Second Wave: Devotional Service In Practice


Second Wave: Devotional Service In Practice


sā bhaktiḥ sādhanaṃ bhāvaḥ premā ceti tridhoditā ||1.2.1||

“There are three types of bhakti: sādhana, bhāva and prema.”


“Now we will define sādhana-bhakti: Action of the senses that produces the state of bhāva is called sādhana-bhakti. The state of bhāva-bhakti that is attained (sādhyata) is an eternal sthāyi-bhāva which is not created, but simply manifests within the soul by the spiritual energy of the Lord.”


“Nārada speaks of sādhana-bhakti along with items that seem to be bhakti in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.”


There it is also said:
“Therefore, somehow one must think of Kṛṣṇa by any of the favorable methods.”


“There are two kinds of sādhana-bhakti: vaidhī and rāgānuga.”


“Now here is the definition of vaidhī-bhakti: Where the actions of bhakti arise, not from the attainment of rāga but by the teachings of the scriptures, it is called vaidhī-bhakti.”


This is illustrated in the Second Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [2.1.5]:
“O descendant of King Bharata, one who desires to be free from all miseries must hear about, glorify and also remember the Personality of Godhead, who is the Supersoul, the controller and the savior from all miseries.”


In the Padma Purāṇait is said:
“One should always remember Viṣṇu and never forget Him. All injunctions and prohibitions are based upon these two principles.”


“Thus, everyone within and outside the varṇāśrama system should always follow this rule concerning worship of the Lord. Though it is always to be followed as a daily duty according to the scriptures, the scriptures also ascribe attractive material results from observing it, as in the case of the Ekādaśī-vrata.”

||1.2.10|| ||1.2.11||

In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.5.2-3] it is expressed clearly that vaidhī-bhakti should be followed by all varṇas and āśramas:
“Each of the four social orders, headed by the brāhmaṇas, was born through different combinations of the modes of nature, from the face, arms, thighs and feet of the Supreme Lord in His universal form. Thus the four spiritual orders were also generated. If any of the members of the four varṇas and four āśramas fail to worship or intentionally disrespect the Personality of Godhead, who is the source of their own creation, they will fall down from their position into a hellish state of life.”


The results of vaidhī-bhakti are stated [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam11.27.49]:
“By worshiping Me through the various methods prescribed in the Vedas and Tantras, one will gain from Me his desired perfection in both this life and the next.”


The Nārada-pañcarātra says:
“O Devarṣi, all activities with the Lord as the object prescribed in the scriptures are called vaidhī-bhakti. By this performance of bhakti, one attains prema-bhakti.”


“The qualified candidate is described as follows: The person who has developed faith in serving the Lord by the impressions arising from previous association with devotees, who is not too attached to material objects, and who is not too detached, is qualified for vaidhī-bhakti.”


In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.8] it is said:
“If somehow or other by good fortune one develops faith in hearing and chanting My glories, such a person, being neither very disgusted with nor attached to material life, should achieve perfection through the path of loving devotion to Me.”


“There are three types of persons qualified for vaidhī-sādhana-bhakti: uttamādhikārī, madhyamādhikārī and kaniṣṭhādhikārī.”


“The uttamādhikārī is defined as follows: The person who is skillful in scripture and logic, completely firm in his belief, with deep faith, is considered qualified as uttama in vaidhī-bhakti.”


“The madhyamādhikārī is defined as follows: The person who is not fully conversant with the scriptures like the uttamādhikārī, but has firm conviction in them, is known as madhyamādhikārī.”


“The definition of the kaniṣṭhādhikārī is as follows: He who has weak faith because of even less knowledge of the scriptures than the madhyamādhikārī is called the kaniṣṭha.”



“Among the four types of persons qualified for bhakti mentioned in the Bhagavad-gītā, when they receive the mercy of the Lord or His devotee and eradicate those tendencies, they become qualified for pure bhakti. Examples of this are Gajendra, Śaunaka and the sages, Dhruva and also the four Kumāras.”


“How can the happiness of bhakti arise in the heart when the witch of desire for enjoyment and liberation remains there?”


“By prema, the bhakti processes such as hearing take possession of the mind and senses of persons who do not desire the goal of liberation at all.”


In the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.25.36] it is said:
“Upon seeing the charming forms of the Lord, smiling and attractive, and hearing His very pleasing words, the pure devotee almost loses all other consciousness. His senses are freed from all other engagements, and he becomes absorbed in devotional service. Thus in spite of his unwillingness, he attains liberation without separate endeavor.”


“Devotees who are absorbed in the bliss of service to the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa should never desire liberation.”


Uddhava also states this [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.4.15]:
“O my Lord, devotees who engage in the transcendental loving service of Your lotus feet have no difficulty in achieving anything within the realm of the four principles of religiosity, economic development, sense gratification and liberation. But, O great one, as far as I am concerned, I have preferred only to engage in the loving service of Your lotus feet.”


And Kapila states the same [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.25.34]:
“A pure devotee, who is attached to the activities of devotional service and who always engages in the service of My lotus feet, never desires to become one with Me. Such a devotee, who is unflinchingly engaged, always glorifies My pastimes and activities.”


Kapila also says [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.29.13]:
“A pure devotee does not accept any kind of liberation—sālokya, sārṣṭi, sāmīpya, sārūpya or ekatva—even though they are offered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, if they are not accompanied by service.”


In the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.9.10], Dhruva says:
“My Lord, the transcendental bliss derived from meditating upon Your lotus feet or hearing about Your glories from pure devotees is so unlimited that it is far beyond the stage of brahmānanda, wherein one thinks himself merged in the impersonal Brahman as one with the Supreme. Since brahmānanda is also defeated by the transcendental bliss derived from devotional service, then what to speak of the temporary blissfulness of elevating oneself to the heavenly planets, which is ended by the separating sword of time? Although one may be elevated to the heavenly planets, he falls down in due course of time.”


Concerning this, Mahārāja Pṛthu also says [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 4.20.24]:
“My dear Lord, I therefore do not wish to have the benediction of merging into Your existence, a benediction in which there is no existence of the nectarean beverage of Your lotus feet. I want the benediction of at least one million ears, for thus I may be able to hear about the glories of Your lotus feet from the mouths of Your pure devotees.”


In the Fifth Canto [of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 5.14.44] Śrī Śuka says,

“My dear King, the activities of Bharata Mahārāja are wonderful. He gave up everything difficult for others to give up. He gave up his kingdom, his wife and his family. His opulence was so great that even the demigods envied it, yet he gave it up. It was quite befitting a great personality like him to be a great devotee. He could renounce everything because he was so attracted to the beauty, opulence, reputation, knowledge, strength and renunciation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is so attractive that one can give up all desirable things for His sake. Indeed, even liberation is considered insignificant for those whose minds are attracted to the loving service of the Lord.”


In the Sixth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [6.11.25] Vṛtra says:
“O my Lord, source of all opportunities, I do not desire to enjoy in Dhruvaloka, the heavenly planets or the planet where Lord Brahmā resides, nor do I want to be the supreme ruler of all the earthly planets or the lower planetary systems. I do not desire to be master of the powers of mystic yoga, nor do I want liberation if I have to give up Your lotus feet.”


Lord Śiva also speaks on this subject in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [6.17.28]:
“Devotees solely engaged in the devotional service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, never fear any condition of life. For them the heavenly planets, liberation and the hellish planets are all the same, for such devotees are interested only in the service of the Lord.”


Concerning this, Indra has also said in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [6.18.74]:
“Although those who are interested only in worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead do not desire anything material from the Lord and do not even want liberation, Lord Kṛṣṇa fulfills all their desires.”


Prahlāda speaks in the Seventh Canto [of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, 7.6.25]:
“Nothing is unobtainable for devotees who have satisfied the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the cause of all causes, the original source of everything. The Lord is the reservoir of unlimited spiritual qualities. For devotees, therefore, who are transcendental to the modes of material nature, what is the use of following the principles of religion, economic development, sense gratification and liberation, which are all automatically obtainable under the influence of the modes of nature? We devotees always glorify the lotus feet of the Lord, and therefore we need not ask for anything in terms of dharma, kāma, artha and mokṣa.”


Indra also speaks in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.8.42]:
“O Supreme Lord, You are our deliverer and protector. Our shares of sacrifices, which are actually Yours, have been recovered from the demon by You. Because the demoniac king Hiraṇyakaśipu was most fearsome, our hearts, which are Your permanent abode, were all overtaken by him. Now, by Your presence, the gloom and darkness in our hearts have been dissipated. O Lord, for those who always engage in Your service, which is more exalted than liberation, all material opulence is insignificant. They do not even care for liberation, not to speak of the benefits of kāma, artha and dharma.”


In the Eighth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [8.3.20], Gajendra speaks:
“Unalloyed devotees, who have no desire other than to serve the Lord, worship Him in full surrender and always hear and chant about His activities, which are most wonderful and auspicious. Thus they always merge in an ocean of transcendental bliss.”


In the Ninth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [9.4.67], the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha speaks:
“My devotees, who are always satisfied to be engaged in My loving service, are not interested even in the four principles of liberation [sālokya, sārūpya, sāmīpya and sārṣṭi], although these are automatically achieved by their service. What then is to be said of such perishable happiness as elevation to the higher planetary systems?”


In the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.16.37] the wives of Kāliya speak:
“Those who have attained the dust of Your lotus feet never hanker for the kingship of heaven, limitless sovereignty, the position of Brahmā or rulership over the earth. They are not interested even in the perfections of yoga or in liberation itself.”


The personified Vedaspray as follows [in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 10.87.21]:
“My Lord, some fortunate souls have gotten relief from the fatigue of material life by diving into the vast nectar ocean of Your pastimes, which You enact when You manifest Your personal forms to propagate the unfathomable science of the self. These rare souls, indifferent even to liberation, renounce the happiness of home and family because of their association with devotees who are like flocks of swans enjoying at the lotus of Your feet.”


In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.34] the Lord declares:
“Because My devotees possess saintly behavior and deep intelligence, they completely dedicate themselves to Me and do not desire anything besides Me. Indeed, even if I offer them liberation from birth and death, they do not accept it.”


Also in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.14.14] the Lord says:
“One who has fixed his consciousness on Me desires neither the position or abode of Lord Brahmā or Lord Indra, nor an empire on the earth, nor sovereignty in the lower planetary systems, nor the eightfold perfection of yoga, nor liberation from birth and death. Such a person desires Me alone.”


In the Twelfth Canto [of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, 12.10.6] Lord Śiva speaks:
“Surely this saintly brāhmaṇa does not desire any benediction, not even liberation itself, for he has attained pure devotional service unto the inexhaustible Personality of Godhead.”

||1.2.44|| ||1.2.45||

In the Padma Purāṇa, Kārttika-Māhātmya (Śrī Dāmodarāṣṭakam 4 & 7) it is said:
“O Lord, although You are able to give all kinds of benedictions, I do not pray to You for the boon of impersonal liberation, nor the highest liberation of eternal life in Vaikuṇṭha, nor any other boon [which may be obtained by executing the nine processes of bhakti ]. O Lord, I simply wish that this form of Yours as Bāla Gopāla in Vṛndāvana may ever be manifest in my heart, for what is the use to me of any other boon besides this? O Lord Dāmodara, just as the two sons of Kuvera—Manigrīva and Nalakūvara—were delivered from the curse of Nārada and made into great devotees by You in Your form as a baby tied with rope to a wooden grinding mortar, in the same way, please give to me Your own prema-bhakti. I only long for this and have no desire for any kind of liberation.”

||1.2.46|| ||1.2.47||

In the Nārāyaṇa-vyūha-stava of the Hayaśīrṣīya-pañcarātra it is stated:
“O Lord, bestower of benedictions! I do not pray for dharma, artha, kāma or mokṣa. I desire only service to Your lotus feet.”

And: “I offer my respects to Prahlāda, who asked only for devotion. He did not pray to Viṣṇu for liberation even though the Lord wanted to give many benedictions.”


“I offer my respects to Hanumān, who did not want liberation, which Rāma could easily give, but instead wanted servitude.”


Hanumān’s statement is also famous:
“I do not desire liberation that cuts the bondage of material life, because in that state of liberation, awareness that You are the Master and I am the servant disappears.”

||1.2.50|| ||1.2.51||

In the Jitanta-stotraof the Nārada Pañcarātrait is said:
“I do not at all desire dharma, artha, kāma or mokṣa. Please make my life completely dependent upon Your lotus feet. I do not pray for liberation, sālokya or sārūpya, O upholder of the earth. Most distinguished Lord, true to Your vows, I desire only Your mercy.”


In the Sixth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [6.14.5] it is said:
“O great sage, among many millions who are liberated and perfect in knowledge of liberation, one may be a devotee of Lord Nārāyaṇa, or Kṛṣṇa. Such devotees, who are fully peaceful, are extremely rare.”


In the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.8.20], Mother Kuntī prays:
“You Yourself descend to propagate the transcendental science of devotional service unto the hearts of the advanced transcendentalists and mental speculators, who are purified by being able to discriminate between matter and spirit. How, then, can we women know You perfectly?”


Suta also speaks on this subject in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.7.10]:
“All different varieties of ātmārāmas [those who take pleasure in ātmā, or spirit self], especially those established on the path of self-realization, though freed from all kinds of material bondage, desire to render unalloyed devotional service unto the Personality of Godhead. This means that the Lord possesses transcendental qualities and therefore can attract everyone, including liberated souls.”


“Although the five types of liberation have been described as worthy of rejection, sālokya, sārṣṭi, sāmīpya and sārūpya are not completely contradictory to bhakti.”


“There are two varieties of these four types of liberation: one, predominated by the desire for happiness and power; and the other, predominated by the desire for prema. The first variety is not accepted by those who are inclined to serve the Lord.”


“But the devotees solely attached to the Lord who relish the sweetness of prema never accept the five types of liberation at all, even prema-uttara.”


“Among the devotees who are dedicated solely to serving the Lord in prema, the devotees whose hearts have been stolen by Govinda are the best. Even the kindness of Nārāyaṇa or other forms of Kṛṣṇa cannot steal their hearts.”


“Though the forms of Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa are nondifferent according to the statements of scripture, Kṛṣṇa’s form is shown to be superior because of His rasas, which are endowed with the highest kind of prema. The very nature of His rasas shows Kṛṣṇa’s form to be superior.”


“Furthermore, the following should be understood: The scriptures say that any human being is qualified to take a bath during the month of Māgha. Vaśiṣṭha has given that example concerning devotion to the Lord while speaking to the King.”


In the Padma Purāṇa it is stated:
“All are qualified for hari-bhakti, O King.”


In the Kāśī-khaṇḍa [of Śrī Mahābhārata] it is said:
“In that country the outcastes, receiving Vaiṣṇava initiation, wearing the marks of the conch and disc, shine like sacrificial priests.”

||1.2.63|| ||1.2.64||

And it is said:
“The person qualified for bhakti is at fault if he fails to perform all the important aṅgas of bhakti. But he is not at fault for failing to perform the duties of varṇa and āśrama. If he, by chance, happens to perform some sin, there is no atonement prescribed for him. This is the opinion of those who know the secret of the Vaiṣṇava scriptures.”


Thus, in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.26, 11.21.2] it is said:
“It is firmly declared that the steady adherence of transcendentalists to their respective spiritual positions constitutes real piety and that sin occurs when a transcendentalist neglects his prescribed duty. One who adopts this standard of piety and sin, sincerely desiring to give up all past association with sense gratification, is able to subdue materialistic activities, which are by nature impure.”

“Steadiness in one's own position is declared to be actual piety, whereas deviation from one's position is considered impiety. In this way the two are definitely ascertained.”


In the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.5.17] it is said:
“If someone gives up his occupational duties and works in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, and then falls down on account of not completing his work, what loss is there on his part? Moreover, what can one gain if he performs his occupational duties perfectly but does not worship the Lord?”


In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.11.32] it is said:
“He perfectly understands that the ordinary religious duties prescribed by Me in various Vedic scriptures possess favorable qualities that purify the performer, and he knows that neglect of such duties constitutes a discrepancy in one's life. Having taken complete shelter at My lotus feet, however, a saintly person ultimately renounces such ordinary religious duties and worships Me alone. He is thus considered to be the best among all living entities.”


It is also stated there [Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 11.5.41]:
“O King, one who has given up all material duties and has taken full shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda, who offers shelter to all, is not indebted to the demigods, great sages, ordinary living beings, relatives, friends, mankind or even one's forefathers who have passed away. Since all such classes of living entities are part and parcel of the Supreme Lord, one who has surrendered to the Lord's service has no need to serve such persons separately.”


Kṛṣṇa says in Bhagavad-gītā [18.66]:
“Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear.”


In the Agastya-saṃhitā it is said:
“Just as the rules and prohibitions of the smṛti scriptures do not approach a liberated person, the rules and prohibitions applicable to vaidika or tāntrika worship do not touch the worshiper of Rāma.”


And in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.5.42] it is said:
“One who has thus given up all other engagements and has taken full shelter at the lotus feet of Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is very dear to the Lord. Indeed, if such a surrendered soul accidentally commits some sinful activity, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is seated within everyone's heart, immediately takes away the reaction to such sin.”


“Innumerable aṅgas of bhakti are explained in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa. Among those, the most famous ones to the best of my judgment will be explained herein.”


“The characteristics of an aṅga of bhakti are as follows: The learned define an aṅga of bhakti as a complex of devotional actions that have internal divisions, or only one action of bhakti that does not have clearly defined internal differences.”


“The list of aṅgas is as follows: taking shelter of guru; then after initiation, acquiring knowledge; service to guru with respect; following the rules and regulations of the scriptures as approved by the ācāryas. Inquiry about the real duties of life; renunciation of enjoyment to gain Kṛṣṇa’s mercy; residing in Dvārakā or other holy places, or near the Gaṅgā. Accepting only what is necessary in relation to the body; observing the Ekādaśī-vrata; giving respect to the āmalakī, aśvattha and other items.”


“Preliminary bhakti should consist of these ten items.”

||1.2.78||||1.2.79||||1.2.80||||1.2.81|| ||1.2.82||

“Giving up the association of those opposed to the Lord; not being attached to making disciples; not being enthusiastic for huge undertakings; avoiding the study of useless books just to make a living or to defeat others in useless arguments; not feeling miserable in any material circumstances; not being subject to lamentation or other extreme emotions; not showing disrespect to the devatās; giving disturbance to other living entities; not committing sevā-aparādha or nāma-aparādha; not tolerating criticism of Kṛṣṇa and His devotees by those who hate them. These ten aṅgas should be observed by avoidance.”


“These twenty aṅgasserve as the door for entering bhakti. The first three aṅgas—taking shelter of the feet of guru, receiving teachings after initiation, and serving the guru with respect—are said to be the principal ones.”


“Other limbs of bhakti include the following:
Marking the body with the Vaiṣṇava symbols

  • Marking the body with the syllables of the Lord’s Holy Names
  • Wearing the garlands, flowers and sandalwood offered to the Deity
  • Dancing before the Deity
  • Offering respects on the ground (daṇḍabats)
  • Standing up to see the Lord
  • Following behind the Lord’s procession
  • Going to the Lord’s residence
  • Circumambulating the Lord or His dhāma
  • Performing arcana
  • Performing menial service to the Deity
  • Singing for the Deity
  • Singing in a group
  • Performing japa
  • Offering words or sentiments
  • Reciting prayers
  • Tasting food offered to the Lord
  • Tasting the foot water of the Lord
  • Smelling the incense and flowers offered to the Lord
  • Touching the Deity
  • Seeing the Deity
  • Seeing āratiand festivals
  • Hearing about the name, form, qualities and pastimes of the Lord
  • Accepting the mercy of the Lord
  • Remembering the Lord
  • Meditating on the Lord
  • Acting as the servant of the Lord
  • Thinking of the Lord as a friend
  • Offering oneself to the Lord
  • Offering the best items to the Lord
  • Making full efforts for the Lord
  • Surrendering to the Lord
  • Serving tulasī
  • Studying the scriptures
  • Living in Mathurā
  • Serving the devotees
  • Holding festivals according to one’s means with the devotees
  • Observing Kārtika-vrata
  • Observing Janmāṣṭamī and other special occasions
  • Having faith and great affection for serving the Deity
  • Relishing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatamin association of devotees
  • Associating with like-minded, affectionate superior devotees
  • Nāma-saṅkīrtana
  • Living in the district of Mathurā”


“The last five items were mentioned previously; they have been mentioned again to show their superiority among all the aṅgas of bhakti. Thus 64 methods of worship involving the body, senses and internal organs [of intelligence and consciousness] have been presented sequentially, some being separate items and others containing additional items within them. Next, examples of each item will be cited according to traditional Vedic authority.”


Taking shelter of the lotus feet of the guru, from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 11.3.21:
“Therefore any person who seriously desires real happiness must seek a bona fide spiritual master and take shelter of him by initiation. The qualification of the bona fide guru is that he has realized the conclusions of the scriptures by deliberation and is able to convince others of these conclusions. Such great personalities, who have taken shelter of the Supreme Godhead, leaving aside all material considerations, should be understood to be bona fide spiritual masters.”


Acquiring knowledge after initiation, from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 11.3.22:
“Accepting the bona fide spiritual master as one's life and soul and worshipable deity, the disciple should learn from him the process of pure devotional service. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, the soul of all souls, is inclined to give Himself to His pure devotees. Therefore, the disciple should learn from the spiritual master to serve the Lord without duplicity and in such a faithful and favorable way that the Supreme Lord, being satisfied, will offer Himself to the faithful disciple.”


Serving the guru with reverence, from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.17.27]:
“One should know the ācārya as Myself and never disrespect him in any way. One should not envy him, thinking him an ordinary man, for he is the representative of all the demigods.”


Following the scriptural rules, from the Skanda Purāṇa:
“One should follow the scriptural rules which give the highest benefit and are devoid of hardship, by which the previous devotees easily progressed.”


Also, evidence from the Brahma-yāmala:
“Even if a person seems to have attained steadiness in practicing pure bhakti to the Lord, that bhakti is a misfortune if it rejects the rules of śruti, smṛti, purāṇa and pañcarātra due to lack of faith in them.”


“This type of bhakti appears to be pure only because of misjudging the facts. Actually, it is not aikāntiki (undiverted) bhakti at all, because lack of scriptural obedience is seen in it.”


Inquiry into bhakti, from Nārdīya Purāṇa:
“Those whose minds are attached to understanding bhakti to the Lord quickly attain all their desired goals.”


Renouncing enjoyment to please Kṛṣṇa, from Padma Purāṇa:
“When you give up enjoyable objects at the time of enjoying, aiming at the pleasure of the Lord, the permanent wealth situated in Viṣṇu-loka awaits you.”


Living in Dvārkā or other holy places, from the Skanda Purāṇa:
“Anyone who lives in Dvārakā for one year, six months, one month or even half a month, whether man or woman, attains a four-armed form in the spiritual sky.”


The word ādi indicates Purī as well, as illustrated in the Brahmā Purāṇa:
“The glory of Purī with its surrounding area of 80 square miles is inconceivable. The devatās see everyone residing there as having four arms.”


Living near the Gaṅgā, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.19.6]:
“The river Ganges, by which the King sat to fast carries the most auspicious water, which is mixed with the dust of the lotus feet of the Lord and tulasī leaves. Therefore that water sanctifies the three worlds inside and outside and even sanctifies Lord Śiva and other demigods. Consequently everyone who is destined to die must take shelter of this river.”


Living with minimal material needs, from the Nāradīya Purāṇa:
“The person with wisdom concerning material objects accepts as much as is necessary for the maintenance of bhakti. By accepting more or less than that, the person will fail to attain the highest goal.”


Respecting the day of the Lord, from the Brahmā-vaivarta Purāṇa:
“By fasting on Ekādaśī, a person destroys all sins, gains abundant pious credits and attains remembrance of the Lord.”


Respecting the āmalakī, aśvattha and other things, from the Skanda Purāṇa:
“Human beings destroy sin by worshiping, respecting and contemplating the aśvattha tree, tulasī tree, āmalakī tree, the cow, the brāhmaṇa and the Vaiṣṇava.”


Giving up the association of those opposed to Kṛṣṇa, from the Kātyāyana-saṃhitā:
“It is preferable to remain within a cage of blazing fire than to have the misfortune of living in association with persons who are opposed to thinking of the Lord.”


Also, from the Viṣṇu-rahasya:
“I consider it preferable to embrace a snake, tiger or crocodile than to associate with those who worship devatās. They are bearers of spears piercing me with their deviant desires.”


Attachment to disciples and the following two items are illustrated in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.13.8]:
“A sannyāsī must not present allurements of material benefits to gather many disciples, nor should he unnecessarily read books that disrespect the Lord, or give discourses as a means of livelihood. He must never engage in big projects that distract him from his spiritual goals.”


Not feeling miserable and not performing degrading acts in distressing circumstances, illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“Being undisturbed when one does not obtain food or clothing or when these things are lost, one should remember the Lord with one’s intelligence.”


Not being controlled by lamentation or other emotions, also illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“How is it possible for Mukunda to appear in the mind of a person whose mind is afflicted with lamentation, anger or other emotions?”


Not disrespecting the devatās, illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“One should always worship Hari, the Lord of the masters of all the devatās. On the other hand, one should not disrespect Brahmā, Śiva and other [devatās].”


Not inflicting pain on other living entities, from the Mahābhārata:
“That pure person who does not inflict pain on others, being merciful like a father to his son, quickly pleases the master of the senses.”


Avoiding seva- and nāma-aparādhas, illustrated in the Varāha Purāṇa:
“The devotees should avoid the offenses in Deity worship I described, O Earth planet, at all times and with great care.”


This is also described in the Padma Purāṇa:
“A person who commits all offenses is freed from all those offenses by taking complete shelter of Hari. But a two-legged animal who commits offenses against Hari is freed from those offenses by taking shelter of Hari’s Holy Name. However, although the Holy Name is the friend of all, by committing an offense against the Holy Name a person falls to the lower regions.”


Not tolerating criticism of the Lord or His devotee, shown in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.74.40]:
“Anyone who fails to immediately leave the place where he hears criticism of the Supreme Lord or His faithful devotee will certainly fall down, bereft of his pious credit.”


Wearing the marks of a Vaiṣṇava, shown in the Padma Purāṇa:
“Those Vaiṣṇavas who have tulasī beads, lotus-seed beads and japa beads around their necks, who have their shoulders marked with the signs of conch and cakra, and who have tilaka on their foreheads quickly purify the earth. ”


Wearing the syllables of the Holy Name, from the Skanda Purāṇa:
“The servants of Yama will not touch those who have the names of Hari on their bodies, who have gopī-candan tilaka on their foreheads and who have tulasī beads on their chests.”


It is also said in the Padma Purāṇa:
“He who has the syllables of Kṛṣṇa’s name marked on his body with candana, after purifying this world, attains the planet of the Lord.”


Wearing the garlands used by the Lord, shown in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.6.46]:
“Simply by decorating ourselves with the garlands, fragrant oils, clothes and ornaments that You have already enjoyed, and by eating the remnants of Your meals, we, Your servants, will indeed conquer Your illusory energy.”


Also in the Skanda Purāṇa:
“O sage Nārada, whoever touches the garlands offered to Kṛṣṇa with his body becomes freed from all diseases and all sins.”


Dancing before the Deity is shown in the Dvārakā-mahātmya:
“He who joyfully dances with many emotions before the Lord burns up sins which have been produced during many hundreds of manvantaras.”


It is also said by Nārada:
“All the birds of sin situated in the body fly away for those who dance before the Lord with vigorous clapping of hands.”


Offering obeisances, from the Nāradīya Purāṇa:
“The purificatory rites performed during ten horse sacrifices cannot equal even one praṇāma offered to Kṛṣṇa. A person who performs ten horse sacrifices takes birth again; but the person offering praṇāmas to Kṛṣṇa does not take birth again.”


Rising when the Deity approaches, from the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa:
“The person who stands up when seeing the Lord approaching on a palanquin will have all sins destroyed. ”

||1.2.131 ||

Following after the Lord’s procession, from the Bhaviṣyottara Purāṇa:
“All the outcastes who go along with the [Lord’s] chariot—beside, behind or in front of it—become similar to Viṣṇu.”

||1.2.132 ||

Going to the places of the Lord:
Sthānam means tīrtha or temple. First going to the tīrtha is illustrated.

||1.2.133 ||

In another Purāṇa it is stated:
“The two feet that go to the tīrtha of the Lord are praiseworthy, since they enable one to cross over the dangerous desert of saṃsāra.”

||1.2.134 ||

Going to the temple is illustrated in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“The intelligent person who enters the temple of Viṣṇu to see the Lord in a mood of devotion does not again enter the prison of a mother’s womb.”


Circumambulation, from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“If a person circumambulates [the Deity of] Viṣṇu and returns to the same spot, that returning guarantees that he does not return to another birth.”


In the Skanda Purāṇa, Caturmāsya-māhātmya it is said:
“O best of the brāhmaṇas, those who circumambulate the Lord four times surpass the world of moving and non-moving creatures. This surpasses going to tīrthas.”


“Deity worship: ārcana means offering items with mantras after introductory activities such as bhūta-śuddhi and nyāsa.”


This is illustrated in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.81.19]:
“Devotional service to His lotus feet is the root cause of all the perfections a person can find in heaven, in liberation, in the subterranean regions and on earth.”

||1.2.139 ||

Also in the Viṣṇu-rahasya it is said:
“Those men who perform arcana of Viṣṇu on this earth go to the eternal, supreme abode of Viṣṇu, which is full of bliss.”


“Service to the Deity: paricārya consists of decorating the Lord with different items and worshiping the Lord with cāmara, umbrella, music and other items.”

||1.2.141 ||

It is said in the Nāradīya Purāṇa:
“If one remains in the temple of the Lord for one muhūrta, or even half a muhūrta, he goes to the supreme abode. What then to speak of the person engaged in the paricārya of the Lord?”

||1.2.142 ||

It is stated in the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.21.31]:
“By the inclination to serve the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, suffering humanity can immediately cleanse the dirt which has accumulated in their minds during innumerable births. Like the Ganges water, which emanates from the toes of the lotus feet of the Lord, such a process immediately cleanses the mind, and thus spiritual or Kṛṣṇa consciousness gradually increases.”

||1.2.143 ||

“There are various aṅgas of Deity worship and paricārya. These have not been described here for fear of making the book too long.”

||1.2.144 ||

Next singing, illustrated in the Liṅga Purāṇa:
“Even the brāhmaṇa who sings continuously in front of Vāsudeva attains the planet of Viṣṇu. This singing is greater than Śiva himself singing.”


“Next chanting: kīrtan is defined as the loud chanting of the Holy Names, pastimes and qualities of the Lord.”


Chanting of the Holy Name of the Lord is illustrated in the Viṣṇu-dharma:
“O King, he who chants the auspicious Holy Name of Kṛṣṇa turns to ashes ten million of the worst sins.”


Līlā-kīrtan is illustrated in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.9.18]:
“O my Lord Nṛsiṃhadeva, by engaging in Your transcendental loving service in the association of devotees who are liberated souls [haṃsas], I shall become completely uncontaminated by the association of the three modes of material nature and be able to chant the glories of Your Lordship, who are so dear to me. I shall chant Your glories, following exactly in the footsteps of Lord Brahmā and his disciplic succession. In this way I shall undoubtedly be able to cross the ocean of nescience.”


Guṇa-kīrtan is illustrated in the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.5.22]:
“Learned circles have positively concluded that the infallible purpose of the advancement of knowledge, namely austerities, study of the Vedas, sacrifice, chanting of hymns and charity, culminates in the transcendental descriptions of the Lord, who is defined in choice poetry.”

||1.2.149 ||

“Next, japa is defined: japa is defined as very soft chanting of a mantra.”


Padma Purāṇa illustrates this:
“Chanting very softly the mantra ‘kṛṣṇāya namaḥ’ produced all benefits. O King, svarga and liberation are bestowed upon devotees who perform japa of this mantra.”

||1.2.151 ||

Entreaty is illustrated in the Skanda Purāṇa:
“By making entreaties to the Lord with words, the bolt on the door of liberation is released.”

||1.2.152 ||

“The wise have explained that there are varieties of entreaty to Kṛṣṇa, such as prayers, admission of incompetence and expressions of longing.”

||1.2.153 ||

Prayer is illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“Just as the minds of young women are attracted to a young man, and the minds of young men are attracted to young women, may my mind be attracted to You!”

||1.2.154 ||

Admission of worthlessness is shown in the Padma Purāṇa:
“O Supreme Lord! There is no one as sinful as me, no one who has committed as many offenses. What can I say? I am very ashamed to ask You to remove these sins.”


Longing is illustrated in the Nārada-pañcarātra:
“O Master of the Universe, when will You, accompanied by Lakṣmī, say with a deep voice to me, eager to serve you with cāmara, ‘Please come here.’ ”


Another example is presented:
“O lotus-eyed Lord, when will I dance on the bank of the Yamunā with tears in my eyes while singing Your Holy Names?”


“Reciting compositions of praise: the wise consider that the Bhagavad-gītā and the stava-rāja contained in the Gautamanīya-tantra are examples of stavas.”


The Skanda Purāṇa says:
“The perfected sages and devatās respect those whose tongues are ornamented with an abundance of jewel-like verses in praise of Kṛṣṇa.”

||1.2.159 ||

In the Nārasiṃha Purāṇa it is said:
“He who praises Madhusūdana with stotras and stavas in front of His Deity is freed from all sins and attains the planet of Viṣṇu.”


Tasting the food remnants of the Deity, from Padma Purāṇa:
“He who always eats outside the inner sanctum, the remnants of of the Lord’s food sprinkled with water from the Lord’s feet and mixed with tulasī, achieves the result of one hundred billion sacrifices.”

||1.2.161 ||

Tasting the foot water of the Lord, from Padma Purāṇa:
“Those who drink the foot water of the Lord achieve the supreme goal, even if they have not performed charity, sacrifices, Vedic study or Deity worship.”

||1.2.162 ||

Smelling incense offered to the Lord, from Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“The action of the nose—smelling the incense offered to the Lord—fully destroys the poison of karma inflicted on those bitten by the snake of material existence.”

||1.2.163 ||

Smelling the garlands offered to the Lord, from a tantra:
“When the fragrance of the garlands of the Lord enters the nostrils, immediately the bondage created by piles of sins is destroyed.”

||1.2.164 ||

From Agastya-saṃhitā:
“It is said that the nose smelling flowers and gandha offered to the infinite Lord is the cause of complete purification in this world.”


Touching the Deity, from Viṣṇu-dharmottara:
“The pure, faithful person who touches the Deity of Viṣṇu becomes freed from the bondage of sin and attains all desires.”


Seeing the Deity, from Varāha Purāṇa:
“O Earth! Those who see Govinda in Vṛndāvana do not go to the city of Yāma, but achieve pure bhakti, the goal of all puṇya.”


Seeing the ārātrika of the Lord, from Skanda Purāṇa:
“The face of Viṣṇu lit by the ārātrika lamp burns up ten million sins of killing brāhmaṇas and ten million sins committed in the past and to be committed in the future.”


Seeing the festivals of the Lord, from Bhaviṣyottara:
“The dog-eaters and other low persons who joyfully see Keśava on His chariot all become associates of the Lord.”


The word ādi in verse 87 refers to seeing the worship, as illustrated in Agni Purāṇa:
“He who sees the Lord with devotion, faith and joy, after He is worshiped or while He is being worshiped, attains eternal service to the Lord.”


“Next, hearing: Hearing means listening to the Holy Name, pastimes and qualities of the Lord.”

||1.2.171 ||

Hearing the Holy Name of the Lord, from Garuḍa Purāṇa:
“Hearing the Vaiṣṇava mantra ‘Kṛṣṇa’, which is the only effective medicine to counteract the bite of the snake of saṃsāra, a man becomes liberated.”

||1.2.172 ||

Hearing the pastimes, from the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.29.40]:
“In that assembly, excellent streams of nectar of the pastimes of the Lord, emanating from the mouths of the saintly devotees, flow everywhere. Those who drink that nectar with eager ears, with constant thirst, O King, will forget the necessities of life like hunger and thirst, and become immune to all kinds of fear, lamentation and illusion.”

||1.2.173 ||

Hearing the qualities of the Lord, from the Twelfth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [12.3.15]:
“The person who desires pure devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa should hear the narrations of Lord Uttamaḥśloka's glorious qualities, the constant chanting of which destroys everything inauspicious. The devotee should engage in such listening in regular daily assemblies and should also continue his hearing throughout the day.”

||1.2.174 ||

Expecting the Lord’s mercy, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.8]:
“My dear Lord, one who earnestly waits for You to bestow Your causeless mercy upon him, all the while patiently suffering the reactions of his past misdeeds and offering You respectful obeisances with his heart, words and body, is surely eligible for liberation, for it has become his rightful claim.”


“Remembrance: Connecting the mind to the Lord somehow or other is called remembrance.”


This is illustrated in the Viṣṇu Purāṇa [5.17.17]:
“I surrender to the unborn, eternal person Hari, by remembrance of Whom one takes possession of all auspiciousness.”


Remembrance is also illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“I offer my respects to the omniscient Lord. Remembrance of His Holy Name, while living or dying, immediately destroys heaps of sins committed by men.”


“Meditation: Meditation means to contemplate with absorption upon the Lord’s form, qualities, pastimes and service.”

||1.2.179 ||

Meditation on the form, from the Nārasiṃha Purāṇa:
“Meditation on the two feet of the Lord is considered the means of attaining freedom from the dualities of this world. Even a sinner who meditates casually obtains the highest benefit.”


Meditation on the qualities of the Lord, from Viṣṇu-dharma:
“Those who constantly meditate on the qualities of the Lord with devotion, having destroyed all contamination, enter the abode of the Lord.”

||1.2.181 ||

Meditating on the pastimes of the Lord, from the Padma Purāṇa:
“He who meditates on the most sweet, most astonishing, most charming pastimes of the Lord obtains liberation.”

||1.2.182 ||

Meditation on one’s service, from another Purāṇa:
“Constantly serving the Lord with items produced in the mind, some devotees have directly attained the Lord, who is not approachable for others by words or mind.”

||1.2.183 ||

“Acting as a servant: dāsyam is defined as offering the result of prescribed duties and acting as a menial servant of the Lord.”

||1.2.184 ||

The first type, offering prescribed duties, is described in the Skanda Purāṇa:
“Prescribed duties according to one’s nature (varṇāśrama-dharma), offered to the Lord become bhāgavata-dharma. What to speak then of actions of bhakti offered to the Lord alone?”


“There are two categories of this varṇāśrama-dāsyam offered to the Lord by the Vaiṣṇavas: Offering the auspicious among the prescribed actions according to one’s nature, and offering only actions such as japa, meditation and Deity worship.”


“Some persons say that this offering of duties by a person with weak faith in bhakti and a slight qualification for prescribed duties is called dāsyam.”


The second type of dāsyam is illustrated in the Nāridīya Purāṇa:
“He who has the desire to serve the Lord in this world with actions, mind and words is called a liberated jīva in all circumstances.”


“Friendship: There are two types of sakhyam: trust and being friendly.”

||1.2.189 ||

The first type, trust, is described in Mahābhārata:
“O Govinda, remembering again and again Your promise that Your devotee will never perish, I maintain my life.”


Trust in the Lord is also illustrated in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.2.53]:
“The lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are sought even by the greatest of demigods, such as Brahmā and Śiva, who have all accepted the Supreme Personality of Godhead as their life and soul. A pure devotee of the Lord can never forget those lotus feet in any circumstance. He will not give up his shelter at the lotus feet of the Lord for a single moment—indeed, not for half a moment—even in exchange for the benediction of ruling and enjoying the opulence of the entire universe. Such a devotee of the Lord is to be considered the best of the Vaiṣṇavas.”

śraddhā-mātrasya tad-bhaktāv adhikāritva-hetutā |
aṅgatvam asya viśvāsa-viśeṣasya tu keśave
||1.2.191 ||

“The cause of the qualification for bhakti is śraddhā alone. The particular element viśvāsa to Keśava may be considered an aṅga of that.”

||1.2.192 ||

The second type of friendship is illustrated in the Agastya-saṃhitā:
“A person who is dedicated to serving the Lord, and out of friendship sees and treats Him as a human, lies down in the Lord’s temple.”


“The last example should be classed as rāgānuga-sādhana, because of disregard for vaidhī-sādhana. However, attraction for feelings of friendship is cultivated in both rāgānuga-sādhana and vaidhī-sādhana.”

||1.2.194 ||

Offering the self, as illustrated in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.29.34]:
“A person who gives up all fruitive activities and offers himself entirely unto Me, eagerly desiring to render service unto Me, achieves liberation from birth and death and is promoted to the status of sharing My own opulences.”


“The learned say that ātmā has two meanings: some say that ātmā refers to the soul having the identity of ‘I’, while others say that ātmā refers to the body, since it belongs to the soul.”


Offering the soul is considered in a stotra of Yamunācārya:
“Whoever I may be, either a soul inhabiting the body and other material elements, or a deva or a human body made of guṇas, today I offer that ‘I’ to Your lotus feet.”


Offering the body as ātmā is illustrated in Bhakti-viveka:
“Just as one does not worry about an animal that has been sold, one should offer this body to the Lord and be disinterested in its maintenance.”


“Friendship and offering the self and body are rare because of the difficulty of execution during the process of sādhana. However some wise men have considered that these two qualify as part of sādhana.”

||1.2.199 ||

Offering articles dear to oneself, illustrated in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.11.41]:
“Whatever is most desired by one within this material world, and whatever is most dear to oneself—one should offer that very thing to Me. Such an offering qualifies one for eternal life.”


Making full efforts for the Lord, illustrated in the Pañcarātra:
“O sage! Among all the Vedic and routine actions that are performed, the person desiring bhakti should perform those which are favorable for service to the Lord.”

||1.2.201 ||

Accepting the Lord’s protection is illustrated in the Hari-bhakti-vilāsa [11.677]:
“He who, while saying ‘I am Yours’, accepts the protection of the Lord, feels bliss.”

||1.2.202 ||

Also it is stated in the Narasiṃha Purāṇa:
“I deliver from suffering that person who takes shelter of Me, saying ‘Lord of lords, exciter of all beings, I have taken You as my protector.’ ”

||1.2.203 ||

Service of things related to the Lord and service to tulasī, from Skanda Purāṇa:
“Seeing tulasī destroys all sins. Touching her purifies the body. Bowing to her destroys all sufferings. Sprinkling her with water delivers one from death. Planting her bestows attachment of the mind to Kṛṣṇa. Offering her to Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet bestows special liberation in the form of prema. I offer my respects to tulasī.”

||1.2.204 ||||1.2.205||

Also from Skanda Purāṇa:
“Those who worship auspicious tulasī daily by nine processes—seeing, touching, meditating, glorifying, offering obeisances, praising, planting, serving and worshiping—live in the Lord’s house for ten billion yugas.”


“Service to the scriptures: Scripture here refers to those scriptures that present bhakti.”

||1.2.207||||1.2.208||||1.2.209 ||

From the Skanda Purāṇa:
“O Nārada, fortunate are the people in this world who hear and read the Vaiṣṇava scriptures. Kṛṣṇa is pleased with them. Those who worship the Vaiṣṇava scriptures in their homes become free from all sins and are praised by the devatās. The Supreme Lord Nārāyaṇa Himself lives in the house where the Vaiṣṇava scriptures have appeared in writing.”


This is also illustrated in the Twefth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [12.13.15]:
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is declared to be the essence of all Vedānta philosophy. One who has felt satisfaction from its nectarean mellow will never be attracted to any other literature.”

||1.2.211 ||

Serving Mathurā and other holy places, illustrated in the Varāha Purāṇa:
“The fool who gives up Mathurā and develops attraction for some other place wanders in the material world birth after birth, bewildered by My Māyā.”

||1.2.212 ||

This is also illustrated in the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa:
“The bliss at the stage of prema, which is rarely obtained even by serving all the holy places in the three worlds, is available just by touching Mathurā.”

||1.2.213 ||

“Hearing about, remembering, glorifying, desiring, seeing, visiting, touching, taking shelter and serving Mathurā fulfills all the desires of human beings. This has been described in all the Purāṇas. I have not elaborated this here for fear of increasing the volume of this book.”

||1.2.214 ||

Service to Vaiṣṇavas, from Padma Purāṇa:
“Of all types of worship, worship of Viṣṇu is supreme. O Devī, worship of His devotees, however, is even superior to that.”


In the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.7.19], it is said:
“By serving the feet of the spiritual master, one is enabled to develop transcendental ecstasy in the service of the Personality of Godhead, who is the unchangeable enemy of the Madhu demon and whose service vanquishes one's material distresses.”


Also, the Skanda Purāṇa says:
“Where is sin for the person who has seen a Vaiṣṇava whose body is marked with conch and disc, who has tulasī mañjarīs on his head and whose limbs are smeared with gopī-candana?”


The First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.19.33] says:
“Simply by our remembering you, our houses become instantly sanctified. And what to speak of seeing you, touching you, washing your holy feet and offering you a seat in our home?”


Ādi-purāṇa says:
“Those who claim to be My devotees are not My devotees; Those who are the devotees of My devotees, I consider them to be the best of My devotees.”

||1.2.219 ||

“All the aṅgas of bhakti in relation to the Lord are also aṅgas of bhakti in relation to the devotees of the Lord. This is the conclusion of the wise.”


Observing festivals according to one’s wealth, illustrated from the Padma Purāṇa:
“O King, he who performs a festival for the temple of the Lord experiences for eternity a festival in the planet of the Lord.”

||1.2.221 ||

Observing Ūrja-vrata, from the Padma Purāṇa:
“Just as men know that Dāmodara is affectionate to His devotee, the Dāmodara month is also affectionate to the devotee. Even a little service performed during that month yields great results.”

||1.2.222 ||

||1.2.223 ||

Respecting the Dāmodara-vrata in Mathurā is glorified in the Padma Purāṇa:
“The Lord, being worshiped elsewhere, awards material enjoyment and liberation to those worshipers. He does not give bhakti, because bhakti controls the Lord. However, men can achieve bhakti very easily by serving Dāmodara during Kārtika month in Mathurā just once.”

||1.2.224 ||

Observing the appearance day of the Lord, from Bhaviṣyottara Purāṇa:
“O Janārdana, tell us the day that Devakī gave birth to You. O Vaikuṇṭha, we will perform a festival on that day. O Keśava, may You be pleased with that festival performed by those who are completely surrendered to You.”


Attachment to serving the lotus feet of the Deity, from Ādi Purāṇa:
“I give bhakti, and never liberation, to the person who is always engaged in chanting My Holy Name and serving Me as the goal in his life.”


Relishing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, from the First Canto [1.1.3]:
“O expert and thoughtful men, relish Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the mature fruit of the desire tree of Vedic literatures. It emanated from the lips of Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī. Therefore this fruit has become even more tasteful, although its nectarean juice was already relishable for all, including liberated souls.”


Similarly, it is said in the Second Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [2.1.9]:
“O saintly King, I was certainly situated perfectly in transcendence, yet I was still attracted by the delineation of the pastimes of the Lord, who is described by enlightened verses.”


Association with like-minded, affectionate devotees, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.18.13]:
“The value of a moment's association with the devotee of the Lord cannot even be compared to the attainment of heavenly planets or liberation from matter, and what to speak of worldly benedictions in the form of material prosperity, which are for those who are meant for death.”

||1.2.229 ||

It is also said in the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“A man will attain the qualities of the person with whom he associates, just as a crystal takes up the color of the object next to it. Therefore, the wise man will take shelter of those who have qualities similar to his own for the prosperity of his family.”


Chanting the Holy Name of the Lord, from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [2.1.11]:
“O King, constant chanting of the Holy Name of the Lord after the ways of the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all, including those who are free from all material desires, those who are desirous of all material enjoyment, and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of transcendental knowledge.”

||1.2.231 ||

Kṛṣṇa says in the Ādi Purāṇa:
“By singing My Holy Names, a person will attain a position close to Me. I make this promise. That person, O Arjuna, purchases Me.”

||1.2.232 ||

In the Padma Purāṇa, it is said:
“The Holy Names of the Lord remain continuously in the mouth of that person who serves Vāsudeva for a thousand births.”

||1.2.233 ||

It is also said in the Padma Purāṇa:
“The Holy Name of the Lord fulfills all desires like cintāmaṇi. It is the very form of Kṛṣṇa. It is full of consciousness and rasa. It is complete, pure and eternally liberated. This is because of the non-difference of the Holy Name and Kṛṣṇa.”

||1.2.234 ||

Also from the Padma Purāṇa:
“Kṛṣṇa and His Holy Names cannot be grasped by the material senses, but when a person develops the tendency to accept the Lord’s Holy Name and transcendental form, Kṛṣṇa then spontaneously appears on the tongue and in the other senses.”


Residing in Mathurā, illustrated in the Padma Purāṇa:
“Liberation is the greatest result that can obtained at other holy places, but devotion to the Lord, which is desired by the liberated souls, can be attained at Mathurā. Mathurā bestows dharma, artha and kāma to those who have material desires. It awards liberation to those desiring liberation. It awards bhaktito those desiring bhakti. What intelligent person will not take shelter of Mathurā? Oh, Mathurā is most auspicious, and greater than Vaikuṇṭha! By staying only one day in Mathurā, bhakti to the Lord appears.”


“The last five items have inconceivable and astonishing power. What to speak of having faith in these items, if there is a just a little relationship with these items, persons who are devoid of offenses can attain the level of bhāva.”

||1.2.239 ||

The power of serving the Deity:
“O my friend, if you desire to enjoy with your friends and relatives, then do not look upon the form of the Lord called Govinda, wandering near Keśī-tīrtha on the bank of the Yamunā river, with a slight smile on His lips, posed in His threefold-bending posture, eyes glancing everywhere in a crooked fashion, flute placed on His red lower lip like a tender bud, and shining gloriously with a peacock feather.”


The power of hearing Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam:
“O idiots, how unfortunate you are! I think that you must have been hearing, one by one, the syllables of the verses of the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, because your ears are now denouncing the most auspicious goals of dharma, artha, kāma, and even decrying the fourth goal of mokṣa, which is most blissful.”

||1.2.241 ||

The power of association with the devotee of Kṛṣṇa:
“Ever since I saw a certain person whose body was washed with his own tears, whose hairs were standing on end, and who stumbled around with a joyous heart, while quivering to the extreme, my mind has for some reason become so attached to the form of Kṛṣṇa that I have no attachment to my family.”

||1.2.242 ||

The power of chanting the Holy Name of the Lord:
“Ever since I heard Nārada singing the Holy Names of Kṛṣṇa, which pacify the ears, my heart has become completely blissful, fixed in an unprecedented state of prema.”

||1.2.243 |

The power of residing in the district of Mathurā:
“The splendor of Mathura’s forest, made beautiful by being situated on the bank of the Yamunā, where buzzing bees take shelter of newly blossoming kadamba trees, ornamented with unlimited sweetness, produces and extraordinary state of bhāva in my mind.”

||1.2.244 ||

“The inconceivable power of these five extraordinary aṅgas is that they will manifest the state of bhāva and its object, Kṛṣṇa, at the same time.”


“In some of the verses quoted from the scriptures, material results are attributed to the aṅgas for attracting persons possessing material consciousness. However, the main result of these aṅgas is rati (bhāva).”


“The consensus of those knowledgeable in bhakti is that karma (varṇāśrama duties) is not an aṅga of bhakti.”


In the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.9] it is explained:
“As long as one is not satiated by fruitive activity and has not awakened his taste for devotional service by hearing and chanting about Viṣṇu, one has to act according to the regulative principles of the Vedic injunctions.”


Jñāna and vairāgya are suitable for entering bhakti, being somewhat useful in the beginning of bhakti, but they are not considered aṅgas of bhakti.”

||1.2.249 ||

“Because jñāna and vairāgya generally make the heart harsh, the authoritative devotees have concluded that bhaktialone, whose nature is very tender, is the cause of entering into bhakti.”


In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.31], it is also said:
“Therefore, for a devotee engaged in My loving service, with mind fixed on Me, the cultivation of knowledge and renunciation is generally not the means of achieving the highest perfection within this world.”

||1.2.251 ||

“However, the goals of jñāna, vairāgya and other processes are indeed achieved by bhaktialone.”

||1.2.252 ||||1.2.253 ||

Thus, it is said in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.20.32-33]:
“Everything that can be achieved by fruitive activities, penance, knowledge, detachment, mystic yoga, charity, religious duties and all other means of perfecting life is easily achieved by My devotee through loving service unto Me. If somehow or other My devotee desires promotion to heaven, liberation, or residence in My abode, he easily achieves such benedictions.”

||1.2.254 ||

“If a person has a taste for worshiping the Lord, even if he has strong material attachments, those attractions will for the most part be destroyed during sādhana without resorting to vairāgya.”


“The vairāgya of that person who employs objects suitable for devotional development, while remaining detached from them, is said to be suitable for bhakti. The objects should be persistently related to Kṛṣṇa.”


“Rejection of things related to the Lord by persons desiring liberation, who think that these things are simply material objects, is called useless vairāgya.”


“The daily and periodic duties of varṇāśrama and the impersonal aspect of jñāna(the obstructive portions of karma and jñāna) have already been rejected as aṅgas of bhakti by using the stated definition of uttama-bhakti obtained through the bhakti scriptures. However, to make the point clear, the false type of vairāgya (the obstructive portion) has again been rejected as an aṅga of bhakti.”

||1.2.259 ||

Bhakti that is accomplished by dependence on wealth, followers or other objects cannot be considered as an aṅga of uttama-bhakti because it destroys the pure nature of uttama-bhakti. It is situated far away from uttama-bhakti.”


“Discrimination and other material qualities cannot be considered as aṅgasof uttama-bhakti, since they spontaneously take shelter of the excellent condition of persons practicing uttama-bhakti.”

||1.2.261 ||

“Basic rules of conduct, rules of cleanliness, and other desirable qualities and actions appear automatically in those who are extremely dedicated to Kṛṣṇa. Thus, they also are not included as aṅgas of bhakti.”

||1.2.262 ||

Thus in the Skanda Purāṇa it is said:
“O hunter! These qualities such as nonviolence are not astonishing, because the persons who engage in devotion to the Lord will never cause affliction to others.”

||1.2.263 ||

Also in the Skanda Purāṇa it is said:
“Internal and external purity, austerity (sense control), peacefulness and other desirable qualities take shelter of persons who desire to serve the Lord.”

||1.2.264 ||

Bhakti, taking shelter of one principal aṅga or many aṅgas according to one’s desire, and practiced with steadiness, brings about the desired result (bhāva and prema).”


Examples of practicing one aṅga are illustrated in another work [Padyāvalī, 53]:
“Parīkṣit is an example of hearing about the Lord and Śukadeva is an example of chanting about the glories of the Lord. Prahlāda is an example of remembering the Lord and Lakṣmī is an example of serving the lotus feet of the Lord. Pṛthu is an example of performing Deity worship of the Lord. Akrūra is an example of attaining perfection by offering prayers to the Lord. Hanumān is an example of service with an attitude of a servant of the Lord. Arjuna is an example of friendship with the Lord. Bali is an example of offering oneself to the Lord. They achieved Kṛṣṇa by following principally one aṅga.”


An example of following many aṅgas equally is found in the Ninth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [9.4.18-20]:
“Mahārāja Ambarīṣa always engaged his mind in meditating upon the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, his words in describing the glories of the Lord, his hands in cleansing the Lord's temple, and his ears in hearing the words spoken by Kṛṣṇa or about Kṛṣṇa. He engaged his eyes in seeing the Deity of Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa's temples and Kṛṣṇa's places like Mathurā and Vṛndāvana, he engaged his sense of touch in touching the bodies of the Lord's devotees, he engaged his sense of smell in smelling the fragrance of tulasī offered to the Lord, and he engaged his tongue in tasting the Lord's prasāda. He engaged his legs in walking to the holy places and temples of the Lord, his head in bowing down before the Lord, and all his desires in serving the Lord, twenty-four hours a day. Indeed, Mahārāja Ambarīṣa never desired anything for his own sense gratification. He engaged all his senses in devotional service, in various engagements related to the Lord. This is the way to increase attachment for the Lord and be completely free from all material desires.”

||1.2.269 ||

“Some people call vaidhī-bhakti the path of rules (maryādā-mārga) since it is bound by strong limitation of the rules mentioned in the scriptures.”


Rāgānuga-bhakti is defined as that bhakti which follows after the spontaneous rāgātmika-bhakti found distinctively in the inhabitants of Vraja.”

||1.2.271 ||

“To define rāgānuga-bhakti, first we must discuss rāgātmika-bhakti.”

||1.2.272 ||

Rāga is defined as spontaneous, deep thirst for the object of love. Bhakti that is impelled exclusively by such a thirst is called rāgātmika-bhakti.”

||1.2.273 ||

“There are two types of rāgātmika-bhakti: impelled by conjugal feelings (kāma-rūpa) and impelled by other relationships (sambandha-rūpa).”

||1.2.274 ||

These two types of rāgātmika-bhakti are illustrated in the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.1.31]:
“My dear King Yudhiṣṭhira, the gopīs by their lusty desires, Kaṃsa by his fear, Śiśupāla and other kings by envy, the Vṛṣṇis of Vraja by their familial relationship with Kṛṣṇa, you Pāṇḍavas by your great affection for Kṛṣṇa, and we, the general devotees, by our devotional service in vaidhī-bhakti, have obtained the mercy of Kṛṣṇa.”


“Because fear and hatred are not favorable, they are rejected as modes of bhakti. Affection (sneha) of the Pāṇḍavas, if it means friendliness (sakhya), belongs to vaidhī-bhakti (because sakhya is predominated by veneration). If sneha means prema or a stage of prema, it still could not be admitted here, as the topic is sādhana-bhakti. In the phrase bhaktyā vayam—“and we, the sages attained befitting goals by bhakti”—bhakti refers to vaidhī-bhakti.”


“When it is said that the enemies and dear friends of the Lord attained the same end, it means only in the sense that brahman and the personal form of the Lord are one entity, as the rays of the sun and the sun are one.”

||1.2.279 ||

“The enemies of the Lord generally merge into the impersonal brahman. Some of them, even though they attain semblance of a form similar to the Lord’s (sārūpyābhāsam), remain absorbed in the happiness of brahman.”


Moreover, it says in the Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa:
Siddha-loka (the spiritual world) is beyond prakṛti. There, demons killed by the Lord and some sages dwell, merged in the happiness of brahman.”

||1.2.281 ||

“Those persons most devoted to the Lord, who are the very form of prema and worship Him with intense, spontaneous absorption, attain the nectar of His lotus feet.”

||1.2.282 ||

Thus, it says in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam[10.87.23]:
“Simply by constantly thinking of Him, the enemies of the Lord attained the same Supreme Truth whom sages fixed in yoga worship by controlling their breath, mind and senses. Similarly, we śrutis, who generally see You as all-pervading, will achieve the same nectar from Your lotus feet that Your consorts are able to relish because of their loving attraction to Your mighty, serpentine arms, for You look upon us and Your consorts in the same way.”

||1.2.283 ||

Here is the definition of kāmarūpa-rāgātmika-bhakti:
“That type of bhakti with full absorption in the Beloved which produces an intrinsic thirst for a conjugal relationship with the Lord is called kāmarūpa-bhakti. It is called bhakti because in that condition there is only eagerness for giving pleasure to Kṛṣṇa.”

||1.2.284 ||

“This very famous kāmarūpa-bhakti appears with brilliance in the women of Vraja. They have a particular type of prema that has a special sweetness. It is called kāma by the wise because it is the cause of various amorous actions.”


Thus, in a Tantra it is said:
“The kāma-rūpa-bhakti of the gopīs has become famous simply as prema.”


“And because it is a form of exalted prema, persons very dear to the Lord such as Uddhava desire that aspect of it.”


“But the wise agree that the attraction to Kṛṣṇa seen in Kubjā is essentially due to kāma only.”


“Next sambandha-rūpa-rāgātmika-bhakti will be discussed: sambandha-rūpa-rāgātmika-bhakti is that bhakti inspired by direct absorption arising from identifying oneself as the parent, friend or servant of Govinda. This refers to the bhakti of the cowherd people, indicated by the term sambandha-vṛṣṇayaḥ in verse 275, as an example of sambandha. This is because these other relationships in Vraja also have a predominance of intense affection (rāga) caused by a lack of awareness of Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”

||1.2.289 ||

“Since kāma-rūpa-bhakti and sambandha-rūpa-bhakti which are caused by prema alone, take shelter of the nitya-siddhas, they have not been discussed thoroughly in this section.”


“From these two types of rāgātmika-bhakti (siddha-bhakti), two types of rāgānuga-sādhana-bhakti, called kāmānuga-bhakti and sambandhānuga-bhakti, are derived.”

||1.2.291 ||

“The qualification for rāgānuga-bhakti is as follows: That person who is greedy for attaining a bhāva similar to that of the inhabitants of Vraja—who are fixed solely in rāgātmika-bhakti—is qualified for rāgānuga-bhakti.

||1.2.292 ||

“The appearance of that greed is indicated when the intelligence does not depend on rules of scripture and logic, after realizing to some degree the sweetness of the love of the Vraja-vāsīs through the process of hearing from the scriptures.”

||1.2.293 ||

“Those qualified for vaidhī-bhakti are dependent on the rules of scripture and favorable use of logic until the appearance of bhāva-bhakti.”

||1.2.294 ||

“Remembering the Vṛndāvana form of Kṛṣṇa and His dear associates who have inclinations for service similar to one’s own, absorbing oneself in hearing topics related to them, one should always live in Vraja.”


“Following after the inhabitants of Vraja, one should perform service in one’s physical body and in one’s siddha body, with a desire for a particular bhāva.”


“The discriminating practitioners should accept the aṅgas that were mentioned in vaidhī-bhakti, such as hearing and chanting, as aṅgas of rāgānuga-bhakti.”


“The elements of kāmānuga will be described: That rāgānuga-sādhana-bhakti which is filled with longing and follows after the kāma-rūpa-rāgātmika-bhakti of the siddha-bhaktas is called kāmānuga-bhakti. There are two types: sambhogecchā-mayī and tad-tad-bhāvecchātmā.”

||1.2.299 ||

Sambhogecchā-mayī-bhakti is characterized by enjoying conjugally with Kṛṣṇa. Tad-bhāvecchātmā-bhakti is characterized by desiring the sweet mood of love of the kāma-rūpa-siddha devotees.”


“Those who develop longing for the bhāva of the gopīs after seeing the sweetness in the Deity of Kṛṣṇa and the gopīs, or after hearing about His pastimes with the gopīs, are qualified for sādhana in either of these types of kāmānuga-bhakti. In the Padma Purāṇa, it is said that even men can attain this type of bhakti.”

||1.2.301 ||||1.2.302 ||

Examples of males becoming gopīs are as follows:
“Previously, all the sages living in the Daṇḍakāraṇya Forest, who after seeing Lord Rāma desired enjoyment with His form, attained forms of women and appeared in Gokula. Attaining the Lord by that kāma, they became liberated from the ocean of the material world.”

||1.2.303 ||

“A person who serves on the path of vaidhī-bhakti with a desire for a conjugal relationship with the Lord and a high position, but without desire for the gopīs’ type of love, after some time becomes a queen in Dvārakā. ”

||1.2.304 ||

Thus, it says in the Mahā-kūrma Purāṇa:
“The saintly sons of Agni attained the bodies of women by the path of vaidhī-bhakti, and attained as their husband the unborn, powerful Vāsudeva, the source of the universe.”


Sambandhānugā-bhakti is defined as follows: The devotees define sambandhānugā-bhakti as bhakti in which there is constant contemplation of oneself as a parent, friend or servant of Kṛṣṇa, and identification with that role.”


“Practicing devotees greedy for paternal, friendly or servant relationships perform this bhakti with indications of the behavior and mood of Nanda (parent), Subala (friend) or others (servants).”


“It is said in the scriptures that some old carpenter living in Hastināpura, on the instructions of Nārada worshiped a Deity form of Kṛṣṇa as his son, and attained the perfection of having Kṛṣṇa as his son.”


It is said in the Nārāyaṇa-vyūha-stava:
“I pay my respects repeatedly to those who constantly and eagerly meditate upon the Lord as their husband, son, well-wisher, brother, father or friend.”

kṛṣṇa-tad-bhakta-kāruṇya-mātra-lābhaika-hetukā |
puṣṭi-mārgatayā kaiścid iyaṃ rāgānugocyate ||1.2.309 ||

“The mercy of Kṛṣṇa and His devotees is the only cause of attaining rāgānuga-bhakti. Some call this type of devotion puṣṭi-mārga.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau
purva-vibhāge sādhana-bhakti-laharī-dvitiyā ||

“Thus ends the Second Wave in the Eastern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-Rasāmṛta-sindhu, concerning sādhana-bhakti.”