇa and other related things.”


“Though the ratis and elements starting with vibhāva become one entity in the state of rasa, there is still awareness of their difference because of their original separate identities.”

||2.5.83|| ||2.5.84||

It has been said:
“First the ingredients have distinct forms but when they mix and attain the form of rasa, they assume oneness. However, when pepper and sugar are mixed together in a drink one can still recognize pepper and sugar. Similarly, in rasa though vibhāva and the other element become one entity in rasa, they can still be recognized in subtle form.”


“Kṛṣṇa and His devotees act as the causes of rati (sthāyī-bhāva). Spontaneous actions such as paralysis and actions involving intellect are the effects of rati. Self-deprecation and other minor emotions are the accompanying factors.”


“When these mix together and transform into rasa they give up the names of cause and effect, and assume the names of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicārī-bhāva.


“The conditions that cause rati (relationship of love) to become very suitable for relishing particular tastes are called vibhāva (stimuli) by the wise.”


“Elements such as glancing, accompanied by the sāttvika-bhāvas, which produce fullness of the rati produced by the vibhāva—in other words, which spread within the mind an additional relish—are called anubhāvas.”


“Mental conditions such as nirveda (self-deprecation) that produce further variety in the rati induced by the vibhāvas and made more enjoyable by the anubhāvas, are called sañcārī-bhāvas or vyabhicārī-bhavas.”


“Those attracted to poetics say that hearing skillful poetry related to the Lord and seeing literary dramas related to the Lord are the main cause of realizing the nature of all these elements in the devotee and the Lord.”


“However, the ultimate cause of understanding these elements is the influence of rati directed toward the Lord, which is inconceivable, sweet and most astonishing.”


“The ancient authorities have given the following statement from Mahābhārata as an example to show that rati, which is the manifestation of hlādinī-śakti, which is beyond the conceivable—deriding even liberation and giving joy to the Lord Himself—should not be defiled by material logic.”


Thus the Mahābhārata, Udyama-parva says:
“One should not analyze the inconceivable bhāvas by material logic. Those


“Attractive rati, making Kṛṣṇa and other things into vibhāva and the other elements [of rasa], clearly increases itself by these elements.”


“It is similar to the ocean which, nourishing the clouds by its water, nourishes itself by the rain coming from those clouds.”


“When the enjoyer of poetic works newly develops a sprout of rati, those poetic works become somewhat of a cause for realizing vibhāva and other elements [of rasa].”


“The devotees develop a taste for rasa simply by a little hearing about the Lord. In these acts of hearing, the strength of rati causes realization of vibhāva and the other elements [of rasa].”


Rati reveals Kṛṣṇa and things related to Him as the shelter of qualities (such as sweetness), and Kṛṣṇa, after being experienced in that way, increases the rati.”


“Because rati and the other elements mutually reveal each other, it is always seen that the sthāyī-bhāva (rati), vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas clearly assist each other.”


“If there is any deformity in the vibhāva or other elements, the power of rati is curtailed. Deformity means that there are unsuitable elements in the vibhāva or other elements.”


“Since the activities of rasa are by nature non-material, they are difficult to understand. The various ratis and other elements create a complete identity between the emotions of the contemporary devotee with [those of] previous devotees depicted in scripture.”


“The ancient sages have described the unrestricted identity of the bhāvas
between the present and the past devotees.”


Bharata Muni has said:
“In the matter of identification, there is an indescribable power in vibhāva and the other elements, by which the audience becomes nondifferent from the characters depicted on the stage.”


“Though previous devotees’ sufferings appear in the heart of the present devotee as his own suffering, those sufferings also produce an astonishing taste of intense bliss.”


“That is because when the devotee perceives the happiness of others, it gives rise to incomparable bliss within his heart.”


“If just a little of vibhāva and the other elements related to the associates of the Lord appear in the devotee, immediately he achieves completeness from

the appearance of the vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī- bhāvas.


“However, it is correct when the literary experts say that rati depicted in characters through literary works will not in itself produce rasa, since mundane aspects are involved.”


Rati for Kṛṣṇa is most uncommon, more blissful than the most blissful rati for the avatāras, and attains the highest rasa in combination with His devotee.”


“This rati develops its full form of rasa in separation in astonishing bliss, and since it does not give up this form at all, any suffering is an appearance only.”


“That rati which has the son of Nanda as the object reaches the height of most intense bliss.”


“One drop of this happiness of Vraja Kṛṣṇa, by its power, drinks up the ocean of happiness embedded in the husband of Rukmiṇī, just as Agastya Muni drank the ocean to assist the devatās.”


“Because rati and the other elements are nondifferent from the hlādinī-śakti, rasa is also self-revealing and consists only of rasa.”


“It has been stated previously that rati has two types: primary and secondary. Therefore, rasa also has primary and secondary types.”


“Though there are five types of primary rati, only one is considered [in rasa] since only one is manifested as most prominent in a particular devotee. The one primary rati combines with the seven secondary ratis to form eight ratis, which produce the eight rasas (for one person).”


Mukhya-rasa (primary rasa):
“The primary bhakti-rasas are five: śānta, prīti, preyo, vatsala and madhurya. The order of excellence is from first to last.”


Gauṇa-rasa (secondary rasa):
“There are seven secondary rasas: hāsya (humor), adbhuta (astonishment), vīra (enthuiasm), karuṇa (lamentation), raudra (anger), bhanāyaka (fear) and bībhatsa (disgust).”


“Thus there are a total of twelve primary and secondary rasas, but only five are mentioned in the Purāṇas.”


The twelve rasas have twelve colors as follows: white (śānta), multicolored (prīti), saffron (preyān or sakhya), crimson (vatsala), indigo (madhura), light yellow (hāsya), yellow-green (adbhuta), gold (vīra), purple (karuṇa), red (raudra), black (bhayānaka) and blue (bībhatsa).


“There are twelve Deities assigned to the twelve rasas as follows: Kapila (śānta), Mādhava (prīti), Upendra (preyān or sakhya), Nṛsiṃha (vatsala), Kṛṣṇa (madhura), Balarāma (hāsya), Kūrma (adbhuta), Kalkī (vīra), Rāma (karuṇa), Prāśurāma (raudra), Varāha (bhayānaka) and Mīna (bībhatsa).”


“There are five tastes in the bhakti-rasas: pūrti, vikāśa, vistāra, vikśepa and kṣobha.”


“The learned say that pūrti (satisfaction) is manifested in śānta-rasa, vikāśa (brightness) is manifested in all the rasas from prīti to hāsya, vistāra (expansion) is manifested in vīra-rasa and adbhuta-rasa, vikṣepa (distraction) is manifest in karuṇa-rasa and raudra-rasa, and kṣobha (disturbance) is manifest in bhayānaka-rasa and bībhatsa-rasa.”


“Though all the bhakti-rasas are the embodiment of pure happiness, among the rasas there is sometimes a special deep incomparable taste.”


“Though the completely ignorant people and those with mistaken knowledge immediately think that rasas such as karuṇa are full of grief, those persons with knowledge of rasa say that these rasas are full of profound bliss.”


“It is well-established by the knowers of rasa that, by the speeches of the devotees and by the nature of rati itself, karuṇa, bhayanaka and bībhatsa will produce happiness, since those rasas have the nature of manifesting vibhāva (Kṛṣṇa) and other elements that produce extraordinary, astonishing bliss.”


This is confirmed in the statement of the Nātya-śāstra:
“The absolute proof that karuṇa and the other ‘negative’ rasas produce happiness is the experience of the soft-hearted devotees.”


“If karuṇa-rasa did not give rise to happiness, then Rāmāyaṇa would be a cause of grief for the bhāvaka-bhaktas, since that and other works reveal karuṇa-rasa throughout.”


“If Rāmāyaṇa were a cause of grief, why should Hanumān, who is an ocean filled with the waves of Rāma’s lotus feet, continually hear Rāmāyaṇa with pleasure?”


“If the rati of the associates of Rādhā directed to Rādhā is equal to or less than their rati directed toward Kṛṣṇa, the rati directed toward Rādhā is called sañcāri-rati, nourishing the rati towards Kṛṣṇa. If the rati of the associates of Rādhā directed to Rādhā is greater than their rati directed toward Kṛṣṇa, and constantly increasing, though it is still a sañcāri-rati, it is called bhāvollāsa- rati.”


“Those whose bhakti has been completely burned up by false renunciation, those who are dried-up jñānīs, those who are absorbed in logic and disputation, and particularly those who are mīmāṃsakas, are excluded from tasting bhakti.”


“Just as one carefully protects a great treasure from thieves, the devotees protect bhakti-rasa from the withered mīmāṃsakas, since they are totally unqualified for relishing bhakti.”


“Rasa directed toward the Lord is very difficult to understand for those with no devotion. Those who have dedicated themselves to the lotus feet of Bhagavān can taste bhakti-rasa.”


“That which becomes even more intensely relished in the heart made bright with hlādinī and saṃvit śaktis (attainment of bhāva), after surpassing the stage of distinguishing the constituent bhāvas, and which becomes more astonishing in bliss than bhāvas, is rasa.”

bhāvanāyāḥ pade yas tu budhenānanya-buddhinā |
bhāvyate gāḍha-saṃskāraiś citte bhāvaḥ sa kathyate ||2.5.133||

“That which the wise person who has dedicated his intelligence only to the Lord experiences in his heart, which realizes vibhāva and the other elements as separate entities, through deep impressions of previous bhakti, is called bhāva.”

gopāla-rūpa-śobhāṃ dadhad api raghunātha-bhāva-vistārī |
tuṣyatu sanātanātmā daikṣiṇa-vibhāge sudhāmbunidheḥ ||2.5.134||

“May the eternal person who manifested the beautiful form of a cowherd boy and distributed His bhāvas to the form of Rāma as well, be pleased with the Southern Ocean of the ocean of nectar.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau dakṣiṇa-vibhāge
bhakti-rasa-sāmānya-nirūpaṇe sthāyi-bhāva-laharī pañcamī |

“Thus ends the Fifth Wave of the Southern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta- sindhu, concerning sthāyī-bhāva.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau sāmānya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasa-nirūpako nāma dakṣiṇa-vibhāgaḥ samāptaḥ ||

“Here ends the Southern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu.”