Second Wave: Affection and Service


Second Wave: Affection and Service


śrīdhara-svāmibhiḥ spaṣṭam ayam eva rasottamaḥ |
raṅga-prasaṅge sa-premakākhyaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||3.2.1||

“Śrīdhara Svāmī, talking about rasa, has clearly glorified prīti-rasa as the highest rasa, calling it saprema-bhakti (prema-filled bhakti).”


“Lakṣmīdhara the author of Nāma-kaumudī has called this rasa a sthāyī-rati, and Sudeva and other authorities on literary ornament have called it a form of śānta-rasa.”


“When prīti or adoration achieves a pleasurable nature by vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas in the hearts of the devotees, it is called prīti-bhakti-rasa.


“When the recipient of mercy acts as a servant, it is called sambhrama-prīti and when the recipient identifies himself as the object of parental affection it is called gaurava-prīti.”


“Those who identify themselves as servants of Kṛṣṇa have sambhrama-prīti for Kṛṣṇa. When this sambhrama-prīti is nourished by vibhāva and other elements it is called sambhrama-prīti-rasa.


“In sambhrama-prīti-rasa, the ālambanas are the Lord (viṣaya) and His devotees (āśraya).”


“The two-armed form of Kṛṣṇa is the ālambana for the inhabitants of Gokula, and the two-armed or four-armed form of Kṛṣṇa is the ālambana for the devotees of Kṛṣṇa residing elsewhere.”


In Vraja:
“The form of Kṛṣṇa with the complexion of a new raincloud, holding a flute to His mouth with His two hands, wearing a yellow cloth that defeats resplendent gold, with a peacock feather crown on His head, wanders about the bank of the Yamunā near Govadhana and gives bliss to the inhabitants of Svargaloka and ourselves, His servants on this earth.”


The two-armed form outside of Gokula:
“Kṛṣṇa, dark-complexioned like a raincloud, wearing yellow cloth, holding in His two hands the cakra and the conch, emits a radiance like a raincloud flashing lightning and ornamented with the sun and moon.”


The four-armed form, from Lalita-mādhava:
“Kṛṣṇa, victorious over Kaṃsa, wearing the flashing Kaustubha jewel around His neck, holding the cakra, club, lotus and conch in His four hands, whose body is ornamented with extraordinary jewels, and who is accompanied by Garuḍa, makes me forget the splendor of Vaikuṇṭha.”


“The Lord, in whose follicles the millions of universes reside, is an ocean of mercy. He is endowed with all inconceivable powers and all perfections. He is the seed of all avatāras, always attractive to all ātmārāmas, and is the Supreme Controller. He is most deserving of respect. He is omniscient, fixed in His vows, always increasing, and full of tolerance. He is the protector of those who surrender to Him, compliant, truthful, expert, all-auspicious, an afflicter of evil people, and upholder of religious principles. He is the eye of the scripture, the friend of the devotee, magnanimous, effulgent, full of gratitude, full of good qualities, the chief among all beings, and is controlled by prema. His form is the ālambana for four types of servants.”


“The servants (dāsas) are well-behaved, always ready to follow the order of the Lord. They have full faith in Him and and have a sense of humility while recognizing that He is their Master.”


An example:
“Please worship the servants of the Lord, who are engaged in others’ benefit, and who are humble because they understand that their Lord is the most excellent in all qualities and has no equal.”


“The four types of dāsas are adhikṛta, āśrita, pāriṣada and anuga.”


“The wise say that Brahmā, Śaṅkara, Indra and others are called adhikṛta (appointed) dāsas. Since their forms are well-known, only their bhakti will be described.”


Jāmbhavatī asked Kālindī: “Who is that person who is circumambulating the Lord?”

Kālindī replied: “It is Durgā.”

Jāmbhavatī said: “Who is that person who is shaking on seeing the Lord?”

Kālindī said: “It is Śiva.”

Jāmbhavatī said: “Who is that person who is praising the Lord?”

Kālindī said: “It is Brahmā.”

Jāmbhavatī said: “Who is that lying on the ground offering respects?”

Kālindī said: “It is Indra.”

Jāmbhavatī said: “Who is that who has become stunned, thereby becoming the object of laughter by the young members?”

Kālindī said: “It is Yama, my elder brother.”

In this way Kālindī introduced the devatās to Jāmbhavatī while peering through the latticework.


“There are three types of āśritas: those who have surrendered to the Lord as their protector (śāraṇya), those who were previously jñānīs (jñānī-cara) but later understood the superiority of the form and qualities of the Lord, and those who are fixed in service (sevā-niṣṭhā), appreciating the Lord’s sweetness.”


“O bliss of Vṛndāvana! O Lord! Some people who were fearful take shelter of You completely, understanding that You are the protector (śāranyas). Some, realizing that You are greater than Brahman, giving up the desire for liberation, surrender to You (jñānī-caras). However, hearing again and again about Your ever-fresh sweetness from the devotees, may we simply become engaged in service to You (sevā-niṣṭhās).”


“Kāliya and the kings kept in prison by Jarāsandha are examples of śaraṇyas.”


An example:
“O best of masters! You have today shown extraordinary mercy to me, Kāliya the worst offender, by marking my heard with Your footprints, which are rarely attained even by Your devotees.”


Another example, from the Aparādha-bhañjana-stotra:
“Countless times I have followed the evil orders of lust and anger. They have not shown mercy to me and I have not shown shame or ceased my sinful activities. Now, however with acquisition of knowledge, I have given them up. O master of the Yadus! I have surrendered to Your fearless form. Please engage me as Your servant.”


“The sages headed by Śaunaka who gave up the desire for liberation and surrendered to the Lord are called jñāni-caras by the wise.”


An example from the Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“Śaunaka said to Suta: ‘Though the material world is full of faults, it has one good quality: association with devotees. By this association, we have given up the desire for liberation.’ ”


Another example, from Padyāvalī:
“Let the ātmā of pure consciousness reside in the hearts of those who know the Supreme Truth beyond meditation. But may that ātmā with sweet nature, with lotus eyes, yellow cloth, complexion of a raincloud, and slightly smiling lotus face remain in our hearts.”


“Those who from the beginning are attached to serving the Lord are called sevā-niṣṭhā, fixed in service. Examples are Candradhvaja (Śiva), Indra, King Bahulāśva, Ikṣvāku, Śrutadeva amd Puṇḍarīka.”


“O Kṛṣṇa! When Your qualities are sung in the assembly, even the ātmārāmas are attracted to listen, and the bird-like renunciants residing in lonely gardens take up the activity of begging to hear. Hearing about Your excellent, astonishing qualities, I have become distinctly greedy to serve You with faith.”


“In Dvārakā, devotees like Uddhava, Dāruka, Sātyaki, Śrutadeva, Śatrujit, Nanda, Upananda and Bhadra are known as pāriṣadas (followers or members of the assembly).”


“Though they also serve as advisors, charioteers and other functionaries, at other times they act as His retinue. In the same way, among the Kuru dynasty, Bhīṣma, Parīkṣit and Vidura are known as pāriṣadas.


Their forms:
“The pāriṣadas always look most splendid, with charming forms, yellow dress like the Lord, radiance that defeats the devatās and profuse ornaments.”


Their bhakti:
“Your pāriṣadas headed by Uddhava, with their intelligence offered to You, constantly uttering glorification of Your victory over Śiva, with words choked up by tears, and with great confidence showing not even a spot of fear from Rudra with his fire of devastation, are standing at the gate in Dvārakā, ready to do service.”


“Among the pāriṣadas, Uddhava, controlled by prema, is the best.”


Uddhava’s form:
“I worship Uddhava, with dark complexion like the Yamunā, wearing yellow cloth and the garlands used by Kṛṣṇa. He has arms like door bolts and eyes like lotuses. He is the chief of the pārṣadas, filled with waves of bhakti.”


Uddhava’s bhakti:
Uddhava said: “Although He is the controller of Śiva and Brahmā, He carries the order of Ugrasena on His head. Though He is the master of billions of universes, He prays for a small piece of land near the ocean. Though He is the ocean of knowledge, He asks me, the unintelligent fool, for advice. In this way our amazing Master enjoys His pastimes with personas like me constantly.”


“Those whose hearts are at all times attached to attending upon the Lord are called anuga-dāsas (attendants). There are two types: those in Dvārakā and those in Vraja.”


“Sucandra, Maṇḍana, Stamba and Sutamba are some of the anugas in Dvārakā. Their forms and ornaments are almost the same as the pāriṣadas.”


Their service:
“Maṇḍana holds an umbrella with a gold handle over Kṛṣṇa’s head. Sucanda fans Him with a white cāmara. Sutamba offers betel nut. The anuga devotees serve Mādhava in this way.”



“Raktaka, Patraka, Patrī, Madhukaṇṭha, Madhuvrata, Rasāla, Suvilāsa, Premakānda, Marandaka, Ānanda, Candrahāsa, Payoda, Bakula, Pasada and Śārada are some of the anugas in Vraja.”


Their forms:
“I offer my obeisances to Kṛṣṇa’s servants whose limbs glow with attractive jeweled ornaments, whose complexions are gold, reddish, brown or black as a bee, and who wear clothing suited to their bodies.”


Their service:
“O Bakula! Please quickly wash the yellow cloth. O Vārida! Please scent the water with this excellent aguru. O Rasāla! Please prepare the betel nut with leaves. See, the eastern horizon is already covered with dut raised by the cows!”


“Among the anugas in Vraja, Raktaka is the chief.”


Raktaka’s form:
“I am the follower of Raktaka, who is dressed in yellow cloth, whose effulgence conquers that of new grass, who is expertly engaged in Kṛṣṇa’s service, and who has a beautiful voice for singing.”


Raktaka’s bhakti:
“O Rasada, listen! May I always have the highest attraction for serving the lotus feet of He who is famous as the son of the King of Vraja, who has held up Govardhana.”


“There are three types of pāriṣadas and anugas: dhurya, dhīra and vīra.”


“That devotee who possesses suitable affection for Kṛṣṇa, His intimates and His servants is called dhurya-pāriṣada or dhuryānuga.”


“Just as Kṛṣṇa appears as the object of service for me, His dear women are also the objects of service. I consider them my very life. I fear even to think of that rash person who simply makes a pretense of being a devotee. However, even a person who has affection for a donkey that has offered respect for Kṛṣṇa is blessed with good health.”


“That devotee who, taking shelter of Kṛṣṇa’s dear women, though not serving Kṛṣṇa profusely, becomes a chief object of Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, id called dhīra.”


“O sun who opens the lotus of the Yadus! I do not have to exert much effort to gain a wealth of mercy. I have gained a name by being included as an associate of Satyabhāmā, who You worshiped when You gave her the pārijata tree.”


“The devotee who takes shelter of Kṛṣṇa and has incomparable attraction for Kṛṣṇa, though he does not notice others, is known as vīra-pāriṣada or vīrānuga.”


“Balarāma, enemy of Pralambha, may be the Supreme Lord, but what use do I have for Him? What can I gain from the prince Pradyumna? Since I have been elevated by the wealth of Kṛṣṇa’s glace of mercy, I do not give regard even for Satyabhāmā, the head of all Kṛṣṇa’s followers.”


From the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.20.28]:
“My dear Lord of the universe, the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī, is the mother of the universe, and yet I think that she may be angry with me because of my intruding upon her service and acting on that very platform to which she is so much attached. Yet I am hopeful that even though there is some misunderstanding, You will take my part, for You are very much inclined to the poor and You always magnify even insignificant service unto You. Therefore even though she becomes angry, I think that there is no harm for You, because You are so self-sufficient that You can do without her.”


“Among the āśritas, pāriṣadas and anugas, there are nitya-siddhas, sādhana-siddhas and sādhakas.”


“Kṛṣṇa’s mercy, attaining His foot dust or food remnants, and association with Kṛṣṇa’s devotees are some of the unique uddīpanas (stimuli) for this rasa.”


Attaining mercy:
Bhīāma said: “O Kṛpācārya! O brahmaṇas! See Kṛṣṇa’s mercy to me, the most fallen! Kṛṣṇa, the object of meditation, has appeared to my eyes at the time of my death.”


“The sound of His flute and horn, His glance with a slight smile, hearing the excellence of His qualities, the lotus, the marks on His feet, new clouds and the fragrance of His body are considered the regular uddīpanas.”


The sound of His flute, from Vidagdha-mādhava:
“Hearing the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute, the thousand eyes on Indra’s shaking body are shedding tears that are falling on the ground. Though there are no clouds in the sky, Vṛndāvana has been nourished by showers made of those tears.”


The anubhāvas:
“Being completely involved in serving according to one’s capacity, friendship with the Lord’s servants with absence of even a trace of envy on seeing the excellence of others’ service, and being fixed in their love, which are considered śīta [see 2.2.3], are the special anubhāvas of the dāsas.”


Being absorbed in service:
“When Dāruka was fanning Kṛṣṇa with a cāmara whisk, overcome with prema, his body became increasingly paralyzed, but because that bliss would be an obstacle in serving Kṛṣṇa, he did not welcome that ecstasy.”


“The ordinary anubhāvas of the dāsas are all the udbhāsvaras mentioned previously [2.2.2], as well as respect for the friends of Kṛṣṇa and detachment etc., which are all śīta [see 3.2.116].”


An example of dancing, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.86.38]:
“Śrutadeva received Lord Acyuta into his home with as much enthusiasm as that shown by King Bahulāśva. After bowing down to the Lord and the sages, Śrutadeva began to dance with great joy, waving his shawl.”


Another example:
“Although you are not an expert at dancing, you have astonished us dancers so much with your spectacular routine that one would think that you learned dancing from the dancing guru named prema.”


“It is said that all the sāttvika-bhāvas starting with stambha (paralysis) appear in prīti- (dāsya), preyo- (sakhya) and madhura-rasas.”


“See how this great devotee, permeated with the sāttvika-bhāva of stambha from hearing sweet songs glorifying Kṛṣṇa, has become the main pillar (stambha) for holding up the pavilion of bhakti-rasa.”


From the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.85.38]:
“Taking hold of the Lord’s lotus feet again and again, Bali, the conqueror of Indra's army, spoke from his heart, which was melting out of his intense love. O King, as tears of ecstasy filled his eyes and the hair on his limbs stood on end, he began to speak with faltering words.”


“Twenty-four vyābhicārī-bhavas appear in prīti-rasa:

  1. self-disgust (nirveda)
  2. remorse (viṣāda)
  3. thinking oneself unqualified (dainyam or dīnatā)
  4. debility (glāni or mlāni)
  5. apprehension (śaṅka)
  6. confusion of the mind (āvega)
  7. insanity (unmāda)
  8. sickness (vyādhi)
  9. loss of internal awareness (moha)
  10. death-like symptoms (mṛti)
  11. indecision (jāḍyam)
  12. shame (vrīḍā)
  13. concealment (avahitthā)
  14. remembrance (smṛti)
  15. conjecture (vitarka)
  16. pondering (cintā)
  17. finding meaning through scriptural reference (mati)
  18. steadiness (dhṛti)
  19. joy (harṣa)
  20. impatience (autsukhyam)
  21. indignation (amarṣa)
  22. insolence (cāpalya)
  23. dreaming (supti)
  24. enlightenment (bodha)”

itareṣāṃ madādīnāṃ nātipoṣakatā bhavet |
yoge trayaḥ syur dhṛtyas tā ayoge tu klamādayaḥ |
ubhayatra pare śeṣā nirvedādyāḥ satāṃ matāḥ ||3.2.71||

“The other nine—mada, śrama, trāsa, apasmāra, ālasya, ugrata, krodha, asūyā and nidrā—do not nourish prīti-rasa. In meeting the Lord, harṣa, garva and dhṛti manifest, and in separation from the Lord, klama (glāni), vyādhi and mṛti manifest. According to the devotees, the remaining eighteen vyabhicārī-bhāvas manifest both in union with and separation from the Lord.”


An example of harṣa (joy) from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.5]:
“The citizens began to speak in ecstatic language to receive the Lord, with choked voices of joy and their faces cheerful with affection, just as wards welcome their guardian and father.”


Another example:
“Seeing Kṛṣṇa, Bahulaśva fell to the ground, think he would offer respects a hundred times; but being agitated by joy, he forgot to rise up.”


An example of klama (also called mlāni or glāni) from the Padma Purāṇa:
“O Lord, as the sun dries up the lake in the summer, the mental distress caused by separation from You dries up the mind and withers the lotus face of the devotee.”


Nirveda (self-deprecation):
“O sun! The thousands of rays coming from you are fortunate, because they fall at the lotus feet of the Lord of the Yadus. But all my thousand eyes are useless, because they have not seen Him even from far off, even for a second.”


The sthāyī-bhāva of prīti-rasa:
“Eagerness to execute service with respect and trembling with eagerness because of knowledge of the Lord’s greatness is the quality of sambhrama. Prīti combined with this sambhrama is called sambhrama-prīti. The learned call this sambhrama-prīti the sthāyī-bhāva of prīti-rasa.”


“In the chapter on bhāva in general [1.3.6] it was explained that [sthāyī-] bhāva appears by sādhana (usually) or by mercy (rarely). This describes the process by which rati arises for the āśritas and others described in this chapter (who are sādhana-siddhas). However, the rati of the pāriṣadas and anugas described in this chapter is caused only by saṃskāras or impressions (since all the examples gives were nitya-siddhas), Seeing and hearing about Kṛṣṇa stimulates the impressions.”


Sambhrama-prīti gradually increases in three stages to prema, sneha and finally rāga.”


An example of sambhrama-prīti (sthāyī-bhāva) from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.38.6]:
“Today all my sinful reactions have been eradicated and my birth has become worthwhile, since I will offer my obeisances to the Supreme Lord's lotus feet, which mystic yogīs meditate upon.”


Another example:
“When will I have the good fortune to offer respects to the Supreme Personality of Godhead in the form of a cowherd boy, fond of the kadamba forests on the bank of the Yamunā River?”


“When sambhrama-prīti becomes firmly fixed, with no doubt that it will decrease, it is called prema. The anubhāvas are such things as complete attachment to the Lord.”


“Since I have taken shelter of Your lotus feet, You may throw me into the waves of suffering in the hell called Avīci, or throw me into the waves of happiness by bestowing siddhis like aṇima, but I will not change my prema for You.”


Another example:
“Though Bali was severely cursed by Śukrācārya, who was flaming with anger, and though I stole from Bali the three worlds while playing a trick on him as Vāmanāvatāra, and though I then criticized him for being unable to fulfill his promise, and finally bound him up with ropes made of snakes, his attachment to Me increased two-fold.”


“When prema becomes extremely thick and the heart melts, it is called sneha. In this state, one cannot tolerate even a moment’s sepatation from the Lord.”


“O Dāruka! Seeing Kṛṣṇa your heart used to turn liquid on the pretext of your gushing tears. Now in separation from Kṛṣṇa, it is not astonishing that you, Dāruka, have become like a doll made out of wood (dārukalpatā) because of extreme loss of consciousness.”


Another example:
“On seeing Kṛṣṇa, Uddhava offered a gift in the form of the best river of tears, and his voice choked when he began to recite prayers using attractive words and sweet tone. His body erupted in goosebumps. Being completely stunned, he radiated superiority over all other devotees.”


“That sneha that turns sorrow into happiness by a slight appearance of Kṛṣṇa is called rāga. In this state of rāga, the devotee will do anything for the pleasure of Kṛṣṇa, even giving up his life.”


An example:
“Although extremely terrified of the snake Takṣaka, Parikṣit, son of Uttāra, giving up his great kingdom and undertaking the extreme vow of fasting unto death, became most blissful through drinking the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.”


Another example:
“If Keśava shows even a little mercy unto me, the vāḍaba fire will be like a sweet drink. If He does not show me mercy, even Dvārakā, full of wealth and power, will be like a piece of grassy earth.”



“This sambhrama-prīti manifests as prema in the adhikṛtas and āsritas, and as sneha in the pāriṣadas. In Parīkṣit, Dāruka and Uddhava (pāriṣadas) it manifests as rāga. Rāga also manifests in the anugas. When rāga appears in many anugas in Vraja such as Raktaka, the dāsya-bhāva becomes mixed with sakhya.”


An example:
“Seeing the Lord coming out of the inner chambers, Uddhava’s eyes became filled with tears and his voice choked up. Closing his eyes slightly, he embraced the Lord in his heart.”


Prīti-rasa has two types: ayoga (separation) and yoga (meeting).”


“Lack of association with the Lord is called ayoga. In this state, the anubhāvas are concentration on the Lord within the heart, reviewing His qualities and thinking of means to obtain His association. There are two types of ayoga: utkaṇṭhitam (longing before ever meeting the Lord) and viyoga (separation after meeting).”


“The desire to see the Lord when the devotee has not seen Him at all is called utkaṇṭhitam.”


An example of longing before meeting, from Narasiṃha Purāṇa:
“King Ikṣvāku, because of his extreme attachment to the Lord, developed great rati for the black cloud because of its color, the kṛṣṇa-sāra deer because of its name, and the lotus that resembles Kṛṣṇa’s eyes.”


Another example of longing before meeting (utkaṇṭhitam), from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.38.10]:
“I am going to see the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu, the reservoir of all beauty, who by His own sweet will has now assumed a humanlike form to relieve the earth of her burden. Thus there is no denying that my eyes will achieve the perfection of their existence.”


“Though it is impossible for all the vyabhicārī-bhāvas to appear in ayoga (utkaṇṭhitam) within prīti-bhakti-rasa, autsukya, dainyam, nirveda, cintā, cāpalatā, jaḍatā, unmāda and moha are more common.”


Autsukya (impatience), in utkaṇṭhitam, from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta [41]:
“O Lord! O protector of the unprotected! O ocean of mercy! How can I pass my unfortunate days without seeing You?”


Another example:
“O Kṛṣṇa! You are an ocean of nectar for the eyes. Not having the pleasure of seeing Your two lotus feet, I am disturbed and my mind cannot find any happiness. A moment seems like many years.”


An example of dainyam (lowness) in utkaṇṭhitam:
“O Lord! O ocean of mercy! With my hand folded over my head, I am praying in a humble mood with crying voice that You should sprinkle me with a particle of Your generous glance.”


Another example:
“O slayer of Agha! Even Śiva cannot see You, but I am more insignificant than an insect and full of sinful acts. Though I am unqualified for prayer, I am still praying, O friend of the fallen, that You bathe me with Your glance.”


Nirveda (self-deprecation) in utkaṇṭhitam:
“Though my eyes are praised because of seeing so many scriptures, they are unfortunate, because they do not see the wealth of sweetness in the form of the effulgence emanating from the toenails of Your lotus feet. Let those eyes be destroyed!”


An example of cintā (pondering) in utkaṇṭhitam:
“I spend my nights expelling sighs of grief with bowed head, thinking myself unqualified for seeing the lotus feet of the Lord, though I have such longing to see them.”


An example of cāpalam (insolence) in utkaṇṭhitam, from Kṛṣṇa-kārṇāmṛta:
“You know that Your sweet youth astonishes all three worlds. Thus, You and I can understand my insolence in wanting to see You. Give me some instruction. What should I do to see Your rare lotus face with the attractive flute?”


Another example of cāpalam:
“O destroyer of Agha! O Lord! I have given up shyness and become fearless of devotees. With thirsty heart, not considering my insignificant position, I desire like a bee to taste Your lotus feet constantly.”


An example of jaḍatā (inability to make decisions) in utkaṇṭhitam, from the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.4.37]:
“From the very beginning of his childhood, Prahlāda Mahārāja was uninterested in childish playthings. Indeed, he gave them up altogether and remained silent and dull, being fully absorbed in Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Since his mind was always affected by Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he could not understand how the world goes on being fully absorbed in the activities of sense gratification.”


Another example:
“Why does this qualified brāhmaṇa remain with body unmoving, without blinking his eyes, lake a statue? It seems that he has become addicted to fresh prema for the enjoyer of the flute, and his eyes are fixed on the black cloud in front of him.”


An example of unmāda (insanity) in utkaṇṭhitam, from the Seventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [7.4.40]:
“Sometimes, upon seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Prahlāda Mahārāja would loudly call in full anxiety. He sometimes lost his shyness in jubilation and began dancing in ecstasy, and sometimes, being fully absorbed in thoughts of Kṛṣṇa, he felt oneness and imitated the pastimes of the Lord.”


Another example:
“Nārada, drunk with the nectar of new love for the Lord, sometimes danced naked, sometimes became paralyzed inappropriately, sometimes laughed loudly, sometimes shouted intensely, sometimes played about without fatigue, and sometimes wandered about as if in pain, when there was no cause for pain.”


An example of moha (blank mind, fainting) in utkaṇṭham, from Hari-bhakti-sudhodaya:
“O brāhmaṇa! Thinking himself unqualified for seeing the Lord, Prahlāda, grieved because he could not attain Him, drowned in an ocean of intense suffering. Tears flowing from his eyes, he fainted.”


Another example:
“O students! Our revered guru has dried up like a tīrtha devoid of its sacred water, which is its very life. This has happened because of the heat of separation on not seeing the feet of the Lord. Pour into that tīrtha the nectar of the Lord’s name by means of the canal of his ear, and then the swan of his life will be revived.”


“When one attains the association of the Lord and then becomes separated from Him, that separation is called viyoga.”


An example of viyoga:
“When Kṛṣṇa went to Śonitapura to cut the arms of Bāṇa (the son of Bali), Uddhava’s mind became overwhelmed with separation. His intelligence was shaken because of suffering, and he became devoid of bliss.”


There are ten conditions of sambhrama-prīti in viyoga: heat in the body, thinness, insomnia, instability of the mind, lack of interest in anything, dullness (jaḍatā), sickness (vyādhi), insanity (unmāda), fainting and death-like symptoms (mṛti).


Alamba-ṣūnyatā means instability of the mind and adhṛti means lack of attraction for anything. Since the meanings of the other words are clear, they are not explained here.”


An example of heat in viyoga:
“O best of sages! The lotus (though it reminds us of Your eyes) will give us pain because it is the friend of the sun, and the ocean (though it reminds us of Your complexion) gives us pain because it is dominated by the vāḍaba fire. But why does the blue lotus, friend of the moon, making us remember the Lord, also cause us burning pain?”


An example of thinness in viyoga:
“O friend of the Pāṇḍavas! The arms of all Your servants have become thin and pale in separation from You. The swans have come down, thinking that those arms are stems of the water lily.”


An example of sleeplessness in viyoga:
“King Bahulāśva, in long separation from Kṛṣṇa, became distressed in body and mind. Many of his nights gave up their pleasurable nature of sleep.”


An example of instability of mind in viyoga:
“I do not have any other family in the three worlds except Kṛṣṇa, the charioteer of Arjuna. Not seeing His lotus feet, my mind wanders about, not being fixed anywhere.”


An example of detachment in viyoga:
“O Murāri! In separation from You, Your servant Raktaka, devoted to Your lotus feet, closed his eyes on seeing a peacock feather. He has given up all the attractive cows and has no desire to take up his herding stick.”


An example of jaḍatā (lack of judgment) in viyoga:
“When Kṛṣṇa went to Indraprastha, Uddhava, disturbed by grief, became wet with tears and perspiration, and ceased to move at all.”


An example of vyādhi (sickness) in viyoga:
“When Kṛṣṇa went to find the Syamantaka jewel and was absent a long time, Uddhava became afflicted with a new sickness out of separation, and was thus appropriately called ‘he who was afflicted by wind disease’.”


An example of unmāda (insanity) in viyoga:
“When his personal Deity went away, Uddhava became confused in mind. Look, seeing a fresh cloud on Raivata Mountain, he is praising it, frolicking about, and offering his respects to it.”


An example of moha or mūrcchitam (fainting) in viyoga:
“O best of the Yadus! Those who were serving You got no sleep when You were in Vraja. In separation from You, they had reached a similar state. But now, by their slight breathing, it is questionable whether they are living or not. They lie on the bank of the Yamunā with unconscious bodies.”


An example of mṛti (death-like symptoms):
“O killer of demons! You are their very life! Since You departed so suddenly from Vraja, the lotuses of their hearts in the lakes of their bodies have been dried up by the fire of separation. The swans of their life airs, being unhappy in that situation, no longer want to live there.”


“Because of its inauspiciousness, death is impossible for these [nitya-siddha] devotees. But when there are death-like symptoms caused by extreme disturbance due to separation from Kṛṣṇa, it is called mṛti.”


“Meeting with Kṛṣṇa is called yoga. There are three types of yoga: siddhi, tuṣṭi and sthiti.


“Attaining the Lord after a state of great longing, not having met Him before, is called siddhi (attaining one’s desire).”


An example of siddhi, from Kṛṣṇa-kārṇāmṛta:
“On His head there is a peacock-feather ornament. His body is firm and blue, like an emerald pillar. His face is sweet with an attractive, variegated smile. His eyes are soft and playful. His childish voice removes all suffering. The movements of His body are more praiseworthy than the gait of a mad elephant. Who is this solitary person who moves softly about Vṛndāvana?”


Another example of siddhi, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.38.34]:
“Akrūra, overwhelmed with affection, quickly jumped down from his chariot and fell at the feet of Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma like a rod.”


“Meeting Kṛṣṇa after separation from Him is called tuṣṭi.”


An example of tuṣṭi from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.10]:
“O Master, if You live abroad all the time, then we cannot look at Your attractive face, whose smiles vanquish all our sufferings. How can we exist without Your presence?”


Another example of tuṣṭi:
“Seeing Kṛṣṇa in front of him at the gate of Dvārakā, Dāruka reached such as astonishing condition that he could not even greet Kṛṣṇa with folded hands.”


“The wise call living together with Kṛṣṇa permanently stithi.”


An example of stithi, from Haṃsadūta:
“That cruel person given a fearful name by the gopīs (Akrūra), leaning against a jewel pillar, is discussing with Kṛṣṇa about the Kurus. Uddhava the disciple of Bṛhaspati is sitting on the golden floor, massaging the lotus feet of the Lord.”


“In association with Kṛṣṇa, the anubhāvas of the dāsa-bhaktas are such things as carefully performing their services and sitting in front of Him.”


“Some persons with no taste for kṛṣṇa-bhakti, on considering dāsya-rati, conclude that it does not reach a state of rasa.”


“Their opinion is unfounded, because this dāsya-rasa is clearly seen in many Purāṇas and the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.


Thus it is said in the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.3.32]:
“Having achieved love of Godhead, the devotees sometimes cry out loud, absorbed in thought of the infallible Lord. Sometimes they laugh, feel great pleasure, speak out loud to the Lord, dance or sing. Such devotees, having transcended material, conditioned life, sometimes imitate the unborn Supreme by acting out His pastimes. And sometimes, achieving His personal audience, they remain peaceful and silent.”


Also it is stated in the Seventh Canto [7.7.34]:
“One who is situated in devotional service is certainly the controller of his senses, and thus he is a liberated person. When such a liberated person, the pure devotee, hears of the transcendental qualities and activities of the Lord's incarnations for the performance of various pastimes, his hair stands on end on his body, tears fall from his eyes, and in his spiritual realization his voice falters. Sometimes he very openly dances, sometimes he sings loudly, and sometimes he cries. Thus he expresses his transcendental jubilation.”


“The usual emotions of the dāsya-bhava have been given in these verses. There will be exceptions to the general behavior at particular times.”


“Affection for Kṛṣṇa by those who identify themselves as His objects of indulgence is called gauravottara. When this affection is nourished by elements [of rasa] starting with vibhāva it is called gaurava-prīti-rasa.”


“The ālambanas of this rasa are the Lord (viṣaya) and the sons or younger brothers and sisters under His affectionate care.”


The Lord:
“When the elder Vṛṣṇis raise some proposal Kṛṣṇa hears attentively. When a humorous topic arises, a gentle smile appears on His face. Enjoying Himself in this way while sitting in the assembly hall, He is giving beneficial instructions to us, His sons, by such conduct.”


“In this gaurava-prīti-rasa, Kṛṣṇa is the viṣaya, endowed with qualities of being a great father, having great fame, great intelligence, great strength, being a protector and caresser of His children.”


“Those who think that they are the younger brothers or sisters or that they are His sons, are the āśrayas of this rasa. Among them Sāraṇa, Gada and Subhadra are the chief younger brothers and sisters, and Pradyumna, Cārudeṣṇa and Sāmba are His sons.”


“These children possess more clothing, ornaments, qualities and effulgence than the pāriṣadas. They have black, yellow and white complexions, and they play in Dvārakā.”


Their devotion:
“Sāmba and others eat with Kṛṣṇa, with their heads raised. They eat His betel remnants. When Kṛṣṇa embraces them or smells their heads, they burst into tears. How much austerity they must have done previously to attain this position!”


“Among all the lālyas Rukmiṇī’s son Pradyumna is the chief.”


His form:
“All glories to the young boy, crown jewel of the young Yadu princes, Pradyumna, killer of Śambara, who is mistaken for Kṛṣṇa because of his beautiful form.”


His devotion:
“O Prabhāvati! See the Lord of the Yadus in the sky, our guru, the ocean of mercy riding on Garuḍa. Cared for by Him with the greatest affection, I have attained such confidence that I defeated the ferocious Tripurāri in battle.”


“Though both the servants and the lālyas worship Kṛṣṇa constantly as the person most worthy of worship, awareness of the Lord’s majesty is more prominent in the servants. Identification as the relatives of Kṛṣṇa (His children) is more prominent in the minds of His lālyas.”


“Though awareness of Kṛṣṇa as the Lord is absent in the servants in Vraja, they are aware that He has powers, since He is the son of the cowherd leader.”


“The uddīpanas for gaurava-prīti-bhaktas are such things as the Lord’s glance mixed with affection and smiling.”


“Seeing Kṛṣṇa with His affectionate glance in front of him, Gada, with confused mind, offered his respects at Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.”


“Sitting on a seat lower than Kṛṣṇa, following after Kṛṣṇa, following His order and giving up their own wishes are the śīta-anubhāvas of the lālyas.”


Sitting lower than Kṛṣṇa:
“Following behind the best of the devatās and sprinkled with water by Brahmā, Pradyumna entered the assembly and offered respects to Kṛṣṇa. Avoiding a golden seat, he sat on a deerskin spread on the floor.”


“The lālyas share other anubhāvas in common with the dāsas: offering respects, keeping very silent in front of the Lord, crouching down, humility, carrying out the Lord’s order even if it means giving up their lives, lowering their heads, firmness, not laughing or coughing on front of the Lord, and not listening in on Kṛṣṇa’s private joking conversations.”


An example of sāttvika-bhāvas:
“Having seen the lotus feet of Mukunda, your body has become immobile, covered with perspiration, with hairs standing on end. Your body is imitating a flowering thorn bush spread with snow.”


“All vyabhicārī-bhāvas described for those with sambhrama-prīti also maifest in those with gaurava-prīti.”


Harṣa (joy):
“When the conch Pāñcajanya sounded in the sky from far off, all the hairs on the bodies of the young Yadu princes in Dvārakā began to dance with the dancers.”


Nirveda (self-deprecation):
“O Sāmba! You are very fortunate, because when you crawl to Kṛṣṇa with your body covered with dust, He picks you up with great affection and puts you on His lap. I am unfortunate. Because of the unfortunate actions of the expansions of the demon Śambara, I did not receive that loving care from my father even for a moment.”


“The mentality that the Lord is one’s loving protector, born from the feeling that one belongs to Him as His son is called gaurava. Such prīti towards the Lord as protector is called gaurava-prīti-rati.”


“This gaurava-prīti-rati that spontaneously appears and spreads in the devotee’s heart is the sthāyī-bhāva of the rasa. This prīti, becoming excellent, becomes prema. When it becomes more elevated it becomes sneha, and when it becomes even more elevated it is called rāga.”


“The most sober Pradyumna could not open his mouth to speak to his father. He did not lift his tear-filled eyes, and threw only furtive glances at Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet.”


“O killer of demons! The feeble enemies managed to take Abhimanyu from Your hands and killed him, though You desire to protect the whole world. However, Subhadra’s auspicious affection for You did not decrease by one degree.”


“O Pradyumna! Stop that excessive trembling and relieve your choking voice. Wipe the tears from your eyes and look at Me. Give Me your hand full of goosebumps. O child! What is this veneration for your father?”


“If indicated by his father, Pradyumna will immediately drink poison as if it were nectar, and if his father does not permit it, he will reject nectar as if it were poison.”


“The different definitions of ayoga and yoga, and their subdivisions for gaurava-prīti, preyo- and vatsala-rasa are the same as those for sambhrama-prīti-rasa.


Separation before first meeting:
“O beautiful-faced Rati! The ferocious enemy Śambara, who was a pile of dangers, has been destroyed. But when will we see Kṛṣṇa, my father, with the complexion of a rain cloud, holding the Pāñcajanya conch?”


Separation after meeting:
“Since our father went to Indraprastha, my mind has no desire to practice weaponry or to play ball, though I am very fond of it. Dvārakā now seems like a prison.”


Meeting for the first time:
“When Pradyumna, arriving from Śambara’s city, saw his father in front of him [for the first time], though he was by nature very sober, out of great joy, he forgot himself and thought, ‘Who am I?’ ”


Meeting Kṛṣṇa again:
“When Kṛṣṇa arrived from Indraprastha riding on Garuḍa, all His sons became very excited with bliss.”


Permanent association:
“Slightly contracting his eyes while his eyelids became soaked with tears, Pradyumna offered his obeisances to his father’s two lotus feet every day.”

utkaṇṭhita-viyogādye yad yad vistāritaṃ na hi |
sambhrama-prītivaj jñeyaṃ tat tad evākhilaṃ budhaiḥ ||3.2.178||

“The wise will understand that utkaṇṭhitam, viyoga and yoga for gaurava-prīti-rasa which have here been described very briefly are similar to the utkaṇṭhitam, viyoga and yoga of sambhrama-prīti-rasa.”

iti śrī-śrī-bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhau paścima-vibhāge
mukhya-bhakti-rasa-pañcaka-nirūpaṇe prīti-bhakti-rasa-laharī dvitīyā ||

“Thus ends the Second Wave of the Western Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, concerning prīti-bhakti-rasa.”