Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 9 Chapter 9
The Dynasty of Aṁśumān
aṁśumāṁś ca tapas tepe
kālaṁ mahāntaṁ nāśaknot
tataḥ kālena saṁsthitaḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; aṁśumān — the king named Aṁśumān; ca — also; tapaḥ tepe — executed austerity; gaṅgā — the Ganges; ānayana-kāmyayā — with a desire to bring the Ganges to this material world to deliver his forefathers; kālam — time; mahāntam — for a long duration; na — not; aśaknot — was successful; tataḥ — thereafter; kālena — in due course of time; saṁsthitaḥ — died.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: King Aṁśumān, like his grandfather, performed austerities for a very long time. Nonetheless, he could not bring the Ganges to this material world, and thereafter, in due course of time, he died.
dilīpas tat-sutas tadvad
aśaktaḥ kālam eyivān
bhagīrathas tasya sutas
tepe sa sumahat tapaḥ
dilīpaḥ — named Dilīpa; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Aṁśumān; tat-vat — like his father; aśaktaḥ — being unable to bring the Ganges to the material world; kālam eyivān — became a victim of time and died; bhagīrathaḥ tasya sutaḥ — his son Bhagīratha; tepe — executed penance; saḥ — he; su-mahat — very great; tapaḥ — austerity.
Like Aṁśumān himself, Dilīpa, his son, was unable to bring the Ganges to this material world, and he also became a victim of death in due course of time. Then Dilīpa’s son, Bhagīratha, performed very severe austerities to bring the Ganges to this material world.
darśayām āsa taṁ devī
prasannā varadāsmi te
ity uktaḥ svam abhiprāyaṁ
darśayām āsa — appeared; tam — unto him, King Bhagīratha; devī — mother Ganges; prasannā — being very much satisfied; varadā asmi — I shall bless with my benediction; te — unto you; iti uktaḥ — thus being addressed; svam — his own; abhiprāyam — desire; śaśaṁsa — explained; avanataḥ — very respectfully bowing down; nṛpaḥ — the King (Bhagīratha).
Thereafter, mother Ganges appeared before King Bhagīratha and said, “I am very much satisfied with your austerities and am now prepared to give you benedictions as you desire.” Being thus addressed by Gaṅgādevī, mother Ganges, the King bowed his head before her and explained his desire.
ko ’pi dhārayitā vegaṁ
patantyā me mahī-tale
anyathā bhū-talaṁ bhittvā
nṛpa yāsye rasātalam
kaḥ — who is that person; api — indeed; dhārayitā — who can sustain; vegam — the force of the waves; patantyāḥ — while falling down; me — of me; mahī-tale — upon this earth; anyathā — otherwise; bhū-talam — the surface of the earth; bhittvā — piercing; nṛpa — O King; yāsye — I shall go down; rasātalam — to Pātāla, the lower part of the universe.
Mother Ganges replied: When I fall from the sky to the surface of the planet earth, the water will certainly be very forceful. Who will sustain that force? If I am not sustained, I shall pierce the surface of the earth and go down to Rasātala, the Pātāla area of the universe.
kiṁ cāhaṁ na bhuvaṁ yāsye
narā mayy āmṛjanty agham
mṛjāmi tad aghaṁ kvāhaṁ
rājaṁs tatra vicintyatām
kim ca — also; aham — I; na — not; bhuvam — to the planet earth; yāsye — shall go; narāḥ — the people in general; mayi — in me, in my water; āmṛjanti — cleanse; agham — the reactions of their sinful activity; mṛjāmi — I shall wash; tat — that; agham — accumulation of sinful reactions; kva — unto whom; aham — I; rājan — O King; tatra — on this fact; vicintyatām — please consider carefully and decide.
O King, I do not wish to go down to the planet earth, for there the people in general will bathe in my water to cleanse themselves of the reactions of their sinful deeds. When all these sinful reactions accumulate in me, how shall I become free from them? You must consider this very carefully.
sādhavo nyāsinaḥ śāntā
haranty aghaṁ te ’ṅga-saṅgāt
teṣv āste hy agha-bhid dhariḥ
śrī-bhagīrathaḥ uvāca — Bhagīratha said; sādhavaḥ — saintly persons; nyāsinaḥ — sannyāsīs; śāntāḥ — peaceful, free from material disturbances; brahmiṣṭhāḥ — expert in following the regulative principles of Vedic scripture; loka-pāvanāḥ — who are engaged in delivering the entire world from a fallen condition; haranti — shall remove; agham — the reactions of sinful life; te — of you (mother Ganges); aṅga-saṅgāt — by bathing in the Ganges water; teṣu — within themselves; āste — there is; hi — indeed; agha-bhit — the Supreme Personality, who can vanquish all sinful activities; hariḥ — the Lord.
Bhagīratha said: Those who are saintly because of devotional service and are therefore in the renounced order, free from material desires, and who are pure devotees, expert in following the regulative principles mentioned in the Vedas, are always glorious and pure in behavior and are able to deliver all fallen souls. When such pure devotees bathe in your water, the sinful reactions accumulated from other people will certainly be counteracted, for such devotees always keep in the core of their hearts the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can vanquish all sinful reactions.
dhārayiṣyati te vegaṁ
rudras tv ātmā śarīriṇām
yasminn otam idaṁ protaṁ
viśvaṁ śāṭīva tantuṣu
dhārayiṣyati — will sustain; te — your; vegam — force of the waves; rudraḥ — Lord Śiva; tu — indeed; ātmā — the Supersoul; śarīriṇām — of all embodied souls; yasmin — in whom; otam — is situated in its longitude; idam — this whole universe; protam — latitude; viśvam — the whole universe; śāṭī — a cloth; iva — as; tantuṣu — in threads.
Like a cloth woven of threads extending for its length and breadth, this entire universe, in all its latitude and longitude, is situated under different potencies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Śiva is the incarnation of the Lord, and thus he represents the Supersoul in the embodied soul. He can sustain your forceful waves on his head.
ity uktvā sa nṛpo devaṁ
tasyeśaś cāśv atuṣyata
iti uktvā — after saying this; saḥ — he; nṛpaḥ — the King (Bhagīratha); devam — unto Lord Śiva; tapasā — by executing austerities; atoṣayat — pleased; śivam — Lord Śiva, the all-auspicious; kālena — by time; alpīyasā — which was not very long; rājan — O King; tasya — upon him (Bhagīratha); īśaḥ — Lord Śiva; ca — indeed; āśu — very soon; atuṣyata — became satisfied.
After saying this, Bhagīratha satisfied Lord Śiva by performing austerities. O King Parīkṣit, Lord Śiva was very quickly satisfied with Bhagīratha.
tathā — (let it be) so; iti — thus; rājñā abhihitam — having been addressed by the King (Bhagīratha); sarva-loka-hitaḥ — the Personality of Godhead, who is always auspicious to everyone; śivaḥ — Lord Śiva; dadhāra — sustained; avahitaḥ — with great attention; gaṅgām — the Ganges; pāda-pūta-jalām hareḥ — whose water is transcendentally pure because of emanating from the toes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu.
When King Bhagīratha approached Lord Śiva and requested him to sustain the forceful waves of the Ganges, Lord Śiva accepted the proposal by saying, “Let it be so.” Then, with great attention, he sustained the Ganges on his head, for the water of the Ganges is purifying, having emanated from the toes of Lord Viṣṇu.
bhagīrathaḥ sa rājarṣir
yatra sva-pitṝṇāṁ dehā
bhasmībhūtāḥ sma śerate
bhagīrathaḥ — King Bhagīratha; saḥ — he; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the great saintly king; ninye — carried or brought; bhuvana-pāvanīm — mother Ganges, who can deliver the whole universe; yatra — in that place where; sva-pitṝṇām — of his forefathers; dehāḥ — the bodies; bhasmībhūtāḥ — having been burnt to ashes; sma śerate — were lying.
The great and saintly king Bhagīratha brought the Ganges, which can deliver all the fallen souls, to that place on earth where the bodies of his forefathers lay burnt to ashes.
deśān punantī nirdagdhān
rathena — on a chariot; vāyu-vegena — driving at the speed of the wind; prayāntam — Mahārāja Bhagīratha, who was going in front; anudhāvatī — running after; deśān — all the countries; punantī — sanctifying; nirdagdhān — who had been burnt to ashes; āsiñcat — sprinkled over; sagara-ātmajān — the sons of Sagara.
Bhagīratha mounted a swift chariot and drove before mother Ganges, who followed him, purifying many countries, until they reached the ashes of Bhagīratha’s forefathers, the sons of Sagara, who were thus sprinkled with water from the Ganges.
sagarātmajā divaṁ jagmuḥ
yat-jala — whose water; sparśa-mātreṇa — simply by touching; brahma-daṇḍa-hatāḥ — those who were condemned for offending brahma, the self; api — although; sagara-ātmajāḥ — the sons of Sagara; divam — to the heavenly planets; jagmuḥ — went; kevalam — only; deha-bhasmabhiḥ — by the remaining ashes of their burnt bodies.
Because the sons of Sagara Mahārāja had offended a great personality, the heat of their bodies had increased, and they were burnt to ashes. But simply by being sprinkled with water from the Ganges, all of them became eligible to go to the heavenly planets. What then is to be said of those who use the water of mother Ganges to worship her?
svar yātāḥ sagarātmajāḥ
kiṁ punaḥ śraddhayā devīṁ
sevante ye dhṛta-vratāḥ
bhasmībhūta-aṅga — by the body which had been burnt to ashes; saṅgena — by contacting the water of the Ganges; svaḥ yātāḥ — went to the heavenly planets; sagara-ātmajāḥ — the sons of Sagara; kim — what to speak of; punaḥ — again; śraddhayā — with faith and devotion; devīm — unto mother Ganges; sevante — worship; ye — those persons who; dhṛta-vratāḥ — with vows of determination.
Simply by having water from the Ganges come in contact with the ashes of their burnt bodies, the sons of Sagara Mahārāja were elevated to the heavenly planets. Therefore, what is to be said of a devotee who worships mother Ganges faithfully with a determined vow? One can only imagine the benefit that accrues to such a devotee.
na hy etat param āścaryaṁ
svardhunyā yad ihoditam
na — not; hi — indeed; etat — this; param — ultimate; āścaryam — wonderful thing; svardhunyāḥ — of the water of the Ganges; yat — which; iha — herewith; uditam — has been described; ananta — of the Supreme Lord; caraṇa-ambhoja — from the lotus of the feet; prasūtāyāḥ — of that which emanates; bhava-chidaḥ — which can liberate from material bondage.
Because mother Ganges emanates from the lotus toe of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Anantadeva, she is able to liberate one from material bondage. Therefore whatever is described herewith about her is not at all wonderful.
sanniveśya mano yasmiñ
chraddhayā munayo ’malāḥ
traiguṇyaṁ dustyajaṁ hitvā
sadyo yātās tad-ātmatām
sanniveśya — giving full attention; manaḥ — the mind; yasmin — unto whom; śraddhayā — with faith and devotion; munayaḥ — great saintly persons; amalāḥ — freed from all contamination of sins; traiguṇyam — the three modes of material nature; dustyajam — very difficult to give up; hitvā — they can nonetheless give up; sadyaḥ — immediately; yātāḥ — achieved; tat-ātmatām — the spiritual quality of the Supreme.
Great sages, completely freed from material lusty desires, devote their minds fully to the service of the Lord. Such persons are liberated from material bondage without difficulty, and they become transcendentally situated, acquiring the spiritual quality of the Lord. This is the glory of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
śruto bhagīrathāj jajñe
tasya nābho ’paro ’bhavat
sindhudvīpas tatas tasmād
ayutāyus tato ’bhavat
yo ’śva-vidyām ayān nalāt
sarvakāmas tu tat-sutam
śrutaḥ — a son named Śruta; bhagīrathāt — from Bhagīratha; jajñe — was born; tasya — of Śruta; nābhaḥ — by the name Nābha; aparaḥ — different from the Nābha previously described; abhavat — was born; sindhudvīpaḥ — by the name Sindhudvīpa; tataḥ — from Nābha; tasmāt — from Sindhudvīpa; ayutāyuḥ — a son named Ayutāyu; tataḥ — thereafter; abhavat — was born; ṛtūparṇaḥ — a son named Ṛtūparṇa; nala-sakhaḥ — who was a friend of Nala; yaḥ — one who; aśva-vidyām — the art of controlling horses; ayāt — achieved; nalāt — from Nala; dattvā — after giving in exchange; akṣa-hṛdayam — the secrets of the art of gambling; ca — and; asmai — unto Nala; sarvakāmaḥ — by the name Sarvakāma; tu — indeed; tat-sutam — his son (the son of Ṛtūparṇa).
Bhagīratha had a son named Śruta, whose son was Nābha. This son was different from the Nābha previously described. Nābha had a son named Sindhudvīpa, from Sindhudvīpa came Ayutāyu, and from Ayutāyu came Ṛtūparṇa, who became a friend of Nalarāja. Ṛtūparṇa taught Nalarāja the art of gambling, and Nalarāja gave Ṛtūparṇa lessons in controlling and maintaining horses. The son of Ṛtūparṇa was Sarvakāma.
tataḥ sudāsas tat-putro
āhur mitrasahaṁ yaṁ vai
kalmāṣāṅghrim uta kvacit
vasiṣṭha-śāpād rakṣo ’bhūd
tataḥ — from Sarvakāma; sudāsaḥ — Sudāsa was born; tat-putraḥ — the son of Sudāsa; damayantī-patiḥ — the husband of Damayantī; nṛpaḥ — he became king; āhuḥ — it is said; mitrasaham — Mitrasaha; yam vai — also; kalmāṣāṅghrim — by Kalmāṣapāda; uta — known; kvacit — sometimes; vasiṣṭha-śāpāt — being cursed by Vasiṣṭha; rakṣaḥ — a man-eater; abhūt — became; anapatyaḥ — without any son; sva-karmaṇā — by his own sinful act.
Sarvakāma had a son named Sudāsa, whose son, known as Saudāsa, was the husband of Damayantī. Saudāsa is sometimes known as Mitrasaha or Kalmāṣapāda. Because of his own misdeed, Mitrasaha was sonless and was cursed by Vasiṣṭha to become a man-eater [Rākṣasa].
kiṁ nimitto guroḥ śāpaḥ
etad veditum icchāmaḥ
kathyatāṁ na raho yadi
śrī-rājā uvāca — King Parīkṣit said; kim nimittaḥ — for what reason; guroḥ — of the spiritual master; śāpaḥ — curse; saudāsasya — of Saudāsa; mahā-ātmanaḥ — of the great soul; etat — this; veditum — to know; icchāmaḥ — I wish; kathyatām — please tell me; na — not; rahaḥ — confidential; yadi — if.
King Parīkṣit said: O Śukadeva Gosvāmī, why did Vasiṣṭha, the spiritual master of Saudāsa, curse that great soul? I wish to know of this. If it is not a confidential matter, please describe it to me.
saudāso mṛgayāṁ kiñcic
caran rakṣo jaghāna ha
mumoca bhrātaraṁ so ’tha
sañcintayann aghaṁ rājñaḥ
paktvā ninye narāmiṣam
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; saudāsaḥ — King Saudāsa; mṛgayām — in hunting; kiñcit — sometimes; caran — wandering; rakṣaḥ — a Rākṣasa, or man-eater; jaghāna — killed; ha — in the past; mumoca — released; bhrātaram — the brother of that Rākṣasa; saḥ — that brother; atha — thereafter; gataḥ — went; praticikīrṣayā — for taking revenge; sañcintayan — he thought; agham — to do some harm; rājñaḥ — of the King; sūda-rūpa-dharaḥ — disguised himself as a cook; gṛhe — in the house; gurave — unto the King’s spiritual master; bhoktu-kāmāya — who came there to take dinner; paktvā — after cooking; ninye — gave him; nara-āmiṣam — the flesh of a human being.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Once Saudāsa went to live in the forest, where he killed a man-eater [Rākṣasa] but forgave and released the man-eater’s brother. That brother, however, decided to take revenge. Thinking to harm the King, he became the cook at the King’s house. One day, the King’s spiritual master, Vasiṣṭha Muni, was invited for dinner, and the Rākṣasa cook served him human flesh.
rājānam aśapat kruddho
rakṣo hy evaṁ bhaviṣyasi
parivekṣyamāṇam — while examining the eatables; bhagavān — the most powerful; vilokya — when he saw; abhakṣyam — unfit for consumption; añjasā — very easily by his mystic power; rājānam — unto the King; aśapat — cursed; kruddhaḥ — being very angry; rakṣaḥ — a man-eater; hi — indeed; evam — in this way; bhaviṣyasi — you shall become.
While examining the food given to him, Vasiṣṭha Muni, by his mystic power, could understand that it was unfit to eat, being the flesh of a human being. He was very angry at this and immediately cursed Saudāsa to become a man-eater.
rakṣaḥ-kṛtaṁ tad viditvā
so ’py apo-’ñjalim ādāya
guruṁ śaptuṁ samudyataḥ
ruśatīḥ pādayor jahau
diśaḥ kham avanīṁ sarvaṁ
paśyañ jīvamayaṁ nṛpaḥ
rakṣaḥ-kṛtam — having been done by the Rākṣasa only; tat — that serving of human flesh; viditvā — after understanding; cakre — (Vasiṣṭha) performed; dvādaśa-vārṣikam — twelve years of penance for atonement; saḥ — that Saudāsa; api — also; apaḥ-añjalim — a palmful of water; ādāya — taking; gurum — his spiritual master, Vasiṣṭha; śaptum — to curse; samudyataḥ — was preparing; vāritaḥ — being forbidden; madayantyā — by his wife, who was also known as Madayantī; apaḥ — water; ruśatīḥ — strong by chanting of a mantra; pādayoḥ jahau — threw on his legs; diśaḥ — all directions; kham — in the sky; avanīm — on the surface of the world; sarvam — everywhere; paśyan — seeing; jīva-mayam — full of living entities; nṛpaḥ — the King.
When Vasiṣṭha understood that the human flesh had been served by the Rākṣasa, not by the King, he undertook twelve years of austerity to cleanse himself for having cursed the faultless King. Meanwhile, King Saudāsa took water and chanted the śapa-mantra, preparing to curse Vasiṣṭha, but his wife, Madayantī, forbade him to do so. Then the King saw that the ten directions, the sky and the surface of the globe were full of living entities everywhere.
rākṣasaṁ bhāvam āpannaḥ
pāde kalmāṣatāṁ gataḥ
rākṣasam — man-eating; bhāvam — propensity; āpannaḥ — having gotten; pāde — on the leg; kalmāṣatām — a black spot; gataḥ — obtained; vyavāya-kāle — at the time of sexual intercourse; dadṛśe — he saw; vana-okaḥ — living in the forest; dam-patī — a husband and wife; dvijau — who were brāhmaṇas.
Saudāsa thus acquired the propensity of a man-eater and received on his leg a black spot, for which he was known as Kalmāṣapāda. Once King Kalmāṣapāda saw a brāhmaṇa couple engaged in sexual intercourse in the forest.
kṣudhārto jagṛhe vipraṁ
na bhavān rākṣasaḥ sākṣād
madayantyāḥ patir vīra
nādharmaṁ kartum arhasi
dehi me ’patya-kāmāyā
akṛtārthaṁ patiṁ dvijam
kṣudhā-ārtaḥ — being aggrieved by hunger; jagṛhe — caught; vipram — the brāhmaṇa; tat-patnī — his wife; āha — said; akṛta-artha-vat — being unsatisfied, poor and hungry; na — not; bhavān — yourself; rākṣasaḥ — a man-eater; sākṣāt — directly or factually; ikṣvākūṇām — among the descendants of Mahārāja Ikṣvāku; mahā-rathaḥ — a great fighter; madayantyāḥ — of Madayantī; patiḥ — the husband; vīra — O hero; na — not; adharmam — irreligious act; kartum — to do; arhasi — you deserve; dehi — please deliver; me — my; apatya-kāmāyāḥ — desiring to get a son; akṛta-artham — whose desire has not been fulfilled; patim — husband; dvijam — who is a brāhmaṇa.
Being influenced by the propensity of a Rākṣasa and being very hungry, King Saudāsa seized the brāhmaṇa. Then the poor woman, the brāhmaṇa’s wife, said to the King: O hero, you are not actually a man-eater; rather, you are among the descendants of Mahārāja Ikṣvāku. Indeed, you are a great fighter, the husband of Madayantī. You should not act irreligiously in this way. I desire to have a son. Please, therefore, return my husband, who has not yet impregnated me.
deho ’yaṁ mānuṣo rājan
tasmād asya vadho vīra
dehaḥ — body; ayam — this; mānuṣaḥ — human; rājan — O King; puruṣasya — of the living being; akhila — universal; artha-daḥ — beneficial; tasmāt — therefore; asya — of the body of my husband; vadhaḥ — the killing; vīra — O hero; sarva-artha-vadhaḥ — killing all beneficial opportunities; ucyate — it is said.
O King, O hero, this human body is meant for universal benefits. If you kill this body untimely, you will kill all the benefits of human life.
eṣa hi brāhmaṇo vidvāṁs
bhūteṣv antarhitaṁ guṇaiḥ
eṣaḥ — this; hi — indeed; brāhmaṇaḥ — a qualified brāhmaṇa; vidvān — learned in Vedic knowledge; tapaḥ — austerity; śīla — good behavior; guṇa-anvitaḥ — endowed with all good qualities; ārirādhayiṣuḥ — desiring to be engaged in worshiping; brahma — the Supreme Brahman; mahā-puruṣa — the Supreme Person, Kṛṣṇa; saṁjñitam — known as; sarva-bhūta — of all living entities; ātma-bhāvena — as the Supersoul; bhūteṣu — in every living entity; antarhitam — within the core of the heart; guṇaiḥ — by qualities.
Here is a learned, highly qualified brāhmaṇa, engaged in performing austerity and eagerly desiring to worship the Supreme Lord, the Supersoul who lives within the core of the heart in all living entities.
so ’yaṁ brahmarṣi-varyas te
katham arhati dharma-jña
vadhaṁ pitur ivātmajaḥ
saḥ — he, the brāhmaṇa; ayam — this; brahma-ṛṣi-varyaḥ — not only a brāhmaṇa but the best of great sages, or brahmarṣis; te — also from you; rāja-ṛṣi-pravarāt — who are the best of all saintly kings, or rājarṣis; vibho — O master of the state; katham — how; arhati — he deserves; dharma-jña — O you, who are quite aware of religious principles; vadham — killing; pituḥ — from the father; iva — like; ātmajaḥ — the son.
My lord, you are completely aware of the religious principles. As a son never deserves to be killed by his father, here is a brāhmaṇa who should be protected by the king, and never killed. How does he deserve to be killed by a rājarṣi like you?
tasya sādhor apāpasya
kathaṁ vadhaṁ yathā babhror
manyate san-mato bhavān
tasya — of him; sādhoḥ — of the great saintly person; apāpasya — of one who has no sinful life; bhrūṇasya — of the embryo; brahma-vādinaḥ — of one who is well versed in Vedic knowledge; katham — how; vadham — the killing; yathā — as; babhroḥ — of a cow; manyate — you are thinking; sat-mataḥ — well recognized by higher circles; bhavān — your good self.
You are well known and worshiped in learned circles. How dare you kill this brāhmaṇa, who is a saintly, sinless person, well versed in Vedic knowledge? Killing him would be like destroying the embryo within the womb or killing a cow.
yady ayaṁ kriyate bhakṣyas
tarhi māṁ khāda pūrvataḥ
na jīviṣye vinā yena
kṣaṇaṁ ca mṛtakaṁ yathā
yadi — if; ayam — this brāhmaṇa; kriyate — is accepted; bhakṣyaḥ — as eatable; tarhi — then; mām — me; khāda — eat; pūrvataḥ — before that; na — not; jīviṣye — I shall live; vinā — without; yena — whom (my husband); kṣaṇam ca — even for a moment; mṛtakam — a dead body; yathā — like.
Without my husband, I cannot live for a moment. If you want to eat my husband, it would be better to eat me first, for without my husband I am as good as a dead body.
vyāghraḥ paśum ivākhādat
evam — in this way; karuṇa-bhāṣiṇyāḥ — while the brāhmaṇa’s wife was speaking very pitiably; vilapantyāḥ — lamenting severely; anātha-vat — exactly like a woman who has no protector; vyāghraḥ — a tiger; paśum — prey animal; iva — like; akhādat — ate up; saudāsaḥ — King Saudāsa; śāpa — by the curse; mohitaḥ — because of being condemned.
Being condemned by the curse of Vasiṣṭha, King Saudāsa devoured the brāhmaṇa, exactly as a tiger eats its prey. Even though the brāhmaṇa’s wife spoke so pitiably, Saudāsa was unmoved by her lamentation.
brāhmaṇī vīkṣya didhiṣuṁ
śocanty ātmānam urvīśam
aśapat kupitā satī
brāhmaṇī — the wife of the brāhmaṇa; vīkṣya — after seeing; didhiṣum — her husband, who was about to give the seed of a child; puruṣa-adena — by the man-eater (Rākṣasa); bhakṣitam — having been eaten up; śocantī — lamenting very much; ātmānam — for her body or her self; urvīśam — unto the King; aśapat — cursed; kupitā — being angry; satī — the chaste woman.
When the chaste wife of the brāhmaṇa saw that her husband, who was about to discharge semen, had been eaten by the man-eater, she was overwhelmed with grief and lamentation. Thus she angrily cursed the King.
yasmān me bhakṣitaḥ pāpa
kāmārtāyāḥ patis tvayā
tavāpi mṛtyur ādhānād
yasmāt — because; me — my; bhakṣitaḥ — was eaten up; pāpa — O sinful one; kāma-ārtāyāḥ — of a woman very much bereaved because of sexual desire; patiḥ — husband; tvayā — by you; tava — your; api — also; mṛtyuḥ — death; ādhānāt — when you try to discharge semen in your wife; akṛta-prajña — O foolish rascal; darśitaḥ — this curse is placed upon you.
O foolish, sinful person, because you have eaten my husband when I was sexually inclined and desiring to have the seed of a child, I shall also see you die when you attempt to discharge semen in your wife. In other words, whenever you attempt to sexually unite with your wife, you shall die.
evaṁ mitrasahaṁ śaptvā
tad-asthīni samiddhe ’gnau
prāsya bhartur gatiṁ gatā
evam — in this way; mitrasaham — King Saudāsa; śaptvā — after cursing; pati-loka-parāyaṇā — because of being inclined to go with her husband; tat-asthīni — her husband’s bones; samiddhe agnau — in the burning fire; prāsya — after placing; bhartuḥ — of her husband; gatim — to the destination; gatā — she also went.
Thus the wife of the brāhmaṇa cursed King Saudāsa, known as Mitrasaha. Then, being inclined to go with her husband, she set fire to her husband’s bones, fell into the fire herself, and went with him to the same destination.
mahiṣyā sa nivāritaḥ
viśāpaḥ — being released from the period of the curse; dvādaśa-abda-ante — after twelve years; maithunāya — for sexual intercourse with his wife; samudyataḥ — when Saudāsa was prepared to do it; vijñāpya — reminding him about; brāhmaṇī-śāpam — the curse given by the brāhmaṇī; mahiṣyā — by the Queen; saḥ — he (the King); nivāritaḥ — checked.
After twelve years, when King Saudāsa was released from the curse by Vasiṣṭha, he wanted to have sexual intercourse with his wife. But the Queen reminded him about the curse by the brāhmaṇī, and thus he was checked from sexual intercourse.
ata ūrdhvaṁ sa tatyāja
madayantyāṁ prajām adhāt
ataḥ — in this way; ūrdhvam — in the near future; saḥ — he, the King; tatyāja — gave up; strī-sukham — the happiness of sexual intercourse; karmaṇā — by destiny; aprajāḥ — remained sonless; vasiṣṭhaḥ — the great saint Vasiṣṭha; tat-anujñātaḥ — being permitted by the King to beget a son; madayantyām — in the womb of Madayantī, King Saudāsa’s wife; prajām — a child; adhāt — begot.
After being thus instructed, the King gave up the future happiness of sexual intercourse and by destiny remained sonless. Later, with the King’s permission, the great saint Vasiṣṭha begot a child in the womb of Madayantī.
sā vai sapta samā garbham
abibhran na vyajāyata
jaghne ’śmanodaraṁ tasyāḥ
so ’śmakas tena kathyate
sā — she, Queen Madayantī; vai — indeed; sapta — seven; samāḥ — years; garbham — the child within the womb; abibhrat — continued to bear; na — not; vyajāyata — gave delivery; jaghne — struck; aśmanā — by a stone; udaram — abdomen; tasyāḥ — of her; saḥ — a son; aśmakaḥ — by the name Aśmaka; tena — because of this; kathyate — was called.
Madayantī bore the child within the womb for seven years and did not give birth. Therefore Vasiṣṭha struck her abdomen with a stone, and then the child was born. Consequently, the child was known as Aśmaka [“the child born of a stone”].
aśmakād bāliko jajñe
yaḥ strībhiḥ parirakṣitaḥ
nārī-kavaca ity ukto
niḥkṣatre mūlako ’bhavat
aśmakāt — from that son named Aśmaka; bālikaḥ — a son named Bālika; jajñe — was born; yaḥ — this child Bālika; strībhiḥ — by women; parirakṣitaḥ — was protected; nārī-kavacaḥ — having a shield of women; iti uktaḥ — was known as such; niḥkṣatre — when there were no kṣatriyas (all kṣatriyas having been vanquished by Paraśurāma); mūlakaḥ — Mūlaka, the progenitor of the kṣatriyas; abhavat — he became.
From Aśmaka, Bālika took birth. Because Bālika was surrounded by women and was therefore saved from the anger of Paraśurāma, he was known as Nārīkavaca [“one who is protected by women”]. When Paraśurāma vanquished all the kṣatriyas, Bālika became the progenitor of more kṣatriyas. Therefore he was known as Mūlaka, the root of the kṣatriya dynasty.
tato daśarathas tasmāt
putra aiḍaviḍis tataḥ
rājā viśvasaho yasya
khaṭvāṅgaś cakravarty abhūt
tataḥ — from Bālika; daśarathaḥ — a son named Daśaratha; tasmāt — from him; putraḥ — a son; aiḍaviḍiḥ — named Aiḍaviḍi; tataḥ — from him; rājā viśvasahaḥ — the famous King Viśvasaha was born; yasya — of whom; khaṭvāṅgaḥ — the king named Khaṭvāṅga; cakravartī — emperor; abhūt — became.
From Bālika came a son named Daśaratha, from Daśaratha came a son named Aiḍaviḍi, and from Aiḍaviḍi came King Viśvasaha. The son of King Viśvasaha was the famous Mahārāja Khaṭvāṅga.
yo devair arthito daityān
avadhīd yudhi durjayaḥ
muhūrtam āyur jñātvaitya
sva-puraṁ sandadhe manaḥ
yaḥ — King Khaṭvāṅga who; devaiḥ — by the demigods; arthitaḥ — being requested; daityān — the demons; avadhīt — killed; yudhi — in a fight; durjayaḥ — very fierce; muhūrtam — for a second only; āyuḥ — duration of life; jñātvā — knowing; etya — approached; sva-puram — his own abode; sandadhe — fixed; manaḥ — the mind.
King Khaṭvāṅga was unconquerable in any fight. Requested by the demigods to join them in fighting the demons, he won victory, and the demigods, being very pleased, wanted to give him a benediction. The King inquired from them about the duration of his life and was informed that he had only one moment more. Thus he immediately left his palace and went to his own residence, where he engaged his mind fully on the lotus feet of the Lord.
na me brahma-kulāt prāṇāḥ
kula-daivān na cātmajāḥ
na śriyo na mahī rājyaṁ
na dārāś cātivallabhāḥ
na — not; me — my; brahma-kulāt — than the groups of brāhmaṇas; prāṇāḥ — life; kula-daivāt — than the personalities worshipable for my family; na — not; ca — also; ātmajāḥ — sons and daughters; na — nor; śriyaḥ — opulence; na — nor; mahī — the earth; rājyam — kingdom; na — nor; dārāḥ — wife; ca — also; ati-vallabhāḥ — extremely dear.
Mahārāja Khaṭvāṅga thought: Not even my life is dearer to me than the brahminical culture and the brāhmaṇas, who are worshiped by my family. What then is to be said of my kingdom, land, wife, children and opulence? Nothing is dearer to me than the brāhmaṇas.
na bālye ’pi matir mahyam
adharme ramate kvacit
anyat kiñcana vastv aham
na — not; bālye — in childhood; api — indeed; matiḥ — attraction; mahyam — of me; adharme — in irreligious principles; ramate — enjoys; kvacit — at any time; na — nor; apaśyam — I saw; uttamaślokāt — than the Personality of Godhead; anyat — anything else; kiñcana — anything; vastu — substance; aham — I.
I was never attracted, even in my childhood, by insignificant things or irreligious principles. I did not find anything more substantial than the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
devaiḥ kāma-varo datto
na vṛṇe tam ahaṁ kāmaṁ
devaiḥ — by the demigods; kāma-varaḥ — the benediction to have whatever he wanted; dattaḥ — was given; mahyam — unto me; tri-bhuvana-īśvaraiḥ — by the demigods, the protectors of the three worlds (who can do whatever they like within this material world); na vṛṇe — did not accept; tam — that; aham — I; kāmam — everything desirable within this material world; bhūtabhāvana-bhāvanaḥ — being fully absorbed in the Supreme Personality of Godhead (and therefore not interested in anything material).
The demigods, the directors of the three worlds, wanted to give me whatever benediction I desired. I did not want their benedictions, however, because I am interested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who created everything in this material world. I am more interested in the Supreme Personality of Godhead than in all material benedictions.
devās te sva-hṛdi sthitam
na vindanti priyaṁ śaśvad
ātmānaṁ kim utāpare
ye — which personalities; vikṣipta-indriya-dhiyaḥ — whose senses, mind and intelligence are always agitated because of material conditions; devāḥ — like the demigods; te — such persons; sva-hṛdi — in the core of the heart; sthitam — situated; na — not; vindanti — know; priyam — the dearmost Personality of Godhead; śaśvat — constantly, eternally; ātmānam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kim uta — what to speak of; apare — others (like human beings).
Even though the demigods have the advantages of being situated in the higher planetary system, their minds, senses and intelligence are agitated by material conditions. Therefore, even such elevated persons fail to realize the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is eternally situated in the core of the heart. What then is to be said of others, such as human beings, who have fewer advantages?
rūḍhaṁ prakṛtyātmani viśva-kartur
bhāvena hitvā tam ahaṁ prapadye
atha — therefore; īśa-māyā — by the external potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; raciteṣu — in things manufactured; saṅgam — attachment; guṇeṣu — in the modes of material nature; gandharva-pura-upameṣu — which are compared to the illusion of a gandharva-pura, a town or houses seen in the forest or on a hill; rūḍham — very powerful; prakṛtyā — by material nature; ātmani — unto the Supersoul; viśva-kartuḥ — of the creator of the whole universe; bhāvena — by devotional service; hitvā — giving up; tam — unto Him (the Lord); aham — I; prapadye — surrender.
Therefore I should now give up my attachment for things created by the external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I should engage in thought of the Lord and should thus surrender unto Him. This material creation, having been created by the external energy of the Lord, is like an imaginary town visualized on a hill or in a forest. Every conditioned soul has a natural attraction and attachment for material things, but one must simply give up this attachment and surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
iti vyavasito buddhyā
tataḥ svaṁ bhāvam āsthitaḥ
iti — thus; vyavasitaḥ — having firmly decided; buddhyā — by proper intelligence; nārāyaṇa-gṛhītayā — completely controlled by the mercy of Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hitvā — giving up; anya-bhāvam — consciousness other than Kṛṣṇa consciousness; ajñānam — which is nothing but constant ignorance and darkness; tataḥ — thereafter; svam — his original position as an eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa; bhāvam — devotional service; āsthitaḥ — situated.
Thus Mahārāja Khaṭvāṅga, by his advanced intelligence in rendering service to the Lord, gave up false identification with the body full of ignorance. In his original position of eternal servitorship, he engaged himself in rendering service to the Lord.
yat tad brahma paraṁ sūkṣmam
yaṁ gṛṇanti hi sātvatāḥ
yat — that which; tat — such; brahma param — Parabrahman, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa; sūkṣmam — spiritual, beyond all material conceptions; aśūnyam — not impersonal or void; śūnya-kalpitam — imagined to be void by less intelligent men; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudeva — Kṛṣṇa; iti — thus; yam — whom; gṛṇanti — sing about; hi — indeed; sātvatāḥ — pure devotees.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, is extremely difficult to understand for unintelligent men who accept Him as impersonal or void, which He is not. The Lord is therefore understood and sung about by pure devotees.