First Wave: Ecstatic Excitants


First Wave: Ecstatic Excitants


prabalam ananya-śrayiṇā niṣevitaḥ sahaja-rūpeṇa |
agha-damano mathurāyāṃ sadā sanātana-tanur jayati ||2.1.1||

“May the eternal form of Kṛṣṇa, killer of Aghāsura, served strongly by His natural beauty, which is attractive even without ornaments, and which is nondifferent from His very self, remain with all attractive features eternally in the district of Mathurā.”

Alternate translation:

“May Sanātana Gosvāmī, who conquers all sins and is served with devotion by his younger brother Rūpa, who has taken shelter of him alone, remain eternally in Mathurā district.”

rasāmṛtābdher bhāge’smin dvitīye dakṣiṇābhidhe |
sāmānya-bhagavad-bhakti-rasas tāvad udīryate ||2.1.2||

“The second part of the sweet ocean of rasa is called the Southern Ocean. It describes the general rasas within devotion to the Lord.”

asya pañca laharyaḥ syur vibhāvākhyāgrimā matā |
dvitīyā tv anubhāvākhyā tṛtīyā sāttvikābhidhā |
vyabhicāry-abhidhā turyā sthāyi-saṃjñā ca pañcamī ||2.1.3||

“There are five Waves or chapters in this Southern Ocean. The first deals with vibhāva; the second with anubhāva; the third with sāttvika-bhāva; the fourth with vyabhicārī-bhāva, and the fifth with sthāyī-bhāva.”

athāsyāḥ keśava-rater lakṣitāyā nigadyate |
sāmagrī-paripoṣena paramā rasa-rūpatā ||2.1.4||

“The Southern Ocean describes how rati (bhāva) for the Lord (sthāyī-bhāva), which has been described above, takes on the form of the highest rasa
through nourishment by the ingredients of vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva
and vyabhicārī-bhāva.


“This rati for Kṛṣṇa, called the sthāyī-bhāva, takes on a pleasurable nature in the hearts of the devotees by the vibhāvas, anubhāvas, sāttvika-bhāvas and vyabhicārī-bhāvas, through activities such as hearing, and then becomes bhakti-rasa.”


“The taste for bhakti-rasa arises in the heart of a person who has had experiences of pure bhakti in the previous and present life.”

||2.1.7|| ||2.1.8|| ||2.1.9|| ||2.1.10||

Rati, which is the very form of ānanda, appears in the hearts of devotees who have been purified of all faults by bhakti, whose hearts have become joyful (hlādinī), and bright (samvit), who have developed great relish for the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam and for the association of others who have taste for

Kṛṣṇa, whose life and soul become the profound happiness of devotion at the feet of Govinda, and who have become absorbed in actions such as kīrtana, imbued with the Lord’s mercy. This rati, strengthened by past- and present- life impressions of bhakti, then attains a state of relish by realizing vibhāva, anubhāva, sāttvika-bhāva and vyabhicārī-bhāva in relation to Kṛṣṇa, and finally attains the highest, astonishing peak of profound bliss.”


“However, even attaining a slight taste for prema by a slight mixture of


“The general characteristics of the ingredients are as follows: In tasting rasa, the causes of rati such as Kṛṣṇa, His devotee, and the sound of the flute are called vibhāvas. The effects of rati, such as smiling are called anubhāvas and the eight symptoms, such as being stunned are called sāttvika-bhavas. The assistants such as self-criticism are called vyabhicārī-bhāvas.”


“In rasa, the vibhāvas should be known as the cause of relishing rati. They take the form of support (ālambana) of two types, and stimuli (uddīpana).”


This is mentioned in the Agni Purāṇa [Alaṅkāra section, 3.35]:

Vibhāva refers to the two kinds of ālambana—the person in relation to whom the rati and other elements are experienced (viṣaya), the person in whom the rati and other elements are experienced (āśraya)—and to uddīpana, the stimuli by which rati is experienced.”


Ālambanas are described as follows: The wise consider the ālambanas to be Kṛṣṇa, as the object of love experienced in rati, and His devotees, as the experiencers (subjects) of rati (the five major and seven secondary sathāyī-bhāvas).”


“Now Kṛṣṇa as the object of rati is discussed: Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead (bhagavān svayam), is the crest jewel of heroes, in whom all
great qualities shine eternally. He is considered the ālambana or support for rati (viṣaya) through His svarūpa and through other forms that He may assume.”


The ‘other forms’ are now explained as follows:
“How is it that I have developed rati for the calves and cowherd boys similar to my rati for Kṛṣṇa?” In this way Balarāma remained struck with wonder and indecision


The svarūpa as the ālambana is now discussed: The svarūpa takes two forms:
covered and manifested.”


“The covered svarūpa is explained as when it is covered or disguised by others’ clothing.”


An example of a disguised svarūpa is given:
“Why does this queen in the inner chambers of Dvārakā attract me so much? Ah! I can understand that Kṛṣṇa has assumed the dress of a queen out of curiosity and is wandering about the palace.”


An example of the manifested svarūpa is given:
“This sweet form of the enemy of the demon Madhu gives me great bliss. He has a neck like a conch shell, beautiful eyes envied by the lotuses, and the bodily glow of the dark tamāla tree. His head is sheltered by an umbrella, His chest is marked with the śrīvatsa whorl, and His hands are marked with cakra, conch and other symbols.”


“Now the qualities of Kṛṣṇa will be described. The hero Kṛṣṇa has beautiful limbs, has all auspicious bodily features, is pleasing to behold, possesses vitality, is strong and is endowed with ideal age.”


“He knows an astonishing variety of languages, is truthful, speaks in a pleasing manner, is eloquent, learned, intelligent and filled with new ideas.”


“He is aesthetic, clever, skillful and grateful. He keeps His vows, is knowledgeable in time, place and person, sees through the eyes of scripture, is pure and controls His senses.”


“He is persevering, patient, tolerant, inscrutable, steadfast, uniform, generous, virtuous, heroic, compassionate, and respectful to persons worthy of respect.”


“He is compliant, modest, bashful, the protector of those who take shelter of Him, happy, friend of the devotees, controlled by love and the benefactor of all.”


“He is glorious, renowned, the object of attraction for all, the shelter of the devotees, attractive to women, worshipable by all and endowed with the greatest wealth.”


“He is the most important and the controller. These fifty qualities of Kṛṣṇa which have been listed are difficult to fathom, like the ocean.”


“These qualities are present even in the jīvas, to a very small degree now and then. However, they are present in full in the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”


“In this way in the Padma Purāṇa, Lord Śiva tells Pārvatī about the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, starting with His beauty, which is greater than ten million Cupids.”


“In the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.16.26-29], the earth also describes the qualities of Kṛṣṇa clearly and extensively to the deity of dharma.”

||2.1.33|| ||2.1.34|| ||2.1.35|| ||2.1.36||

“In Him reside (1) truthfulness, (2) cleanliness, (3) intolerance of another's unhappiness, (4) the power to control anger, (5) self-satisfaction, (6) straightforwardness, (7) steadiness of mind, (8) control of the sense organs, (9) responsibility, (10) equality, (11) tolerance, (12) equanimity, (13) faithfulness, (14) knowledge, (15) absence of sense enjoyment, (16) leadership, (17) chivalry, (18) influence, (19) the power to make everything possible, (20) the discharge of proper duty, (21) complete independence, (22) dexterity, (23) fullness of all beauty, (24) serenity, (25) kindheartedness, (26) ingenuity, (27) gentility, (28) magnanimity, (29) determination, (30) perfection in all knowledge, (31) proper execution, (32) possession of all objects of enjoyment, (33) joyfulness, (34) immovability, (35) fidelity, (36) fame, (37) worship, (38) pridelessness, (39) being (as the Personality of Godhead), (40) eternity, and many other transcendental qualities which are eternally present and never to be separated from Him. ”

atha pañca-guṇā ye syur aṃśena giriśādiṣu ||2.1.37||

“Now five qualities of Kṛṣṇa, which will also be present in Śiva and others when they are the Lord’s expansions, will be listed.”


“He is always situated in His eternal form, He is omniscient, He is forever young, He has a body made from condensed eternity, and He possesses all siddhis.”

||2.1.39|| ||2.1.40||

“Now will be listed the amazing qualities present in Kṛṣṇa and also in Nārāyaṇa and in the puruṣāvatāras: He has inconceivable, great energies; He is the form that expands over tens of millions of universes; He is the source of the numerous avatāras; He rewards even the enemies He kills; and He attracts the ātmārāmas. These qualities become even more astonishing in Kṛṣṇa.”

||2.1.41||||2.1.42|| ||2.1.43||

“The four astonishing qualities possessed by Govinda alone are as follows: He is a wave-filled ocean of the most astonishing display of pastimes. He is surrounded by loving associates decorated with incomparably sweet prema.

He plays sweet notes on His flute that attract all the minds in the three worlds. He astonishes all moving and non-moving living entities with the beauty of His form, to which there is no equal or superior. His extraordinary qualities
are thus His special pastimes, His devotees endowed with abundant prema, the sweetness of His flute and the sweetness of His form.”

evaṃ guṇāś catur-bhedāś catuḥ-ṣaṣṭir udāhṛtāḥ |
sodāharaṇam eteṣāṃ lakṣaṇaṃ kriyate kramāt ||2.1.44||

“The 64 qualities in four divisions will be described with examples.”


(1) suramyāṅgaḥ: beautifully-limbed —
“A person who is endowed with praiseworthy bodily parts is called beautifully-limbed.”


“What sweetness the form of Murāri reveals! His face is like the moon. His thighs are like elephant trunks. His arms are as sturdy as the bases of pillars.

His hands are the object of praise for lotuses. His chest is as broad as a door. His hips are massive and His waist is thin.”


(2) sarva-sal-lakṣaṇānvitaḥ: Kṛṣṇa’s body is endowed with all auspicious features —
“Good indications or auspicious characteristics are of two types: bodily features (guṇottham) and markings on the hands and feet (aṅkottham).”


Guṇottham refers to qualities such as redness or elevation of a limb.”


“O friend! I see that your child has twenty-three auspicious marks on His body. How is it possible that such a child could be born in a cowherd’s house? Seven places on His body are red; six parts are elevated; three parts are broad; three parts are short; three parts are deep; five parts are long; five parts are fine.”


Aṅkottham refers to lines such as a cakra on the hands or feet.”


“O king of the cowherd men! See on the hands of your child, there are clear lines of the lotus and cakra, and on His feet there are marks of a flag, thunderbolt, goad, fish and a lotus.”


(3) ruciraḥ means “He gives bliss to the eye by His beauty.”


Kṛṣṇa’s beauty is described in the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
“All the demigods from the upper, lower and middle universal planetary systems assembled at the altar of the rājasūya sacrifice performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira. After seeing the beautiful bodily features of Lord Kṛṣṇa, they all contemplated that He was the ultimate dexterous creation of Brahmā, the creator of human beings.”


Or another example:
“If the bee-like eyes of the gopīs alight upon one of the eight lotus-like bodily parts of Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of the Dānavas, they will not be able to rise from the thick honey of His beauty.”


“The wise say there are two meanings of tejas: dhāma (effulgence) and prabhāva (conquering the enemy).”


Dhāma refers to effulgence.”


“Though the Kaustubha jewel, the king of jewels, discredits the sun by its shining rays, it appears like only a star on the Lord’s chest, which shines much brighter.”


Prabhāva refers to His capacity to conquer all others.”


“Seeing Mādhava with His tender body from a distance, the group of wrestlers in the arena though endowed with chests greater than mountains, became agitated with fear.”


(5) Balīyān means “filled with great strength.”


“Just see! Lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa has thrown the greatest demon Ariṣṭāsura, who is heavier and higher than the Vindhya mountain range, to a far distance.”


Another example:
“May the left hand of lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa, which has lifted Govardhana Hill like a ball, protect you!”


(6) vayasānvitaḥ: endowed with ideal age —
“Though Kṛṣṇa is endowed with all ages which become most excellent, the age of kaiśora, ever-fresh, endowed with all pastimes, manifesting all good qualities, and the shelter of all rasas, is considered the best.”


“Filled with the joy of recently manifested youth, the sweetness of Murāri, defeating the spotless full moon with the effulgence of His smile, and made

soft with a hint of the fresh sports of Cupid, gives great joy to the minds of the sweet-eyed gopīs.”


(7) vividhādbhuta-bhāṣāvit: astonishing linguist —
“A person who knows the languages of various countries, Sanskrit, the vernacular and the languages of animals is called an astonishing linguist.”


“Kṛṣṇa, śaurī, expresses Himself in the vernacular to the young gopīs of Vraja, in Sanskrit to the respectful Indra, and in the colloquial dialect to the animals, to the people of Kaśmīra and to the parrots. How amazing! How has He become expert in all these languages?”


(8) satya-vākyaḥ: truthful speaker
“A person whose words are never false is called a speaker of the truth.”


“You said, ‘O Kunti! I will bring back your five sons to you from the battlefield alive and with great honor.’ Your statement has come true. O

Murari! Even though the sun may become cold and the moon may become hot, Your words will never be untrue.”


“Though disguising Himself as a brāhmaṇa, Kṛṣṇa told the truth to Jarāsandha: ‘O king of Magadha! Understand that it is I, Kṛṣṇa, your enemy, accompanying the two sons of Paṇḍu.’ ”


(9) priyaṃvadaḥ: speaking in a pleasing manner —
“Speaking in a pleasing manner means speaking pleasantly even to those who have offended.”


“O king of the snakes! Though I have afflicted you, do not find fault with Me. For the good of the cows, worthy of respect even by the devatās, you should live far from here.”


(10) vāvadūkaḥ: eloquent —
“The wise say that there are two types of eloquence: speaking that is pleasing to the ear, and speaking with clever meaning.”


An example of peaking in a pleasing manner:
“O friends! Whose heart will not be stolen by the words of Kṛṣṇa, sweet with clear, soft pronunciation, an elixir of intense nectar in the placement of each syllable, a life-giving medicine to the ears of all people by its sweet intonation?”


An example of the skillful meaning of words:
“The words of Kṛṣṇa, skillful at changing the hearts of His adversaries, superior to all in extinguishing all doubts in the universe, authoritative and economical, endowed with many meanings, have today made all my mental functions blissful.”


(11) supaṇḍityaḥ: knowledgeable —
“Being knowledgeable has two aspects: knowledge of all branches of all subjects, and knowledge of proper conduct.”


An example of knowing all branches of knowledge:
“Previously the clouds, in the form of Brahmā and others, by expertly serving with reverence the ocean in the form of Kṛṣṇa, produced rivers of knowledge. Now those rivers of knowledge are flowing from the mountain of Sāndipani back into the ocean of Kṛṣṇa.”


Another example:
“O Govinda! The bride of knowledge with fourteen branches whose lineage is distributed by the four Vedas, and which includes the smṛtis, is made brilliant by the six aṅgas, is followed by the saḍ-darśaṇas, is assisted by the Purāṇas, and decorated with the karma- and jñāna-kāṇḍas. This bride of knowledge, seeing You eager to gain her association at the house of Your guru, desires to serve You, finding this opportunity after a long time.”


The second type of learning, knowledge of proper conduct, is illustrated: “The Lord of the Madhus, Kṛṣṇa, is death for the thieves; the spring breeze for the pious; Cupid for the young women; a desire tree for the poverty-stricken; a cooling moon for His friends; the fire of final destruction in the form of Rudra for the enemies. He protects Mathurā and Dvārakā by His judicious conduct in relation to all people.”


(12) buddhimān: intelligent —
Buddhimān means the capacity to absorb knowledge and possessing fine intelligence.”


An example of the ability to absorb knowledge:
“Mādhava, going to the house of Sāndīpani, His guru living in Avantipura, to teach the proper method to those who desire knowledge, received all the knowledge in the temple of His heart after just one recitation by His guru. How astonishing it is!”


An example of having fine intelligence:
“This Kālayavana cannot be killed by the Yadus. By running away from him into the dimly lit cave, I will bring him there. In that cave decorated with waterfalls, Mucukunda is sleeping. When Mucukunda opens his eyes, being rudely awakened from comfortable sleep by Kālayavana, he will destroy this enemy with his glance.”


(13) pratibhānvitaḥ: creative—
Pratibhāvita means immediate, novel manifestation of ideas.”


An example from Padyāvalī [283]:
Rādhā said, “O Kṛṣṇa, where do You stay (vāsa) now?”
Kṛṣṇa said, “O Rādhā, with bewitching eyes! Can You not see that I am wearing My cloth (vāsam)?
Rādha said, “How crafty You are! I am talking about Your residence, not Your cloth!”
Kṛṣṇa said, “O Rādhā with natural sweet aroma! I am fragrant (vāsa) by touching Your limbs.
Rādhā said, “O cheater! Where did You stay during the night? (yāminyām uṣitaḥ)
Kṛṣṇa said, “How could I be stolen by the night (yāminyā muṣitaḥ) which does not even have a body?”
In this way may Kṛṣṇa, who joked with Rādhā using tricky words, protect you!


(14) vidagdhaḥ: aesthetic —
“One whose mind is absorbed in the 64 arts such as dancing and singing, and in various amusements, is called aesthetic.”


“Look! Kṛṣṇa is composing songs and dancing. He is making riddles, playing the flute, stringing garlands and drawing pictures. He is making magical objects and winning at dice against persons showing pride. Kṛṣṇa, the residence of pastimes of unlimited arts, is now enjoying His leisure.”


(15) caturaḥ: clever —
“A clever person is one who brings about a solution to many problems simultaneously.”


“Kṛṣṇa gives bliss to all the cows by composing cowherd songs. He pleases the gopīs by the movement of His brow. He brings joy to His friend by heroic action. All of these simultaneously give fear to Ariṣṭāsura (seeing how fearless Kṛṣṇa remains).”


(16) dakṣaḥ: expert —
“An expert person does very quickly what is difficult to do.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.59.17]:
“Lord Hari then struck down all the missiles and weapons the enemy soldiers threw at Him, O hero of the Kurus, destroying each and every one with three sharp arrows.”


Another example:
“O killer of the Agha demon! Please dance only with me!” Desiring to fulfill this request by all of the gopīs, Kṛṣṇa quickly produced a multitude of gopīs and Himself going to a suitable place and performing the dance—but in such a manner that each of the gopīs without doubt saw Him at her side alone.”


(17) kṛtajñaḥ: grateful —
“A grateful person is one who acknowledges others who have done service.”


An example from Mahābhārata [5.58.21]:
“Draupadi cried out ‘O Govinda!’ though I was situated far away. That crying out has created an ever-increasing debt that does not leave My heart.”


Another example:
“Though Jāmbavān had offended Kṛṣṇa, the Lord, remembering his service in the past during the time of Lord Rāma, married his daughter and gave him great respect. Since the well-bred never forget what little service is rendered
to them, then what can be said of Kṛṣṇa, who is the crest jewel among all well-behaved persons?”


(18) sudṛḍha-vrataḥ: fixed in vow —
“A person who is true to his promises and to his perpetual vows is called fixed in vow.”


Being true to His promises is illustrated in Hari-vaṃśa [2.68.38]:
“O Nārada! All of the devas, Gandharvas, Rākṣasas, asuras, Yakṣas and Pannagas are trying to make Me break My promise, but they cannot do so. May My promise to you be fruitful!”


Another example:
“Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa, very easily made Indra bereft of the Pārijāta tree and pleased Satyabhāmā. He also made Yudhiṣṭhīra devoid of enemies and pleased Draupadi. In this way He fulfilled His promises.”


An example of being true to perpetual vows:
“O Kṛṣṇa! You vowed that Your devotee will never suffer. You have illustrated that by performing the difficult task of lifting Govardhana Hill.”


(19) deśa-kāla-supātrajñaḥ: knower of place, time and person —
“The knower of place, time and person is one who performs actions suitable to the time, place and person.”


An example:
“There is no time comparable to the autumn season in the moonlight. There is no place of amusement in the three worlds equal to Vṛndāvana. There are no lotus-eyed women like the young women of Vraja. Considering this, My heart longs for the taste of the rāsa dance.”

(20) śāstra-cakṣuḥ —
śāstrānusāri-karmā yaḥ śāstra-cakṣuḥ sa kathyate ||2.1.100||

(20) śāstra-cakṣuḥ: sees with the eyes of the scriptures —
“A person who sees with the eyes of the scriptures is a person who performs his actions according to the rules of the scripture.”


“The eyes of scripture which belong to Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa, exist only to see the practical action in a given situation, and His lotus eyes exist only to bewilder the young women.”


(21) śuciḥ: pure —
“There are two types of purity: pāvana and viśuddha. Pāvana means he who destroys sin, and viśuddha means he who is without faults.”


Purification of sin is illustrated in Padma Purāṇa:
“With intellect purified by faith and all sincerity, please worship Kṛṣṇa, an ocean of good qualities, whose glory destroys all darkness, who purifies those who purify others. When just the semblance of His Holy Name appears in the heart, it destroys the greatest accumulation of sins, just as the light prior to the rising of the sun destroys all darkness.”


Faultlessness is illustrated as follows:
“O Śyamantaka jewel! There is no deception in Kṛṣṇa’s trying to take you from Satrājit, and there is plenty of miserliness in Satrājit to keep you. Then why do you desire so forcibly to make a friendship with the Kaustubha jewel today?”

(22) vaśī —
vaśī jitendriyaḥ proktaḥ ||2.1.105||

(22) vaśī: subjugator—
“A subjugator is one who controls his senses.”


This is illustrated in the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.37]:
“The common materialistic conditioned souls speculate that the Lord is one of them. Out of their ignorance they think that the Lord is affected by matter, although He is unattached.”

(23) sthiraḥ —
āphalodayakṛt sthiraḥ ||2.1.107||

(23) sthiraḥ: persevering —
“He who works steadily until achieving his goals is called persevering.”


“Kṛṣṇa did not loathe wandering in the forest looking for the Śyamantaka jewel, and did not consider fear on entering the cave of Jāmbavān. Taking the jewel, He returned to Dvārakā. Those of steady intelligence persevere in their work until attaining the result.”


(24) dāntaḥ: patient —
“A person who endures difficult but necessary suffering is called patient.”


“Although Kṛṣṇa’s body was very soft, He did not consider in His heart the ontolerable difficulties of living at the house of His guru, because of His sincere devotion. One becomes amazed upon contemplating the inscrutable character of extraordinary people.”


(25) kṣamāśīlaḥ: tolerant —
“A person who endures the offenses of others is called tolerant.”


An example from the Śiṣupāla-vadha, Māgha-kāvya [16.25]:
“Though Śiṣupāla criticized Kṛṣṇa hundreds of times, Kṛṣṇa did not give any response. Though the lion replies to the thunder, it does not pay attention to the howl of the jackal.”


Another example from Stitra-ratna of Yāmunācārya [60]:
“O Rāmacandra, best of the Raghu dynasty! You were so merciful to the crow who pecked Mother Sītā’s breast, but who then offered obeisances to You. O Kṛṣṇa, so forgetful of others’ sins! You gave attractive impersonal liberation
to Śiṣupala, who offended You for many lifetimes. Tell me what offense exists in him that You would not tolerate?”


(26) gambhīraḥ: inscrutable —
“A person whose intentions are difficult to comprehend is called inscrutable.”


“When Brahmā worshipped Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana by offering the best praises, Kṛṣṇa remained silent. Brahmā could not understand whether Kṛṣṇa was satisfied or angry with him.”


Another example:
“Though Kṛṣṇa was intoxicated with the new liquor of Rādhā’s love while lifting Govardhana Hill, even omniscient Balarāma could not notice any indications of change.”


(27) dhṛtimān: steadfast —
“The person who is fully satisfied in his desires, or who is peaceful when there is cause for agitation by controlling his mind, is called steadfast.”


The fully satisfied person is illustrated in the following:
“Though Kṛṣṇa is fond of fame, He gave that incomparable fame to Bhīma in the killing of Jarāsandha. What remains to be desired by those of superior character?”


An example of being peaceful, in spite of cause for agitation:
“Despite being rebuked by Śiṣupala and being praised by the sages in the assembly of the rājasūya sacrifice, Kṛṣṇa showed such steadiness that the kings present could not detect any change in Kṛṣṇa appearance.”


(28) samaḥ: impartial—
“The learned say that a person who is free from attraction and disgust is called impartial.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.16.33]:
“The wives of the Kāliya serpent said: The punishment this offender has been subjected to is certainly just. After all, You have incarnated within this world to curb down envious and cruel persons. You are so impartial that You look equally upon Your enemies and Your own sons, for when You impose a punishment on a living being You know it to be for his ultimate benefit.”

||2.1.122|| Another example:

“O best of the Yadus, if Your enemy does something correctly You reward him, and if Your son becomes spoiled You punish him. You are the protector of all people and without prejudice; thus partiality can never occur in Your actions.”


(29) vadānyaḥ: generous —
“The person who is very charitable is called generous.”


“The wishing jewel, the desire cow and the desire tree, being made useless, by
Kṛṣṇa, who fully satisfies all the supplicants’ desires, serve Dvārakā in shame.”


Another example:
“In each of the 16,108 palaces with their queens, every day at one time Kṛṣṇa would give in charity 13,084 ornamented young cows with first-born calves. Who can be equal to Him in charity?”

(30) dhārmikaḥ —
kurvan kārayate dharmaṃ yaḥ sa dhārmika ucyate ||2.1.126||

(30) dhārmikaḥ: virtuous —
“The person who follows the principles of dharma, and engages others in doing so also, is called virtuous.”


An example:
“O King of the cowherd men! Under Your protection, the bull of dharma with four legs has flourished to such an extent that, going everywhere in the three worlds, he has forcefully gobbled up the grass of irreligion.”


Another example:
“O Mukunda! You have performed so many sacrifices and continually attracted all the devatās that the wives of the devatās, feeling suffering in separation from their husbands, are praying to Buddha, Your ninth avatāra, to stop the sacrifices.”


(31) śūraḥ: hero —
“A hero is a person who is energetic in fighting and skillful in the use of weapons.”


An example of enthusiasm in fighting is illustrated first:
“O destroyer of Agha! Destroyer of sin! With Your trembling trunk-like arms, submerging Yourself in the lake of the expansive battlefield, playing in the forest of lotuses composed of Your enemies, You appear to be playing like the King of the elephants.”


An example of being expert in handling weapons:
“Within a second, one could not see any soldier among the ferocious phalanx of Jarāsandha’s akṣauhiṇis, any person who was not bitten by the snake-arrows of the Lord.”


(32) karuṇaḥ: compassionate —
“A person who cannot tolerate the suffering of others is called compassionate.”


An example of karuṇa:
“I offer my respects to the compassionate son of the Yadus, who like the sun made all the kings’ eyes blossom with joy. These kings had blinded themselves with tears, arising from the impenetrable darkness of suffering caused by being imprisoned by Jarāsandha.”


Another example:
“I offer my respects to the compassion of the Lord, who immediately appeared beyond His control because of Bhīṣma’s remembrance of Him on the bed of arrows. He rushed toward Bhīṣma, forgetting His position as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, His body bathed in a shower of tears.”

(33) mānyamāna-kṛt —
guru-brāhmaṇa-vṛddhādi-pūjako mānyamāna-kṛt ||2.1.135||

(33) mānyamāna-kṛt: respectful —
“A person who worships guru, brāhmaṇas and the elderly is called respectful.”


“Kṛṣṇa first offered respects to the lotus feet of His guru. Then He offered respects to His father and elder brother. Then with folded hands and humble words, He offered respects to the elders of the Yadu dynasty in the proper order.”

(34) dakṣiṇaḥ —
sauśīlya-saumya-carito dakṣiṇaḥ kīrtyate budhaiḥ ||2.1.137||

(34) dakṣiṇaḥ: compliant —
“A person who is mild due to his excellent nature is called compliant by the intelligent.”


“The Superme Lord, who is pure-hearted by His very nature, does not see the serious offenses of His servant, but He accepts even a little service as a great thing. He does not find fault, even in those of low character.”


(35) vinayī: modest —
“The person who is devoid of arrogance is called modest.”


An example from the Māgha-kāvya [13.7]:
“Seeing that Yudhiṣṭhīra wanted to alight from his chariot in haste on seeing Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Himself, by getting down from His chariot first out of great respect for Yudhiṣṭhīra, showed more modesty than anyone else.”


(36) hrīmān: bashful —
“A person is called bashful who is shy when praised by others, or when he thinks that others are aware of his secret love affairs, because of modesty or his unfathomable nature.”


An example from Lalita-Mādhava [9.40]:
“All glories to the enemy of Madhu, who made Govardhan Hill shake slightly by the weight of glancing upon the expanse of the gopīs’ upraised breasts, and who hung His head in shame when He saw Balarāma smiling before Him, while He was being praised by the fearful cowherd men.”


(37) śaraṇāgata-pālakaḥ: protector of the surrendered —
“He who protects those who surrender is called protector of the surrendered.”


An example:
“O fever (weapon), though you are an offender in this battle, give up your fear, because the best of the Yadus, Kṛṣṇa acts as a moon towards those who completely surrender to Him.”


(38) sukhī: happy —
“The person who is an enjoyer and is not touched by a trace of sorrow is called a happy person.”


The enjoyer is illustrated first:
“O best of the Yadus, the quantity of Your jeweled ornaments cannot be imagined by Kuvera, the lord of wealth. The singing and dancing taking place at Your door cannot be imagined by Indra, even in his dreams. At Your side constantly are beautiful women who enjoy Your attractive limbs, who are decorated with the tips of Your moon-like fingernails, and who are thus superior to the wife of Śiva. In this world there is no enjoyer like You.”


Being without a trace of sorrow is illustrated next:
“O wives of the brāhmaṇas! Not even a trace of sorrow can touch Kṛṣṇa, for in Him there is no destruction, no decrease, no suffering in household affairs, no cause of fear and no worry. He does not know any of the suffering of this world. He is eternally engaged in amusing Himself in Vṛndāvana with beautiful women who are perfect, the best of friends, and hold the highest love.”


(39) bhakta-suhṛt: friend of the devotees —
“There are two ways in which Kṛṣṇa is a friend to His devotees: being easily served and being a friend of His servant.”


An example of being easily served, from Viṣṇu Dharma:
“If the devotees offer only water and tulasī leaves to the Lord, the Lord, being affectionate to the devotees, puts Himself under the control of the devotees.”


An example of being the friend of His servant, from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.9.37]:
“Fulfilling my desire and sacrificing His own promise, He got down from the chariot, took up its wheel, and ran towards me hurriedly, just as a lion goes to kill an elephant. He even dropped His outer garment on the way.”


(40) prema-vaśyaḥ: controlled by love —
“He who is controlled only by affection is called controlled by love.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.80.19]:
“The lotus-eyed Supreme Lord felt intense ecstasy upon touching the body of
His dear friend, the wise brāhmaṇa, and thus He shed tears of love.”


Another example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.9.18]: “Because of mother Yaśodā's hard labor, her whole body became covered
with perspiration, and the flowers and comb were falling from her hair. When

child Kṛṣṇa saw His mother thus fatigued, He became merciful to her and agreed to be bound.”


(41) sarva-śubhaṅkaraḥ: benefactor of all —
“He who works for the benefit of everyone is called benefactor of all.”


“”He gave benefit to the sages by the display of His qualities manifested in Dvārakā. He gave benefit to the followers of dharma by destroying the wicked. He gave success to the rascals by killing them in battle. To whom did Kṛṣṇa not give benefit?”


(42) pratāpī: glorious—
“He who is famous for inflicting pain on the enemy with astonishing valor is called glorious (an effulgent person).”


“When You illuminate the world with Your brilliance which is like the sun, the darkness of the mountain caves becomes the shelter for the terrible demons, who are just like owls.”


(43) kīrtimān: renowned —
“A person who is famous for spotless good qualities is called renowned.”


“O son of Nanda! Since the light of the moon of Your good qualities has already turned everything radiant (white), how can it make the world thick with Kṛṣṇa-prema? (kṛṣṇa also means darkness)”


Another example from Lalita-mādhava:
“O Dāmodara Kṛṣṇa! When Nārada, playing his vīṇā, began to sing Your glories, Pārvatī, not seeing the blue color on Śiva’s throat, left his abode; Balarāma seeing His blue cloth turn white, gave it up in astonishment; and the excited cowherd women, seeing the blue water of the Yamunā turn white and thinking of it as milk, began to churn it.”

(44) rakta-lokaḥ —
pātraṃ lokānurāgāṇāṃ rakta-lokaṃ vidur budhāḥ ||2.1.161||

(44) rakta-lokaḥ: attractive to all people —
“The intelligent say that the person who is the object of attraction for all people is called attractive to people.”


An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.9]:
“O lotus-eyed Lord, whenever You go away to Mathurā, Vṛndāvana or Hastināpura to meet Your friends and relatives, every moment of Your absence seems like a million years. O infallible one, at that time our eyes become useless, as if bereft of sun.”


Another example:
“When Kṛṣṇa entered the arena of Kaṃsa the sages uttered blessings of
‘Victory! Victory! Victory!’ The devatās uttered sweet songs of praise. Out of joy, the women shouted loudly all around. Who did not develop attraction to Kṛṣṇa at the sports arena?”


(45) sādhu-samāśrayaḥ: protects the devotees —
“He who has exclusive inclination towards the devotees is called the protector of the devotees.”


“O Supreme Person! If You did not appear on this earth to bestow auspiciousness, I do not know what condition would befall the devotees from persecution by all the fierce demons.”


(46) nārī-gaṇa-mano-hārī: attractive to women —
“The person who enchants a group of women by his very nature is called an attractor of women.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.90.26]:
“The Lord, being glorified in countless ways, forcibly attracts the minds of women who simply hear about Him. What to speak, then, if those women see Him directly?”


Another example:
“O Mādhava! You are a magnet and certain women are like iron. Wherever
You wander in play, they run after You.”


(47) sarvārādhyaḥ: all-worshipable —
“He who should be worshiped before all others is called all-worshipable.”


An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.9.41]:
“At the Rājasūya-yajña [sacrifice] performed by Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, there was the greatest assembly of all the elite men of the world, the royal and learned orders, and in that great assembly Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was worshiped by one and all as the most exalted Personality of Godhead. This happened during my presence, and I remembered the incident in order to keep my mind upon the Lord.”

(48) samṛddhimān —
mahā-sampatti-yukto yo bhaved eṣa samṛddhimān ||2.1.171||

(48) samṛddhimān: prosperous —
“He who possesses great treasure is called prosperous.”


“O subduer of Mura! 560,000,000 Yadus are serving You. Your eight treasures are raining all wealth. 900,000 pure palaces are shining in glory. Who would not be astonished at seeing Your wealth?”


Another example from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:
“The anklets on the damsels of Vraja-bhūmi are made of cintāmaṇi stone. The trees are wish-fulfilling trees, and they produce flowers with which the gopīs decorate themselves. There are also wish-fulfilling cows [kāma dhenus],
which deliver unlimited quantities of milk. These cows constitute the wealth of Vṛndāvana. Thus Vṛndāvana's opulence is blissfully exhibited.”


(49) varīyān: the best —
“He who is the chief of all people is called the best.”


“Brahmā and others came to see Kṛṣṇa and arrived at the gate of Dvārakā.
The doorkeeper said: ‘O Brahmā! Just sit for a moment with Śiva on this seat. It is not necessary to make hymns of praise. Just remain silent. O Varuṇa! Go away. Why are the devatās making such a clamor at the gate. It is not time for the Lord of Dvārakā to come.’ ”


(50) īśvaraḥ: controller —
“It is said that there are two types of controllers: he who is independent and he whose orders cannot be neglected.”


An example of he who is independent:
“Though Kāliya offended the Lord, Kṛṣṇa gave him mercy by placing His foot mark on his head. Though Brahmā praised the Lord, Kṛṣṇa did not even glance at him. Such unprecedented behavior is suitable to the Lord because the Vedas praise Him as being independent.”


An example of he whose order cannot be ignored, from the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.2.21]:

“Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet.”


Another example:
“O enemy of Kaṃsa! All the Brahmās, accepting Your order to create, create all the new universes. All the Śivas destroy all the old universes on Your order to destroy. All Your expansions in the form of Viṣṇus, protectors of the universe, carry out Your order to protect the newly created universes. All the masters of the universes in all directions are awaiting Your order.”


(51) atha sadā-svarūpa-samprāptaḥ: eternal form —
“He who is not controlled by Māyā or its affects is said to have an eternal form.”


An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.38]:
“This is the divinity of the Personality of Godhead: He is not affected by the qualities of material nature, even though He is in contact with them. Similarly, the devotees who have taken shelter of the Lord do not become influenced by the material qualities.”


(52) sarvajñaḥ: omniscient —
“He who is the embodiment of all things and knows the situation within all hearts through all time and space is called omniscient.”


An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.15.11]: “During our exile, Durvāsā Muni, who eats with his ten thousand disciples, intrigued with our enemies to put us in dangerous trouble. At that time He [Lord Kṛṣṇa], simply by accepting the remnants of food, saved us. By His accepting food thus, the assembly of munis, while bathing in the river, felt sumptuously fed. And all the three worlds were also satisfied.”


(53) nitya-nūtanaḥ: ever-fresh —
“He who astonishes by appearing unrelished, though he has already been relished with His sweet qualities, is called ever-fresh.”


An example from the First Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [1.11.33]:
“Although Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa was constantly by their sides, as well as exclusively alone, His feet appeared to them to be newer and newer. The goddess of fortune, although by nature always restless and moving, could not quit the Lord's feet. So what woman can be detached from those feet, having once taken shelter of them?”


Another example from Lalita-mādhava:
“O beautiful-faced friend! Who is this excellent craftsman Viśvakarma standing in front of us, breaking the stones of self-control in all the young women with the tips of the long, sharp, chisel-like corners of His eyes and simultaneously constructing a cowpen using millions of sapphires?”


(54) sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ: has a body made from condensed eternity—
“He who has a form thoroughly composed of knowledge and bliss, with no contamination of other elements, is called sac-cid-ānanda-sāndrāṅgaḥ.


“Who is that person standing before us, revealing a human form black in color, full of bliss, who covers even the happiness of brahman which appears spontaneously after the five types of suffering have been destroyed?”


Another example from Brahma-saṃhitā [5.40]:
“I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, whose effulgence is the source of the nondifferentiated Brahman mentioned in the Upaniṣads, being differentiated from the infinity of glories of the mundane universe appears as the indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth.”


“Thus the Śrī Vaiṣṇavas who have taken into account all the statements of śruti and smṛti, say that this brahman is the vibhūti of Bhagavān.”


Thus it is stated in the Yāmunācārya-stotra [14]:
“O Bhagavān! The universe, and within the universe all the elements starting with earth, with coverings each ten times thicker than the previous one, the three guṇas, the totality of jīvas, prakṛtī, Vaikuṇṭha and brahman are all Your vibhūtis.”


(55) sarva-siddhi-niṣevitaḥ: served by all siddhis
“He who controls all mystic powers is called served by all siddhis.


“The eight great siddhis, served by the ten companion siddhis, do not even have the opportunity to enter the door of Kṛṣṇa’s palace.”


(56) atha avicintya-mahā-śaktiḥ: possessor of inconceivable power —
“He who has an extraordinary role in creating and destroying the universes, who can bewilder Brahmā and Śiva and who has the power to destroy the prārabdha-karmas of the devotee, is called the possessor of great, inconceivable powers.”


An example of His extraordinary role in creating and destroying the universes:
“I surrender to that Lord, the soul of all, who first was alone, then produced forms of the calves and boys by a part of a part of Himself, then spread Himself in those forms as four-handed forms of Viṣṇu, and then was surrounded by Brahmās and others along with the elements, and was praised and served by all the jīvas in the universe. ”


An example of His extraordinary ability to bewilder Brahmā, Śiva and others is illustrated as follows:
“Brahmā was bewildered by Kṛṣṇa, the enemy of Kaṃsa when he stole the boys and calves. In battle with Kṛṣṇa, Śiva was put to sleep. O Indra, compared with Kṛṣṇa, who are you devatās now?”


An example of destroying the prārabdha-karmas of the devotee is discussed in the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.45.45]:
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: “Suffering the bondage of his past activity, My spiritual master's son was brought here to you. O great King, obey My command and bring this boy to Me without delay. He has been purified by My edict.”


The word ādi in the definition (verse 194) also refers to accomplishing what is most difficult or impossible (dūrghata-ghaṭana):
“My master Kṛṣṇa, full of infinite inconceivable powers, who though without birth, became the son of Nanda, the leader of the cowherds; who though all-pervading, manifested His form in the arms and lap of Yaśodā; and who though manifesting many forms, is only one form, delights my heart.”


“He whose form contains unlimited universes is called ‘having a form of ten million universes’. In this way the greatness of His form is glorified.”


An example from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.11]:
“What am I, a small creature measuring seven spans of my own hand? I am enclosed in a potlike universe composed of material nature, the total material energy, false ego, ether, air, water and earth. And what is Your glory? Unlimited universes pass through the pores of Your body just as particles of dust pass through the openings of a screened window.”


Another example:
“How is it possible to glorify You, who Brahmā saw in Vṛndāvana? In one corner of that Vṛndāvana are situated are situated a million universes, each made of an earth measuring 500,000,000 yojanas in diameter, each filled with lower hellish planets and the upper heavenly planets and all the material elements.”


(58) avatārāvalī-bījam: the seed of all avatāras
“He who is the source of all the avatāras is called the seed of all avatāras.”


An example from the Gīta-govinda:
“I offer my respects to Kṛṣṇa, who takes ten forms: who rescues the Vedas as Matsya, who supports the worlds as Kūrma, lifts the earth from the lower regions as Varāha, pierces Hiraṇyakaṣipu as Nṛsiṃha, tricks Bali as Vāmana, destroys the warriors as Parāśurāma, conquers Rāvana as Rāma, pulls His plough as Balarāma, distributes mercy as Buddha, and kills the rascals as Kalkī.”


(59) hatāri-gati-dāyakaḥ: giver of liberation to those He kills —
“He who gives liberation to those He kills is called giver of the goal to those
He kills.”


“O topmost jewel! Though You give the pavargas of defeat (pa), foaming mouth (pha), bondage (ba), fear (bha) and death (ma) to Your enemies, You give them the opposite, apavarga or liberation as well.”


Another example:

“O Murāri! It is truly astonishing that the demons who wage war with You will all their energy, not being destroyed, are transformed by You into friends and attain liberation.”


(60) ātmārāma-gaṇākarṣī: He who attracts the ātmārāmas
“He who attracts the ātmārāmas is self-explanatory.”


“O Mādhava! Though I am a pure paramahaṃsa without desires, by smelling the fragrance of the great herbs of Your pastimes, I have been transformed
into a devotee and am thirsty for the rasa of bhakti.”


“Now the four extraordinary qualities of Kṛṣṇa are illustrated:
the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes, from Bṛhad-vāmana Purāṇa: “Though all of My pastimes are very attractive and profound, when I remember My rāsa-līlā, I cannot explain what happens to My mind.”


Another example:

“Let the exquisite pastimes of Nārāyaṇa and the avatāras who cause bliss to the world appear in this universe! But the taste of the rāsa-līlā which causes astonishment even in Hari is filling my heart with incredible astonishment.”


(62) premṇā priyādhikyam: Kṛṣṇa is surrounded by devotees with intense prema. An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.31.15]: “When You go off to the forest during the day, a tiny fraction of a second becomes like a millennium for us because we cannot see You. And even when we can eagerly look upon Your beautiful face, so lovely with its adornment of curly locks, our pleasure is hindered by our eyelids, which were fashioned by the foolish creator.”


Another example:
“Killer of Agha! In Your association, the night of Brahmā has passed like half a moment for the cowherd women. Now, in separation from You, half a moment has become as long as Brahmā’s night for them.”


(63) veṇu-mādhuryam: the sweetness of Kṛṣṇa’s flute. An example from the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.35.14-15]:
“O pious mother Yaśodā, your son, who is expert in all the arts of herding cows, has invented many new styles of flute-playing. When He takes His flute

to His bimba-red lips and sends forth the tones of the harmonic scale in variegated melodies, Brahmā, Śiva, Indra and other chief demigods become confused upon hearing the sound. Although they are the most learned authorities, they cannot ascertain the essence of that music, and thus they bow down their heads and hearts.”


Another example, from Vidagdha-mādhava:
“The sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute wandered everywhere, piercing though the shell of the universe. It stopped the clouds, amazed the Gandharva Tumburu, broke the meditation of the yogīs headed by Sananda, astonished Brahmā, made Bali unsteady with longing, and made Ananta dizzy.”


(64) rūpa-mādhuryaṃ: the sweetness of His form. An example from the Third
Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.2.12]:
“The Lord appeared in the mortal world by His internal potency, yoga-māyā. He came in His eternal form, which is just suitable for His pastimes. This form is wonderful for even for the Lord Himself in His form as the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha, because He is the highest perfection of beauty, enhancing the beauty of all ornaments.”


Another example, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.29.40]: “Dear Kṛṣṇa, what woman in all the three worlds wouldn't deviate from religious behavior when bewildered by the sweet, drawn-out melody of Your flute? Your beauty makes all three worlds auspicious. Indeed, even the cows, birds, trees and deer manifest the ecstatic symptom of bodily hair standing on end when they see Your beautiful form.”


Another example, from Lalita-mādhava:
“What is this great abundance of unprecedented astonishing sweetness that has appeared? Gazing upon it, I become greedy to possess it. I desire to enjoy it with zeal like Rādhā.”


“Only a small portion of the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, who is an ocean of the multitude of astonishing auspicious qualities, has been shown here.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.7]:
“In time, learned philosophers or scientists might be able to count all the atoms of the earth, the particles of snow, or perhaps even the shining molecules radiating from the sun, the stars and other luminaries. But among these learned men, who could possibly count the unlimited transcendental

qualities possessed by You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who have descended onto the surface of the earth for the benefit of all living entities?”


“Even though Kṛṣṇa is the topmost jewel among unlimited heroes endowed with eternal qualities, He is described as having three forms, that manifest according to the type of devotion of the worshiper.”


“The Lord takes three forms described as most perfect, more perfect and perfect. These are described in nāṭya-śāstra as best, medium and inferior.”


“When Kṛṣṇa manifests all qualities, He is described by the intelligent as most perfect. Manifesting the qualities incompletely, He is called more perfect and manifesting even less qualities, He is call perfect.”


“Kṛṣṇa appears as most perfect in Gokula. In Mathurā, Dvāraka and other places, He appears as more perfect and perfect.”


“Kṛṣṇa is also classed into four types: dhīrodātta, dhīra-lalita, dhīra-praśānta and dhīroddhata


“Classifying Kṛṣṇa into four different types is not a contradiction, because of the respective differences in the pastimes of the Lord, who is the abode of many different types of qualities and activities.”


Regarding dhīrodātta: elevated —
“The person who is inscrutable, modest, tolerant, merciful, determined in vows, who obscures others’ pride, is not boastful and is strong, is called dhīrodātta.


An example:
“Your smile steals the pride of those who think they are brave. You are eager to deliver those in a suffering condition. You are true to Your promises. You are firm in holding up the high mountain. You have treated me kindly although I have committed offense. You are brought under control by verses of praise. Seeing You with such an inscrutable heart, my words and intelligence have become inactive.”


“All of the qualities in the list of special qualities of Kṛṣṇa should be understood to manifest more prominently in these four types than other qualities, though the other qualities are also present.”


“The previous authorities have described dhīrodātta qualities in Rāmacandra. These same qualities are also seen in Kṛṣṇa according to the type of love of His devotees.”

dhīra-lalita: playful —

“He is called dhīra-lalita who is clever, endowed with fresh youth (end of kaiśora period), skillful at joking and free of worries. He is controlled by His dear devotees.”


“Kṛṣṇa made Rādhā lower Her eyes in shame by boldly describing Their pastimes of the previous night in front of Her friends. Taking that opportunity, He displayed His skill by expertly drawing frolicking makaris on Her breasts. In this way Kṛṣṇa sported in the groves and fulfilled His youthful years.”


“The qualities of the dhīra-lalita are clearly revealed in Kṛṣṇa. But the dramatic scholars give the example of Cupid.”

dhīra-śānta: gentle —

“The learned say that he who is peaceful, tolerates suffering, uses discrimination and possesses qualities like modesty is called dhīra-śānta.


“Speaking about dharma before Yudhiṣṭhira, Kṛṣṇa appears like the best of brāhmaṇas, pleasant with modesty. His eyes are moving steadily and are filled with love. He shows unlimited good qualities through His skillful speech.”


“The learned glorify Yudhiṣṭhira and others as being dhīra-śanta.”


“The wise call dhīroddhata (haughty) the person who shows envy, pride, anger, fickleness and boastful nature.”


“O sinner! King of the Yavanas! O frog! Today, being foiled, make your residence in the corner of a dark hole. The black snake called Kṛṣṇa is waiting there alert to catch you. Just by glancing casually upwards, I have turned the vessel of the universe to ashes.”


“The learned call persons like Bhīma dhīroddhata.”


“Although qualities like envy mentioned in verse 236 appear to be faults, they should be regarded as good qualities in Kṛṣṇa, because they are befitting certain pastimes.”


Another example:
“Making the low-hanging, water-filled clouds disperse, swinging a frightful trunk, with terrifying trumpeting sounds, I the monstrous, irrepressible elephant called Kṛṣṇa, destroyer of opponents, have arrived! Flee from the battlefield, O deer called Śrīdāma!”


“Some of the qualities listed above are contradictory. Though contrary, their existence in Kṛṣṇa is not impossible, because of His unrestricted powers.”


This is illustrated in a statement from Kūrma Purāṇa:
“The Lord is not gross, nor is He subtle; He is both gross and subtle. He is without color, but is blackish with tinges of red in the corners of His eyes. By His power He possesses contradictory qualities.”


“One should never find any fault in the Lord. Though the qualities are contradictory, He can resolve them all completely.”


This is confirmed in the Mahā-Varāha Purāṇa:
“All of the bodies of the Lord are eternal, and appear repeatedly in the material world. They are devoid of increase and decrease. They are never born of matter. All His bodies have the very nature of the highest bliss, are pure knowledge, are full of good qualities, and are devoid of all faults.”


It is also confirmed in the Vaiṣṇava-tantra:
“The form of the Lord is without the eighteen great faults, is endowed with all powers and is the very essence of existence, knowledge and bliss.”

||2.1.247|| ||2.1.248||

The eighteen great faults are mentioned in the Viṣṇu-yāmala:
“Bewilderment, sleep, error, material attachment without prema, material lust which brings suffering, fickleness, intoxication, envy, violence, exhaustion,

toil, lying, anger, hankering, worry, absorption in worldly affairs, prejudice and dependence on others.”


“Thus it has been explained that the amount of sweetness in Kṛṣṇa exceeds that of all the avatāras and the source of avatāras, Mahā-viṣṇu.”


This is explained in Brahma-saṃhitā [5.59]:
“Brahmā and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair of Mahā-Viṣṇu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the latter [Mahā-Viṣṇu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Mahā-Viṣṇu is the portion of a portion.”


“Excellent qualities of the heart, the embodiments of auspiciousness, are glorified as eight: glory, playfulness, sweetness, steadiness, strength, beauty and generosity.”


“Among the ornaments of auspiciousness, where there is mercy to subordinates, emulation of superiors, courage, enthusiasm, expertise and truthfulness, it is known as glory [śobha]”


An example:
“Seeing the pain caused by Indra’s rain in Vraja, Kṛṣṇa desired to destroy svarga; but then, considering Indra and the devatās to be inferior, a wave of compassion arose within Him. Seeing no one equal to Himself as a suitable object of anger, He who is firm in truth then lifted Govardhana, with the desire of giving bliss to His friends.”


“Where there is a heavy gait, steady gaze like that of a bull and laughing words, it is called playfulness [vilāsa].”


An example:
“Lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa, while gazing steadily and boldly at the wrestlers, shaking the earth like an elephant, proud with victory, His words touched with the fragrance of humor, entered the raised arena while sprinkling water on the stage.”


“When there is an expression of desire through actions it is called sweetness


“While Kṛṣṇa was sitting on the bank of the Yamunā, tarrying there on the pretext of making a long garland of golden kadamba flowers, Rādhā arrived at a ghat on the river. He threw a glance from the corner of His eye at the doe-eyed Rādhā.”


“Being the object of faith for the entire world is called having auspiciousness


An example:
“Because there is no sense of injustice in the Lord, even the demons leave their doors open. Because they have faith that Kṛṣṇa is their protector, the devatās indulge in play without worry. Understanding that He is the witness and thus knows their bhakti, those offering obeisances (devotees) have given up anxiety. O supporter of the universe! Who does not have faith in Your lotus feet?”


“To remain fixed in one’s duties even though they are filled with obstacles is called steadiness [sthairyam].”


“Even though His act was obstructed by Śiva with his trident and Bāṇa’s mother who had appeared without clothing, Mukunda cut off Bāṇasura’s arms.”


“The wise say that the ability to enter into the hearts of all others is called influence [tejas].”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.43.17]:
“The various groups of people in the arena regarded Kṛṣṇa in different ways when He entered it with His elder brother. The wrestlers saw Kṛṣṇa as a lightning bolt, the men of Mathurā as the best of males, the women as Cupid in person, the cowherd men as their relative, the impious rulers as a chastiser, His parents as their child, the King of the Bhojas as death, the unintelligent as the Supreme Lord's universal form, the yogīs as the Absolute Truth and the Vṛṣṇis as their supreme worshipable Deity.”


“Another definition of tejas is intolerance of offense (since another meaning of tejas is impatience and fierce opposition).”


An example:
“When the hater of the whole universe, angry Kaṃsa, loudly beckons to Nanda and Vasudeva with the desire to give them punishment, Kṛṣṇa throws a glance like a messenger sent to the unchaste woman called death for the demons, and ascends the arena with a desire to play.”


“Where there are activities of explicit conjugal nature it is known as lalita, voluptuousness.”


An example:
“The King of Rasa, Kṛṣṇa is joyfully drawing makarīs on the bud-like breasts of Rādhā with His right hand using a steady mind. When Ariṣṭāsura roars harshly with pride, Kṛṣṇa, laughing at him while goosebumps rise on His flesh, ties His belt with His left hand.”


“Generosity is glorified as the willingness to offer to another person even one’s soul.”


“Is there anyone more magnanimous than the Supreme Lord, who offers even
His soul to the destitute and nondescript?


“Although these eight qualities were previously discussed, because they are somewhat remarkable, they have again been described in a separate category.”


“Kṛṣṇa’s assistants: For matters of dharma, the sages such as Garga; for war, persons such as Sātyaki; and for advice, persons such as Uddhava are glorified as assistants to the Lord in revealing these qualities.”


“The devotees of Kṛṣṇa: Those whose hearts are full of attraction to Kṛṣṇa are called the devotees of Kṛṣṇa.”


“The learned understand that all the qualities of Kṛṣṇa, from truthfulness
[2.1.24] to bashfulness [2.1.27] are also present in Kṛṣṇa’s devotees.”


“The devotees are said to be of two types: practitioners (sādhakas) and perfected (siddhas).”


“Practitioners (sādhakas) are those who have developed rati for Kṛṣṇa but have not completely extinguished the anarthas, and who are qualified to see Kṛṣṇa directly.”


An example from the Eleventh Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [11.2.46]:
“An intermediate or second-class devotee, called madhyama-adhikārī, offers his love to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is a sincere friend to all the devotees of the Lord, shows mercy to ignorant people who are innocent and disregards those who are envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.”


Another example:
“Do not worry that after you have been drenched in tears arising from the river of the pastimes of the Lord, you will remain in the flame of suffering in the material world. When all the hairs on your limbs dance, then you will see very near, rising in the sky of your heart, the cloud of Kṛṣṇa’s form, full of the shower of mercy that destroys the desire for liberation.”


“Those who are similar to Bilvamaṅgala are known as sādhus.”


“Those who experience no suffering at all, who perform all actions while taking shelter of Kṛṣṇa, and who always taste the happiness of continuous prema are known as the perfected devotees [siddhas].”


“There are two types of perfected devotees: those who have attained perfection (sādhana-siddha) and those who are eternally perfect (nitya-siddha).”


“Those who have attained perfection are of two types: those who have attained perfection by performance of sādhana and those who have attained perfection by mercy.”


An example of a sādhana-siddha, from the Third Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [3.15.25]:
“Persons whose bodily features change in ecstasy and who breathe heavily and perspire due to hearing the glories of the Lord are promoted to the kingdom of God, even though they do not care for meditation and other austerities. The kingdom of God is above the material universes, and it is desired by Brahmā and other demigods.”


Another example:
“I offer respects to the great devotees who have destroyed all suffering by the power of bhakti, who hate to glance upon the four objects [dharma, artha, kāma and mokṣa] although they offer respects to the devotees, whose hearts are full of the bliss of strong prema, whose faces are washed with tears of bliss and whose limbs are covered with goosebumps.”


“It is said that Mārkaṇḍeya and other sages attained perfection by sādhana.”


An example of attaining perfection by mercy, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.23.43-44]:

“These women have never undergone the purificatory rites of the twice-born classes, nor have they lived as brahmacārīs in the āśrama of a spiritual master, nor have they executed austerities, speculated on the nature of the self, followed the formalities of cleanliness or engaged in pious rituals. Nevertheless, they have firm devotion for Lord Kṛṣṇa, whose glories are chanted by the exalted hymns of the Vedas and who is the supreme master of all masters of mystic power. We, on the other hand, have no such devotion for the Lord, although we have executed all these processes.”


Another example:
“You are not known to have suffered pains in the service of the guru, and you have trace of exerting even a drop of labor in following the rules of sādhana. But you have succeeded in attaining the river of nectar of prema coming from the two lotus feet of Mukunda, which are the wealth sought by the paramahaṃsas.”


“Those who have attained perfection by mercy are Śukadeva, the wives of the brāḥmaṇas and Bali, the son of Virocana.”


“Those whose very body and qualities are bliss like Mukunda’s, and who possess the highest prema for Kṛṣṇa, which is ten million times greater than the attachment for the self are called eternally perfect (nitya-siddha).”


An example from the discussion between Satyabhāmā and the Lord, from the Padma Purāṇa:
“O beautiful Satyabhāmā! I have come because of the prayers of Brahmā and the devatās, and My associates all have taken birth with Me. The Yādavas that you see are all My associates and are full of all qualities like Mine. They always hold Me alone as dear.”


Another example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.14.32]: “How greatly fortunate are Nanda Mahārāja, the cowherd men and all the other inhabitants of Vrajabhūmi! There is no limit to their good fortune, because the Absolute Truth, the source of transcendental bliss, the eternal Supreme Brahman, has become their friend.”


Also from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.26.13]:
“Dear Nanda, how is it that we and all the other residents of Vraja cannot give up our constant affection for your son? And how is it that He is so spontaneously attracted to us?”


“One can understand that the inhabitants of Vraja are eternal associates of the Lord by the worlds ‘eternal friend’ in verse 293 and ‘how is it that He is so spontaneously attracted to us?’ in verse 294.”


“Thus for this reason, the Yādavas known as the cowherd people are said to
be eternal associates of the Lord. As with the Lord’s actions, their actions also appear worldly, although everything about them is purely spiritual.”


Also, from the Uttara-khaṇḍa of the Padma Purāṇa:
“Just as Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata and Saṅkarṣana take birth with the Lord, the Yādava cowherd people, descending from their spiritual planet by the Lord’s will, take birth with the appearance of Lord Kṛṣṇa, and then return to His eternal dhāma along with Him. The birth of these devotees is not caused by bondage to karma.”


“The first fifty-five of the qualities denoting Kṛṣṇa, as well as qualities such as the ability to give yoga siddhis, are also present in the perfected devotees.”


“There are five types of devotees of Kṛṣṇa: those in sānta-rasa, the servants and sons, the friends, the elders and the lovers.”


“Things that nourish the bhāva of the practitioner are called uddīpanas or stimuli. These are things such as Kṛṣṇa’s qualities, pastimes, decorations, His smile, the fragrance of His body, His flute, horn anklets, conch, footprints, His dhāma, tulasī, devotees and festival days such as Janmāṣṭamī and Ekādaśī.”


“Qualities are of three types: bodily, mental and verbal.”


“Bodily qualities are age, beauty, His forms and things like softness of body.”


“Though these bodily qualities are included in Kṛṣṇa’s svarūpa, accepting them as separate from the svarūpa, they are called uddīpanas.”


“The form of Kṛṣṇa is the ālambana. His ornaments, age and other items act as uddīpana.”


“His qualities, however act as both ālambana and uddīpana.”


“Kṛṣṇa has three ages: childhood (kumāra), boyhood (paugaṇḍa) and youth


“Childhood ends with the fifth year; boyhood ends with the tenth year; youth ends with the sixteenth year. After that is manhood (yauvana).”


“Considering the suitability for pastimes, the childhood age is most fit for vātsala or parental rasa, and boyhood is most fit for sakhya-rasa. You is most excellent for madhura-rasa. The majority of examples given in this section are from youth (kaiśora), since it is suitable for all rasas.”

ādyaṃ madhyaṃ tathā śeṣaṃ kaiśoraṃ trividhaṃ bhavet ||2.1.312||

“Youth (kaiśora) has three divisions: beginning, middle and end.”


“At the beginning of the kaiśora age, Kṛṣṇa’s complexion becomes indescribably effulgent, the edges of His eyes become reddish and fine hairs appear on His body.”


An example:
“O my friend! Now the body of Kṛṣṇa has taken on a fresh beauty. All His limbs steal the splendor of the dark blue sapphire. A reddish hue has entered the corners of His eyes, and a few very fine hairs have sprung up on His body.”


“His typical accoutrement during this period is the Vaijayantī garland, peacock feather, the costume of a dancer, the sweetness of His flute playing, and the luster of His dress.”


An example from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [10.21.5]: “Wearing a peacock-feather ornament upon His head, blue karṇikāra flowers on His ears, a yellow garment as brilliant as gold, and the Vaijayantī garland, Lord Kṛṣṇa exhibited His transcendental form as the greatest of dancers as He entered the forest of Vṛndāvana, beautifying it with the marks of His footprints. He filled the holes of His flute with the nectar of His lips, and the cowherd boys sang His glories.”


“At the beginning of youth, the activities consist of sharpening His nails, quivering of His bow-like eyebrows, and staining the teeth with dyes.”


An example:
“The two eyebrows of the enemy of Agha are dancing like new bows of Cupid. The tips of His rows of fingernails are so sharp that they shine like a line of arrows. The glistening rows of His attractive teeth embody the redness of dawn. What young woman would not be afraid of seeing Him?”


The attractiveness of the first part of youth:
“O Mādhava! Gazing upon the new sweetness of Your smile, the bewildered, immobilized gopīs are not able to reveal spontaneously the sentiments in their minds. And they are not able to confide in any person. What more can be said? They are so pained that today they have offered three handfuls of water to their life airs.”


“During the middle of His kaiśora period, Kṛṣṇa displays indescribable beauty in His two thighs, His two arms and His chest, and sweetness in His whole form.”


An example:
“In the course of Kṛṣṇa’s fresh youth, His thighs desired to punish the trunks of elephants, His chest desired to make friends with door panels made of sapphire, and His arms scolded door bolts.”


“The sweetness of His middle youth consists of His face brilliant with soft smile, His eyes restless with flirtation, and His singing which enchants the three words.”


An example:
“What sweetness became visible at the sprouting of Hari’s youth! His two restless eyes made friendship with the crafty conduct of Cupid. His lotus face became most radiant with attractive lips embellished with smiles. His singing made even the chaste women break their marriage vows.”


“The excellence of His behavior during the middle of His youth consists of a profuse concentration of charming but cunning actions, a great festival of pastimes in the groves and the beginning of the rāsa dance.”


An example:
“In some places, by His clearly visible lac-stained footprints, in other places
by the peacock feathers plundered from His headdress, in other places by beds strewn with discarded belts, by a multitude of disheveled groves and sand glowing with the evident marks of dancing in a circle—Vṛndāvan announces the manifold pastimes of Govinda.”


The attractiveness of the middle period of Kṛṣṇa’s youth:
“O friend! Has an energetic sun full of sweetness arisen in the black sky called Kṛṣṇa? From a distance He has ignited the fire of passion in the sūryakānta jewel of my heart and produced a mass of red clouds in every

direction. He had made the moon of dharma set, and transformed the blooming night lotus of discrimination into a mere bud. How can we be delivered from this condition?”


“When the final period of youth (kaiśora) begins, all His limbs become more alluring than previously, with three lines clearly visible on His navel, etc.”


An example:
“I am remembering the killer of demons, Kṛṣṇa, whose chest steals the radiance of a boulder from the sapphire mountain, whose two arms agitate the pride of sapphire pillars, whose three folds of skin on His abdomen shame the beauty of the Yamunā’s delicate waves, and whose excellent thighs surpass
the trunks of banana trees.”


The sweetness of the last period of youth:
“O young lady! Behold that person wearing yellow cloth, who is radiating the beauty of fresh youth. With His bodily beauty, capable of defeating the five arrows of Cupid, He makes the women lose all composure. He is the playground of the sixty-four arts, and the astonishing beauty of the tips of His eyes crushes the splendor of the wagtail.”


“This last part of youth is called new youth (nava-yauvana) by the wise.”


“The end of youth is characterized by the manifestation of bliss from the most amazing pastimes of conjugal love never before enacted, in which the girls of Vraja are filled with the sum total of love.”


An example:
“The king of the groves, equipped with the six elements necessary for the arts of Cupid, rules the excellent kingdom of romantic love. In one place He picks a quarrel with His beloved women. In another place He dispatches love letters along with parrots. In another place He becomes eager to meet for pastimes.
In another place, He resolves differences using a go-between, and in another place, He unites with a gopī.”


An example of attractiveness of the late kaiśora period:
“O Kṛṣṇa, today Your age of youth, in the role of a guru, is teaching the golden gopīs the art of whispering in each others’ ears, the method for making verses of praise for messengers when alone, cleverness in cheating husbands, praactice in sneaking to the forest at night, deafness to the words of the elders, and rapt hearing of the flute sound.”


“Even though the age of youth is said to be the svarūpa of the protagonist (ālambana), it is also considered to be the stimulus (uddīpana) because of appearing as one among many forms of age.”


“Sometimes it is heard that new youthfulness appears in Kṛṣṇa even as a small child, but since that does not nourish rasa, it is not mentioned by those knowledgeable in rasa.”


“Arrangement of the limbs in the most suitable manner is called beauty.”


“O Kṛṣṇa! Your face with long eyes, Your broad chest like an emerald riverbank, Your two arms like pillars, Your graceful sides, narrow waist, and hips attractive with ever-increasing waves of sweetness—which hearts of the lotus-eyed gopīs will not be stolen by these features?”


“Excellent form is said to be that by which ornaments become worthy of being ornaments.”


“O beautiful woman! The jeweled earrings and other ornaments contacting His body cannot at all function as ornaments to enhance His beauty. Rather, those ornaments become decorated by His body, and thus have increased their beauty.”


“Tenderness means being so soft that even touching what is soft becomes intolerable.”


“Ah! So tender is the body of this young boy with the complexion of a new cloud that by touching new shoots, His limbs become bruised and torn.”


“The intelligent understand that all verbal and mental qualities that have been mentioned already in this section describing the protagonist are the uddīpanas.”


“The rāsa-līlā, killing of the demons and other pastimes are called activities


“O lotus-eyed Lord! You, an expert dancer, longing for the pleasure of the rāsa-līlā to begin, were embraced on all sides by the gracefully-hipped, dancing gopīs. Rambhā and other heavenly damsels, smitten by Cupid’s play, beheld Your beauty at that time. The sweetness exhibited at that time is dragging away our hearts.”


Killing demons, from Lalita-mādhava:
“When Ariṣṭāsura shakes his head in jest, Śiva pales and departs for a cave in the Mandara Mountain with his bull. Ah! See the fun! Kṛṣṇa so casually killed that wicked bull demon.”


“Vestment refers to clothing, ornaments, decorations and other similar things.”


“The Lord has three types of clothing: two-piece outfit, four-piece dress, and multi-piece dress in orange, red, yellow and other colors.”


“Two-piece dress refers to a lower cloth wrapped around the waist and an upper shawl.”


An example from the Mukundāstaka of Stavāvalī:
“May Mukunda, wearing on His hips a yellow dhoti that derides the glory of a pile of gold, with reddish upper cloth, tinged with the passion for His beloved, satisfy the desire of my eyes.”


“The four-piece outfit refers to shirt, turban, sash and lower garment.”


“The enemy of Kaṃsa, smiling in great joy, and wearing a pink dhoti, orange turban, an excellent vest of shining gold and multi-color sash, creates joy in us.”


“The wise say that the multi-piece outfit consists of many pieces of cloth, cut and uncut, of many colors, suitable for performing artists.”


“O slender thighed-woman! Mādhava, the color of the rain cloud, effulgent like a young elephant king, bedecked for a multitude of pastimes, effulgent with a stylish creation of cut and uncut cloth in white, gold, blue and red colors, is giving me bliss.”


“Hair styles, applied cosmetics, garlands, body tilaka, tilaka on the forehead, betel-nut preparations and imitation lotuses are called accessories.”


“Tying the hair consists of tying the hair at the back of the neck, binding flowers in the hair, binding the hair in a topknot and braiding the hair. The cosmetics are white, multicolor and yellow.”


“There are three types of garland: vaijayantī, jewel garland and forest garland. They may also extend over the serve as a chaplet around the topknot, or hang down from the neck.”


“The body tilaka (citram) is yellow, white and reddish, filled with pictures of makarīs. The forehead tilaka (viśeṣakha) is also yellow, white or red. Intelligent persons also modify these into other colors spontaneously.”


“O friend! The moon of His face shines with betel nut and a faultless hairstyle. A yellow garland rests on His raised chest. He wears radiant tilaka on His forehead, and His body becomes charming with the wealth of designs made of finely ground saffron ointment. Today the dark-bodied, attractive Mādhava gives bliss to my eyes.”


“The jeweled ornaments (maṇḍanam) include crowns, earrings, broaches, bracelets, rings, armbands and anklets.”


“A colorful belt, an incomparable diadem, earrings of alluring diamonds, a pearl necklace, spotless bracelets, pearl-studded broach, delightful rings, and anklets filled with sweetness—these profuse ornaments attain the status of ornaments because they are decorated by the beauty of the limbs of Kṛṣṇa.”


“When these decorations are made of flowers they are called sylvan ornaments. The drawings using curved lines painted on the forehead and body are made of minerals.”


An example of the smile, from Kṛṣṇa-karnāmṛta:
“O Kṛṣṇa! Your gentle smiles which remove all pain by producing an unbroken stream of rasa of the highest bliss are disgracing all other rasas and emitting an unrestricted ocean of nectar.”


An example of the fragrance of His limbs:
“Since the unprecedented river of fragrance flowing everywhere is causing the hairs of us self-satisfied sages to stand on end, I think the enemy of Madhu, a faultless ocean of fragrance, has come to Kurukṣetra to enjoy Himself on the occasion of the eclipse.”


His flute:
“The fickle sound of Kṛṣṇa’s flute reveals its excellence by breaking the meditation of the exalted sages, criticizing the sweetness of nectar, and insistently preaching respect for the edicts of Cupid.”

eṣa tridhā bhaved veṇu-muralī-vaṃśikety api ||2.1.365||

“There are three types of flutes: veṇu, muralī and vaṃśikā.”


“The flute that is twelve fingers long named Pāvika is called veṇu.”


“The sweet-sounding muralī is two hands long (24 fingers or 18 inches) with a hole at the end and four holes for producing sounds.”


“The vaṃsikā is seventeen fingers long (12.75 inches) with nine holes. Eight holes for playing notes are half a finger in diameter and spaced half a finger apart. A hole for blowing is placed 1-1/2 fingers from the eighth hole and is one finger in diameter. There are four fingers space remaining at the head of the flute and three fingers space remaining at the end of the flute.”


“When the space between the mouth hole and the first hole for notes is ten fingers, the vaṃśī is called mahānanda (great delight) and sammohinī (the bewitcher). If the space is twelve fingers, the vaṃśī is called ākarṣiṇī (the attractor). If the space is fourteen fingers, the vaṃśī is called ānandinī (bliss-giver).”


“The ānandinī is a favorite with the cowherd people and is also called vaṃśulī. The vaṃśīs are respectively made of jewels, gold or bamboo.”


The horn:
“A wild buffalo horn with gold covering at both ends and jewel inlay in the middle is called Mandraghoṣa (rumbling thunder).”


“Bitten by the flute, like a scorpion with natural poisonous venom in the form of its shrill sound, the gopī Tārāvalī, leader of a group, drank some milk in the form of the sound of a small buffalo horn to counteract the poison. But rather than mitigate the burning poison of the flute’s sound, it increased the pain twofold.”


An example of His anklets:
“Having heard the sound of Kṛṣṇa’s ankle bells, I have become extremely impatient to see Him, and am possessed with intense zeal. But I cannot leave this place because my elders are present before me.”


The conch:
“The conch with its spiral turning to the right is called Pañcajanya.”


“The sound of the king of conches, Pañcajanya, blown by Kṛṣṇa, wanders throughout the world, causing abortions in the wives of the demons, announcing auspiciousness to the inhabitants of Svarga, and making the hair stand on end.”


An example of His footprints, from the Tenth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam
“Increasingly agitated by ecstasy at seeing the Lord's footprints, his bodily hairs standing on end because of his pure love, and his eyes filled with tears, Akrūra jumped down from his chariot and began rolling about among those footprints, exclaiming, ‘Ah, this is the dust from my master's feet!’ ”


Another example:
“O friends! Understand that Kṛṣṇa has gone to the bank of the Yamunā by this path for certain, because the markings of the flag, thunderbolt, goad and lotus are attracting my eyes.”


An example of His place:
“What to speak of seeing all the places of rare glory there the Lord performed pastimes, even hearing the name of Mathurā steals away my mind.”


An example of tulasī, from Kṛṣṇa-karṇāmṛta:
“O tulasī bud from lotus-eyed Kṛṣṇa’s chaplet! I make one prayer to you. Inform the chariot driver of Arjuna that I desire shelter at His lotus feet.”


An example of the devotee as uddīpana, from the Fourth Canto of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam [4.12.21]:
“Dhruva Mahārāja, seeing that these uncommon personalities were direct servants of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, immediately stood up. But, being puzzled, in hastiness he forgot how to receive them in the proper way. Therefore he simply offered obeisances with folded hands and chanted and glorified the holy names of the Lord.”


Another example:
“O Subala! Please tell us where your dear friend Kṛṣṇa is. While throwing sideward glances endowed with a gentle smile and placing His arm on your raised shoulder while standing in the yard, He would inundate our eyes with waves of nectar.”


An example of the days commemorating the Lord:
“Here there are many festival days commemorating the Lord. However, the auspicious eighth tithi of the waning moon in the month of Bhadra (Janmāṣṭamī) gives me great joy.”

“Thus ends the First Wave of the Southern Ocean of Śrī Bhakti-rasāmṛta-sindhu, concerning vibhāva.”