Eighth Wave: Compatible & Incompatible Mellows


Eighth Wave: Compatible & Incompatible Mellows


athāmīṣāṃ krameṇaiva śāntādīnāṃ parasparam |
mitratvaṃ śātravatvaṃ ca rasānām abhidhīyate ||4.8.1||

“Next, the friends and enemies among the various rasas beginning with śānta-rasa will be described in order.”

śāntasya prīta-bībhatsa-dharma-vīrāḥ suhṛd-varāḥ |
adbhutaś caiṣa prītādiṣu catuḥṣv api ||4.8.2||

“The friends of śānta-rasa are dāsya (prīti-rasa), bībhatsa-rasa, dharma-vīra-rasa and adbhuta-rasa. Adbhuta-rasa is also the friend of the other four rasas: dāsya, sakhya, vatsala and madhura-rasa.”


Madhura-rasa and yuddha-vīra-rasa are the enemies of both types of śānta-rasa. Raudra-rasa and bhayānaka-rasa are the enemies of ātmārāma-śānta-rasa, and raudra-rasa is an enemy of tapasvi-śānta-rasa.


Bībhatsa, śānta, dharma-vīra and dāna-vīra-rasas are the friends of dāsya-rasa. Madhura-rasa, yuddha-vīra-rasa directed toward Kṛṣṇa, and raudra-rasa directed toward Kṛṣṇa by the dāsya-bhakta are enemies of his dāsya-rasa.”


Madhura, hāsya and yuddha-vīra-rasas are friends of sākhya-rasa. Vatsala-rasa, raudra-rasa and bhayānaka-rasa directed towrd Kṛṣṇa are the enemies of sakhya-rasa.”


Hāsya, kauṇa and bhanāyaka-rasas are the friends of vatsala-rasa. Madhura, yuddha-vīra, dāsya and raudra-rasas directed toward Kṛṣṇa are the enemies of vatsala-rasa.”


Hāsya and sakhya-rasa are the friends of madhura-rasa. Vatsala, bībhatsa, śānta, raudra and bhanāyaka-rasas are the enemies of madhura-rasa. Some say that yuddha-vīra and dharma-vīra-rasas are friends of madhura-rasa, though others say those two are enemies of madhura-rasa.”


Bībhatsa, madhura, sakhya and vatsala-rasas are favorable for hāsya-rasa. Karuṇa and bhanāyaka-rasas are unfavorable.”


“The five primary rasas and vīra-rasa are favorable for adbhuta-rasa. Raudra and bībhatsa are unfavorable. ”


Adbhuta, hāsya, sakhya and dāsya-rasas are favorable for vīra-rasa. Bhayānaka and śānta-rasas are unfavorable for for yuddha-vīra-rasa. For dānavīra, dayā-vīra and dharma-vīra-rasas, bhanāyaka-rasa is unfavorable.”


Raudra-rasa and vatsala-rasa are favorable for karuṇa-rasa. Hāsya, the sambhoga (meeting) portion of madhura-rasa, and adbhuta-rasas are unfavorable.”


Karuṇa and vīra-rasas are favorable for raudra-rasa. Hāsya, madhura and bhayānaka-rasas are the enemies.”


Bībhatsa and karuṇa-rasas are favorable for bhayānaka-rasa. Vīra, madhura, hāsya and raudra are unfavorable.”


Tapasvī-śānta-rasa, hāsya-rasa and dāsya-rasa are favorable for bībhatsa-rasa. Madhura and sakhya-rasas are unfavorable for bībhatsa-rasa. Thus, by logic one can understand the other friends and enemies of the rasas.”


Rasas other than the friendly or inimical rasas just mentioned, or that can be logically inferred as such, should be considered neutral.”


“When friendly rasas mix, rasa becomes sweeter.”


“When two rasas mix, they cannot be experienced equally. Thus, the wise have said that in any mixture there is a predominant rasa (aṅgī) and subsidiary rasas (aṅgas).”


“When either a primary or secondary rasa becomes most predominant (aṅgī), all the friendly rasas become subordinate (aṅga).”


“In this work, first the primary rasas starting with śānta-rasa will be taken as the predominant rasa (aṅgī). In such cases, the friendly primary and secondary rasas become the subordinate rasas (aṅgas).”


atra mukhye’ṅgini mukhyasyāṅgatā |

An example with śānta-rasa as the aṅgī and dāsya-rasa as the aṅga (both being primary rasas):
“How will I ever be able to massage the two lotus feet of Your effulgent Self, endowed with a form of eternity, knowledge and bliss, similar to a fire emanating sparks in the form of the jīvas?”


atra mukhya eva gauṇasya |

An example with śānta-rasa (primary rasa) as aṅgī and bībhatsa (secondary rasa) as aṅga:

“My wicked self, happily situated in this body, eager to enjoy various tastes, and absorbed in this leather contained made from phlegm, semen and blood, is lethargic to remember Paramātmā.”


atra mukhya eva mukhyasya gauṇayoś ca |

An example where śānta-rasa is the aṅgī and dāsya-rasa (primary rasa) as well as adbhuta and bībhatsa-rasas (both secondary rasas) are the aṅgas: “Having rejected the bliss of this body composed of flesh and moistened by blood, my mind being filled with affection, when will I, skillfully waving an attractive cāmara, serve the dark-complexioned param brahma, who is seated calmly on a golden throne and who performs inconceivable actions?”


atra mukhye mukhyasya |

An example where dāsya-rasa (primary rasa) is the aṅgī and śānta-rasa (primary rasa) is the aṅga:
“When will I, free from ignorance and without fault, serve the Lord with the complexion of a blue lotus, who has lotus eyes, and whose sweetness allows immediate surrender?”


atra mukhye gauṇasya |

An example with dāsya-rasa (primary) as aṅgī and bībhatsa (secondary) as aṅga:
“On remembering the lotus feet of the Lord, the Vaiṣṇava feels disgust when seeing lotus-like women wandering about.”


atra mukhye mukhyasya gauṇayoś ca |

An example with dāsya-rasa (primary) as the aṅgī, with śānta (primary), bībhatsa and vīra (secondary) as the aṅgas:
“O Lord! When I think of the enjoyment I had with young women, my mouth curls up with disdain (bībhatsa). I have sufficiently absorbed my mind in hearing and contemplation to attain samādhi in brahman (śānta). I have no desire for siddhis, even though they are given by You (dāna-vīra). I am satisfied only with worshiping Your feet.”


atra mukhye mukhyasya |

An example with sakhya-rasa (primary) as the aṅgī, with madhura (primary) as the aṅga:
“O Subala! The young women of Vraja, who drink the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s lips, are the most fortunate of all women.”


atra mukhye gauṇasya |

An example with sakhya-rasa (primary) as aṅgī and hāsya-rasa (secondary)
as aṅga:
“ ‘O foolish girl! Go back to Vraja. Don’t flutter your eyes at Me. I am not the type of person that you think! Why speak so much?’ When Kṛṣṇa spoke in a teasing manner with one new girlfriend, Subala gazed at Kṛṣṇa’s face, his eyes bursting with laughter.”


atra mukhye mukhya-gauṇayoḥ |

An example with sākhya-rasa (primary) as aṅgī and madhura (primary) and hāsya (secondary) as aṅgas:

“Subala came to the attractive bank of the Yamunā wih blossoming aśoka trees, disguised in Rādhā’s clothing. When he saw Kṛṣṇa rise up to touch him, he covered his face, his cheeks breaking into a smile.”


atra mukhye gauṇasya |

An example with vatsala (primary) as the aṅgī and karuṇa-rasa (secondary) as aṅga:
“My beloved cowherd boy is herding the calves all the time on difficult paths without umbrella or shoes. Oh! Thinking of this, my mind is filled with pain.”


atrāpi mukhye gauṇasya |

An example with vatsala-rasa (primary) as the aṅgī and hāsya-rasa (secondary) as aṅga:
“ ‘O Yaśodā! Your son stole a big lump of butter from my house, put a little in the mouth of my sleeping baby, and then ran away.’ When an elderly woman complained in this way, Yaśodā threw a smiling glance at the face of Kṛṣṇa, who had a worried frown on His face. May that queen of Vraja shower auspiciousness on you!”


atrāpi mukhye catūrṇāṃ gauṇānām |

An example with vatsala-rasa (primary) as aṅgī, and bhayānaka, adbhuta, hāsya and karuṇa-rasas (secondary) as aṅgas:
“When perspiration became visible on Kṛṣṇa’s forehead as He held up Govardhan Hill on His left hand, Yaśodā began trembling with fear that Govardhan would fall on Him. Her eyes opened wide with astonishment on seeing the boldness of a seven-year-old boy when He raised His hand to lift the hill. But her cheeks were filled with laughter on seeing the playful expressions on His face as He smiled at His friends. Tears flowed from her eyes on seeing Him with His left hand held high for seven days. Her cloth became wet as milk flowed from her breasts out of affection for her son. May this queen of Vraja protect the whole world!”


“In pure vatsala-rasa, there is no friendship with other primary rasas. Primary rasas have not been described as aṅgas for vatsala-rasa as aṅgī for this reason.”


atra mukhye mukhyasya |

An example of madhura-rasa (primary) as aṅgī with sakhya-rasa (primary) as aṅga:
“Look, thin-waisted woman! Placing His hand on the attractive shoulder of Subala, who is dressed in My clothes, and whose hairs are standing on end, Kṛṣṇa is speaking with him, thinking that He is speaking with Me.”


atra mukhye gauṇasya |

Madhura-rasa (primary) as aṅgī with hāsya-rasa (secondary) as aṅga: “ ‘O merciless one! Why do you not recognize Me, Your sister? O thin-waisted woman! Embrace Me with love!’ When Kṛṣṇa, disguised as a young woman, said these words, Rādhā, knowing the truth, smiled slightly in the presence of Her elders.”


atra mukhye mukhya-gauṇayoḥ |

An example with madhura-rasa (primary) as aṅgī, and sakhya-rasa and vīra-rasa (primary and secondary) as aṅga:
“Mukunda, from far off, is casting half a glance with a slight smile at the moon-like, trembling face of Candrāvalī. Placing His snake-like arm on His

friend’s shoulder, which is erupting in goosebumps, Kṛṣṇa, with a lion’s roar frightening to elephants, prepares to fight with Ariṣṭāsura.”


“Examples will now be given to show the secondary rasa as the aṅgī and the primary rasas as the aṅga. They will be described a little to show their distinguishing properties.”


atra gauṇe’ṅgini mukhyasyāṅgatā |

Hāsya (secondary) as the aṅgī, with madhura-rasa (primary) as the aṅga: “When Kubja, blinded by lust, grabbed the edge of Kṛṣṇa’s yellow garment, Kṛṣṇa, exhibiting full cheeks bursting with laughter, lowered His head before others.”


atrāpi gauṇe’ṅgini mukhyasya |

Vīra-rasa as aṅgī with sākhya-rasa as aṅga:
“Viśala! Seeing that the commander Bhadrasena has been defeated, why are You coming toward me to fight? Extremely powerful Śrīdāma does not consider even a hundred Balarāmas. What chance do You have in this battle?”


atra gauṇe mukhya-gauṇayoḥ |

audra-rasa (secondary) as the aṅgī with sākhya-rasa (primary) and vīra (secondary) as aṅgas:
“The Pāṇḍavas, red-eyed with anger, desiring to kill arrogant Śiśupāla in battle for criticizing Kṛṣṇa, took up their excellent weapons.”


atra gauṇe mukhyasya gauṇayoś ca |

Adbhuta-rasa (secondary) as aṅgī with sakhya (primary) and vīra and hāsya (secondary) as aṅgas:
“Seeing the skill of Sudāma, swelling with pride while uttering sarcastic
words as he used a very small stick to defeat Balarāma—who thought Himself the guru of club fighting—in mock battle, Kṛṣṇa became joyful. His hairs stood on end and His eyes widened.”


“In this maner, the wise understand how a secondary rasa can take prominence, and primary and other secondary rasas become subordinate.”


“In the mixture of rasas, the primary or secondary rasa that surpasses the others in taste is known as the aṅgī. A rasa that nourishes the aṅgī-rasa and takes on the function of a vyabhicārī-bhāva (temporary emotion) is an aṅga-rasa.”


The authors on drama say: “The predominating rasa is the sthāyī-bhāva; all other rasas function as vyabhicārī-bhāvas, since they follow the predominating rasa.”


Śrī Viṣṇu-dharmottara says:
“In a combination of rasas, the rasa whose form is most prominent is considered the sthāyī-bhāva, and the rest should be considered to have the function of vyabhicārī-bhāvas.”


“A secondary rasa that arises from a slight stimulus takes on the quality of a vyabhicārī-bhāva, and having nourished the primary rasa, merges into it.”


“But a secondary rasa that becomes prominent because of strong stimulus and is nourished by the primary rasa, which then recedes in strength, becomes the predominating rasa (aṅgī).”


“Just as Vāmana concealed His powers and nourished Indra, the primary rasa takes a recessive role and nourishes the secondary rasa, which becomes strong.”


“However, the primary rasa for a particular devotee, which manifests in his heart by the power of innumerable previous experiences, does not disappear, as the vyabhicārī-bhāvas or secondary rasas do.”


“In a combination of rasas, the primary rasa that is the main aṅgī-rasa remains independent by nourishing itself through supportive bhāvas, which may be of the same variety or different, but not enemies.”


“The primary rasa that is revealed as one’s own, for which a particular devotee is the constant āśraya, remains predominant in that particular devotee (aṅgī), and other primary rasas become aṅgas.”


“However, the other rasas assume the role of aṅga only to increase the taste. Their appearance except for this purpose would be useless.”


“Useless aṅga-rasas are like grass that has accidentally fallen into sweet nectar. In tasting the nectar, one must also eat the grass and experience distaste.”


“Just as a sweet drink becomes distasteful by mixing with bitter or caustic tastes, the rasas become distasteful by mixing with inimical rasas.”


tatra śāntasyojjvalena vairasyam |

Distaste caused by a mixture of śānta with madhura-rasa:
“Possessing brahma-jñāna, I have spent a long time in vows of extreme concentration. But I have not seen the form of brahman composed of concentrated bliss from the corner of my left eye.”


tatra prītasyojjvalenaiva |

Distaste caused by a mixture of dāsya with madhura-rasa:
“My mind desires to see that Lord, more affectionate than a million fathers, whose lotus feet are worshiped by devatās and sages, who is the Lord of Lakṣmī, and whose body shines with the nail marks of beautiful women.”


atra preyaso vatsalena |

Distaste caused by a mixture of sakhya with vatsala-rasa:
“O friend! Embrace me with Your long arms, powerful as door bolts. O Kṛṣṇa! After smelling Your head, I will play with You.”


atra vatsalasya prītena |

Vatsala-rasa with dāsya-rasa:
“May my tongue rashly desire to address You as ‘my son,’ whom the followers of Vedānta call the param brahman and whom the followers of Pañcarātra call Vāsudeva.”


atrojjvalasya śāntena |

Madhura-rasa with sānta-rasa:
“Messenger! The splendors of newly blossoming youth are fickle like the play of lightning. Therefore, please arrange for Mādhava to enjoy with Me today.”


atra śucer vatsalena |

Madhura-rasa with vatsala-rasa:
“A desirous woman living in Kailāsa said, ‘May You live long,’ and then embraced Kṛṣṇa with pleasure.”


“If vatsala-rasa somehow or other contacts even a particle of madhura-rasa
(as in the previous example) the result is most distasteful.”


atra śucer bībhatsena |

Madhura-rasa with bībhatsa-rasa:
“O dark-limbed lover! Because of my body of blood and flesh, I am not suitable for You. Mercifully accept me, since I have been pierced by the arrow of Your glance.”


“Those knowledgeable of the scriptures concerning rasa understand other contrary rasas in the same way. Generally speaking this contradiction finally ends up as rasābhāsa.”

||4.8.63|| ||4.8.64||

“However, the combination of two unfriendly rasas will not produce distaste under the following conditions:

  • where one of the conflicting rasas is negated by a statement
  • where two conflicting rasas are present through remembrance
  • where two rasas are compared
  • where a friendly or neutral rasa intervenes between the two conflicting rasas
  • where the viṣayas and āśrayas of two conflicting rasas (one of which is a secondary rasa) are different.”


In the following description from Vidagdha-mādhava [2.18], the conflicting rasa (śānta) is negated:

“The sage desires to withdraw his mind from sense objects and fix it just for the moment on Kṛṣṇa. But this young girl desires to withdraw her mind from that same Kṛṣṇa and fix it upon sense objects. Oh! The yogī is eager to realize Him in his heart even for a second, but this foolish girl desires to remove Him from her heart completely!”


“In the above verse, śānta-rasa is negated as a result of describing the superior nature of madhura-rasa.”


Memories producing conflicting rasas (hāsya and karuṇa):
“He used to make us laugh by comical pastimes. But today, being pulled away by Kāliya and suffering in pain, He is making us lament.”


Conflicting rasas used in comparisons:
“O Rādhā! You appear to have realized brahman, for You have given up the subtle body. You are devoid of seeing difference, devoid of the coverings of material nature, and full of joy.”

Alternate translation:
“You repose with the sixteen varieties of conjugal love; You are confirmed by direct perception, because You are not concealed by the creepers; and You are the personification of bliss.”


Another example:
“Rādhā is like śānta-rasa: She makes Me sleepless; She makes My eyes unblinking; She makes Me live in a mountain cave, absorbed in meditation.”

atrādbhutena vyavadhiḥ |

Intervention of one rasa between two conflicting rasas:
“Who are you?” “I am a person endowed with śānta-rati.”
“Why are you floating in the sky?” “To see the param-brahma.”
“Why have your eyes become so large?”
“O Rambhā! My heart has somehow become agitated by His astonishing beauty. I have now fallen in love.”


Conflicting rasas concerning different objects (madhura-rasa for Kṛṣṇa, bībhatsa for common men), from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.60.45]:
“A woman who fails to relish the fragrance of the honey of Your lotus feet becomes totally befooled, and thus she accepts as her husband or lover a living corpse covered with skin, whiskers, nails, head-hair and body-hair and filled with flesh, bones, blood, parasites, feces, mucus, bile and air.”


ubhayatra śuci-bībhatsayoḥ |

Madhura-rasa toward Rādhā and bībhatsa-rasa toward the moon and blue lotus, from Vidagdha-mādhava [2.31]:
“O friend! As long as my eyes are absorbed in seeing the splendor of beautiful Rādhā’s face and Her charming eyes, on remembering the moon and the blue lotus, my lips curl with distaste.”


atra vīra-bhayānakayoḥ |

Differing āśrayas for vīra and bhayānaka-rasas:
“Seeing Kṛṣṇa victorious as He enacted skillful fighting pastimes in the combat arena, the hairs of all His young friends stood on end in ecstasy. However, the complexions of Kaṃsa and other enemies became black with fear.”


“Even if the viṣayas or āśrayas are different, if the conflicting rasas are both primary rasas, the result will be distasteful.”


atra śuceḥ prītena |

Madhra-rasa conflicting with dāsya-rasa, even though the viṣayas are different:
“O father! Unlock the door bolt without delay! I will go to the house of
Sāndīpanī Muni. My mind is attracted to the dark-complexioned youth.”


atra śāntasya śucinā |

Śānta-rasa of the speaker conflicting with madhura-rasa of Rukmiṇī:
“When will my eyes serve the eternally blissful form of param brahman whose chest is marked with the kuṅkuma from Rukmiṇī’s breasts?”


“Some devotees whose hearts are attached to the path of jñāna do not consider it distasteful when the āśraya of śānta-rasa is different from the āśraya of the conflicting rasa (as in the previous example).”


“However, just as there is a conjoining of two natural enemies for service to a common master, their king, there is no fault in mixing two conflicting aṅga-rasas for nourishing the aṅgī-rasa.”


atra vidviṣau vīrabhayānakau vatsalaṃ puṣṇītaḥ |

Vīra and bhayānaka-rasas nourishing vatsala-rasa:
“Dear Yaśodā! Your son is softer than a jasmine flower, and Keśī demon is harder than a mountain. Because of this, my mind is quivering. Let my son have all auspiciousness. Raising this pillar, I will pulverize this demon and make Gokula worthy of praise!”


tatra hāsya-karuṇau vatsalam eva puṣṇītaḥ |

“Verse 31 of this chapter is an example of vatsala-rasa nourished by hāsya and karuṇa-rasas, which are enemies.” Here is the verse, with notes:
“When perspiration became visible on Kṛṣṇa’s forehead as He held up Govardhan Hill on His left hand, Yaśodā began trembling with fear that Govardhan would fall on Him. Her eyes opened wide with astonishment on seeing the boldness of a seven-year-old boy when He raised His hand to lift the hill. But her cheeks were filled with laughter on seeing the playful expressions on His face as He smiled at His friends (hāsya-rasa). Tears flowed from her eyes on seeing Him with His left hand held high for seven days (karuṇa-rasa). Her cloth became wet as milk flowed from her breasts out of affection for her son (vatsala-rasa). May this queen of Vraja protect the whole world!”


“Moreover, since in persons such as Yudhiṣṭhīra, inimical rasas such as dāsya
and vatsala manifest at different times, there is no fault.”


“Though in adhirūḍha-mahā-bhāva all the inimical rasas mix together, there is no distastefulness. This has already been shown in relation to the madhura-rasa of Rādhā and Kṛṣṇa. [3.5.23]”


“Sometimes, the combination of all rasas appears producing an even greatest taste for Kṛṣṇa, the culmination of all great persons, who is endowed with inconceivably great powers.”


Kṛṣṇa as the viṣaya of all rasas, from Lalita-mādhava:
“Seeing Kṛṣṇa in the combat arena, the priests of Kaṃsa showed disgust in their faces (bībhatsa), the wrestlers became red with anger (raudra), the cheeks of Kṛṣṇa’s friends raised up with smiles (hāsya, sakhya), the evil rulers became senseless (bhayānaka), the sages became fixed in meditation (śānta), the mothers wept with hot tears (karuṇa, vatsala), the expert warriors’ hairs stood on end (vīra), the devatās felt novel internal attachment (adbhūta), the servants began to dance (dāsya) and the young women cast glances from the corners of their eyes (madhura).”


Kṛṣṇa as the āśraya of all rasas:
“Though lifting up Govardhana, Kṛṣṇa remained without pride in Himself (śānta). When the small children became eager to hold up the mountain, He smiled (hāsya, vatsala). He spat at some bad-smelling yogurt (bībhatsa). He showed off His great strength in lifting the mountain for the benefit of His dear friends (sakhya, vīra). His eyes became red while looking at Indra (raudra). He shed tears on seeing the suffering of the inhabitants of Vraja from the rain and wind (karuṇa). He trembled in fear before the elders, having destroyed the sacrifice to Indra (dāsya, bhayānaka). His eyes opened wide in astonishment on seeing the great torrents of rain (adbhuta). His hairs stood on end when He saw the young girls (madhura). May this Master, the lifter of Govarhana, protect you!”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhāv uttara-vibhāge
rasānāṃ maitrī-vaira-sthiti-nāmnī laharī aṣṭhamī ||

“Thus ends the Eighth Wave of the Northern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, concerning friendly and inimical rasas.”