Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 9 Chapter 8
The Sons of Sagara Meet Lord Kapiladeva
campas tasmād vinirmitā
campāpurī sudevo ’to
vijayo yasya cātmajaḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; haritaḥ — the king named Harita; rohita-sutaḥ — the son of King Rohita; campaḥ — by the name Campa; tasmāt — from Harita; vinirmitā — was constructed; campā-purī — the township known as Campāpurī; sudevaḥ — by the name Sudeva; ataḥ — thereafter (from Campa); vijayaḥ — by the name Vijaya; yasya — of whom (Sudeva); ca — also; ātma-jaḥ — the son.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: The son of Rohita was Harita, and Harita’s son was Campa, who constructed the town of Campāpurī. The son of Campa was Sudeva, and his son was Vijaya.
bharukas tat-sutas tasmād
vṛkas tasyāpi bāhukaḥ
so ’ribhir hṛta-bhū rājā
sabhāryo vanam āviśat
bharukaḥ — by the name Bharuka; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Vijaya; tasmāt — from him (Bharuka); vṛkaḥ — by the name Vṛka; tasya — his; api — also; bāhukaḥ — by the name Bāhuka; saḥ — he, the King; aribhiḥ — by his enemies; hṛta-bhūḥ — his land having been taken away; rājā — the King (Bāhuka); sa-bhāryaḥ — with his wife; vanam — the forest; āviśat — entered.
The son of Vijaya was Bharuka, Bharuka’s son was Vṛka, and Vṛka’s son was Bāhuka. The enemies of King Bāhuka took away all his possessions, and therefore the King entered the order of vānaprastha and went to the forest with his wife.
vṛddhaṁ taṁ pañcatāṁ prāptaṁ
vṛddham — when he was old; tam — him; pañcatām — death; prāptam — who had obtained; mahiṣī — the queen; anumariṣyatī — who wanted to die with him and become satī; aurveṇa — by the great sage Aurva; jānatā — understanding that; ātmānam — the body of the queen; prajā-vantam — bore a son within the womb; nivāritā — was forbidden.
Bāhuka died when he was old, and one of his wives wanted to die with him, following the satī rite. At that time, however, Aurva Muni, knowing her to be pregnant, forbade her to die.
garo datto ’ndhasā saha
saha tenaiva sañjātaḥ
sagaraś cakravarty āsīt
sāgaro yat-sutaiḥ kṛtaḥ
ājñāya — knowing (this); asyai — unto that pregnant queen; sapatnībhiḥ — by the co-wives of the wife of Bāhuka; garaḥ — poison; dattaḥ — was given; andhasā saha — with her food; saha tena — with that poison; eva — also; sañjātaḥ — was born; sagara-ākhyaḥ — by the name Sagara; mahā-yaśāḥ — having a great reputation; sagaraḥ — King Sagara; cakravartī — the emperor; āsīt — became; sāgaraḥ — the place known as Gaṅgāsāgara; yat-sutaiḥ — by the sons of whom; kṛtaḥ — was excavated.
Knowing that she was pregnant, the co-wives of the wife of Bāhuka conspired to give her poison with her food, but it did not act. Instead, the son was born along with the poison. Therefore he became famous as Sagara [“one who is born with poison”]. Sagara later became the emperor. The place known as Gaṅgāsāgara was excavated by his sons.
yas tālajaṅghān yavanāñ
muṇḍāñ chmaśru-dharān kāṁścin
yaḥ — Mahārāja Sagara who; tālajaṅghān — the uncivilized clan named Tālajaṅgha; yavanān — persons averse to the Vedic literature; śakān — another class of atheist; haihaya — the uncivilized; barbarān — and the Barbaras; na — not; avadhīt — did kill; guru-vākyena — by the order of his spiritual master; cakre — made them; vikṛta-veṣiṇaḥ — dressed awkwardly; muṇḍān — shaved clean; śmaśru-dharān — wearing mustaches; kāṁścit — some of them; mukta-keśa — loose hair; ardha-muṇḍitān — half-shaven; anantaḥ-vāsasaḥ — without underwear; kāṁścit — some of them; abahiḥ-vāsasaḥ — without covering garments; aparān — others.
Sagara Mahārāja, following the order of his spiritual master, Aurva, did not kill the uncivilized men like the Tālajaṅghas, Yavanas, Śakas, Haihayas and Barbaras. Instead, some of them he made dress awkwardly, some of them he shaved clean but allowed to wear mustaches, some of them he left wearing loose hair, some he half shaved, some he left without underwear, and some without external garments. Thus these different clans were made to dress differently, but King Sagara did not kill them.
so ’śvamedhair ayajata
harim ātmānam īśvaram
tasyotsṛṣṭaṁ paśuṁ yajñe
saḥ — he, Mahārāja Sagara; aśvamedhaiḥ — by performing aśvamedha-yajñas; ayajata — worshiped; sarva-veda — of all Vedic knowledge; sura — and of all learned sages; ātmakam — the Supersoul; aurva-upadiṣṭa-yogena — by the mystic yoga practice advised by Aurva; harim — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ātmānam — unto the Supersoul; īśvaram — unto the supreme controller; tasya — of him (Sagara Mahārāja); utsṛṣṭam — which was meant for offering; paśum — the sacrificial animal; yajñe — in the sacrifice; jahāra — stole; aśvam — the horse; purandaraḥ — the King of heaven, Indra.
Following the instructions of the great sage Aurva, Sagara Mahārāja performed aśvamedha sacrifices and thus satisfied the Supreme Lord, who is the supreme controller, the Supersoul of all learned scholars, and the knower of all Vedic knowledge, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But Indra, the King of heaven, stole the horse meant to be offered at the sacrifice.
sumatyās tanayā dṛptāḥ
hayam anveṣamāṇās te
samantān nyakhanan mahīm
sumatyāḥ tanayāḥ — the sons born of Queen Sumati; dṛptāḥ — very proud of their prowess and influence; pituḥ — of their father (Mahārāja Sagara); ādeśa-kāriṇaḥ — following the order; hayam — the horse (stolen by Indra); anveṣamāṇāḥ — while seeking; te — all of them; samantāt — everywhere; nyakhanan — dug; mahīm — the earth.
[King Sagara had two wives, Sumati and Keśinī.] The sons of Sumati, who were very proud of their prowess and influence, following the order of their father, searched for the lost horse. While doing so, they dug into the earth very extensively.
prāg-udīcyāṁ diśi hayaṁ
eṣa vāji-haraś caura
hanyatāṁ hanyatāṁ pāpa
unmimeṣa tadā muniḥ
prāk-udīcyām — in the northeastern; diśi — direction; hayam — the horse; dadṛśuḥ — they saw; kapila-antike — near the āśrama of Kapila; eṣaḥ — here is; vāji-haraḥ — the horse thief; cauraḥ — the thief; āste — existing; mīlita-locanaḥ — with closed eyes; hanyatām hanyatām — kill him, kill him; pāpaḥ — a most sinful person; iti — in this way; ṣaṣṭi-sahasriṇaḥ — the sixty thousand sons of Sagara; udāyudhāḥ — raising their respective weapons; abhiyayuḥ — they approached; unmimeṣa — opened His eyes; tadā — at that time; muniḥ — Kapila Muni.
Thereafter, in the northeastern direction, they saw the horse near the āśrama of Kapila Muni. “Here is the man who has stolen the horse,” they said. “He is staying there with closed eyes. Certainly he is very sinful. Kill him! Kill him!” Shouting like this, the sons of Sagara, sixty thousand all together, raised their weapons. When they approached the sage, the sage opened His eyes.
bhasmasād abhavan kṣaṇāt
sva-śarīra-agninā — by the fire emanating from their own bodies; tāvat — immediately; mahendra — by the tricks of Indra, the King of heaven; hṛta-cetasaḥ — their consciousness having been taken away; mahat — a great personality; vyatikrama-hatāḥ — defeated by the fault of insulting; bhasmasāt — turned to ashes; abhavan — became; kṣaṇāt — immediately.
By the influence of Indra, the King of heaven, the sons of Sagara had lost their intelligence and disrespected a great personality. Consequently, fire emanated from their own bodies, and they were immediately burned to ashes.
na sādhu-vādo muni-kopa-bharjitā
nṛpendra-putrā iti sattva-dhāmani
kathaṁ tamo roṣamayaṁ vibhāvyate
jagat-pavitrātmani khe rajo bhuvaḥ
na — not; sādhu-vādaḥ — the opinion of learned persons; muni-kopa — by the anger of Kapila Muni; bharjitāḥ — were burned to ashes; nṛpendra-putrāḥ — all the sons of Sagara Mahārāja; iti — thus; sattva-dhāmani — in Kapila Muni, in whom the mode of goodness was predominant; katham — how; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; roṣa-mayam — manifested in the form of anger; vibhāvyate — can be manifested; jagat-pavitra-ātmani — in He whose body can purify the whole world; khe — in the sky; rajaḥ — dust; bhuvaḥ — earthly.
It is sometimes argued that the sons of King Sagara were burned to ashes by the fire emanating from the eyes of Kapila Muni. This statement, however, is not approved by great learned persons, for Kapila Muni’s body is completely in the mode of goodness and therefore cannot manifest the mode of ignorance in the form of anger, just as the pure sky cannot be polluted by the dust of the earth.
yasyeritā sāṅkhyamayī dṛḍheha naur
yayā mumukṣus tarate duratyayam
bhavārṇavaṁ mṛtyu-pathaṁ vipaścitaḥ
parātma-bhūtasya kathaṁ pṛthaṅ-matiḥ
yasya — by whom; īritā — had been explained; sāṅkhya-mayī — having the form of the philosophy analyzing the material world (Sāṅkhya philosophy); dṛḍhā — very strong (to deliver people from this material world); iha — in this material world; nauḥ — a boat; yayā — by which; mumukṣuḥ — a person desiring to be liberated; tarate — can cross over; duratyayam — very difficult to cross; bhava-arṇavam — the ocean of nescience; mṛtyu-patham — a material life of repeated birth and death; vipaścitaḥ — of a learned person; parātma-bhūtasya — who has been elevated to the transcendental platform; katham — how; pṛthak-matiḥ — a sense of distinction (between enemy and friend).
Kapila Muni enunciated in this material world the Sāṅkhya philosophy, which is a strong boat with which to cross over the ocean of nescience. Indeed, a person eager to cross the ocean of the material world may take shelter of this philosophy. In such a greatly learned person, situated on the elevated platform of transcendence, how can there be any distinction between enemy and friend?
yo ’samañjasa ity uktaḥ
sa keśinyā nṛpātmajaḥ
tasya putro ’ṁśumān nāma
yaḥ — one of the sons of Sagara Mahārāja; asamañjasaḥ — whose name was Asamañjasa; iti — as such; uktaḥ — known; saḥ — he; keśinyāḥ — in the womb of Keśinī, the other queen of Sagara Mahārāja; nṛpa-ātmajaḥ — the son of the King; tasya — of him (Asamañjasa); putraḥ — the son; aṁśumān nāma — was known as Aṁśumān; pitāmaha-hite — in doing good for his grandfather, Sagara Mahārāja; rataḥ — always engaged.
Among the sons of Sagara Mahārāja was one named Asamañjasa, who was born from the King’s second wife, Keśinī. The son of Asamañjasa was known as Aṁśumān, and he was always engaged in working for the good of Sagara Mahārāja, his grandfather.
jāti-smaraḥ purā saṅgād
yogī yogād vicālitaḥ
ācaran garhitaṁ loke
jñātīnāṁ karma vipriyam
sarayvāṁ krīḍato bālān
prāsyad udvejayañ janam
asamañjasaḥ — the son of Sagara Mahārāja; ātmānam — personally; darśayan — exhibiting; asamañjasam — very disturbing; jāti-smaraḥ — able to remember his past life; purā — formerly; saṅgāt — from bad association; yogī — although he was a great mystic yogī; yogāt — from the path of executing mystic yoga; vicālitaḥ — fell down; ācaran — behaving; garhitam — very badly; loke — in the society; jñātīnām — of his relatives; karma — activities; vipriyam — not very favorable; sarayvām — in the river Sarayū; krīḍataḥ — while engaged in sports; bālān — all the boys; prāsyat — would throw; udvejayan — giving trouble; janam — to people in general.
Formerly, in his previous birth, Asamañjasa had been a great mystic yogī, but by bad association he had fallen from his exalted position. Now, in this life, he was born in a royal family and was a jāti-smara; that is, he had the special advantage of being able to remember his past birth. Nonetheless, he wanted to display himself as a miscreant, and therefore he would do things that were abominable in the eyes of the public and unfavorable to his relatives. He would disturb the boys sporting in the river Sarayū by throwing them into the depths of the water.
evaṁ vṛttaḥ parityaktaḥ
pitrā sneham apohya vai
yogaiśvaryeṇa bālāṁs tān
darśayitvā tato yayau
evam vṛttaḥ — thus engaged (in abominable activities); parityaktaḥ — condemned; pitrā — by his father; sneham — affection; apohya — giving up; vai — indeed; yoga-aiśvaryeṇa — by mystic power; bālān tān — all those boys (thrown in the water and killed); darśayitvā — after again showing them all to their parents; tataḥ yayau — he left that place.
Because Asamañjasa engaged in such abominable activities, his father gave up affection for him and had him exiled. Then Asamañjasa exhibited his mystic power by reviving the boys and showing them to the King and their parents. After this, Asamañjasa left Ayodhyā.
bālakān punar āgatān
dṛṣṭvā visismire rājan
rājā cāpy anvatapyata
ayodhyā-vāsinaḥ — the inhabitants of Ayodhyā; sarve — all of them; bālakān — their sons; punaḥ — again; āgatān — having come back to life; dṛṣṭvā — after seeing this; visismire — became astounded; rājan — O King Parīkṣit; rājā — King Sagara; ca — also; api — indeed; anvatapyata — very much lamented (the absence of his son).
O King Parīkṣit, when all the inhabitants of Ayodhyā saw that their boys had come back to life, they were astounded, and King Sagara greatly lamented the absence of his son.
aṁśumāṁś codito rājñā
bhasmānti dadṛśe hayam
aṁśumān — the son of Asamañjasa; coditaḥ — being ordered; rājñā — by the King; turaga — the horse; anveṣaṇe — to search for; yayau — went out; pitṛvya-khāta — as described by his father’s brothers; anupatham — following that path; bhasma-anti — near the stack of ashes; dadṛśe — he saw; hayam — the horse.
Thereafter, Aṁśumān, the grandson of Mahārāja Sagara, was ordered by the King to search for the horse. Following the same path traversed by his uncles, Aṁśumān gradually reached the stack of ashes and found the horse nearby.
tatrāsīnaṁ muniṁ vīkṣya
prāñjaliḥ praṇato mahān
tatra — there; āsīnam — seated; munim — the great sage; vīkṣya — seeing; kapila-ākhyam — known as Kapila Muni; adhokṣajam — the incarnation of Viṣṇu; astaut — offered prayers; samāhita-manāḥ — with great attention; prāñjaliḥ — with folded hands; praṇataḥ — falling down, offered obeisances; mahān — Aṁśumān, the great personality.
The great Aṁśumān saw the sage named Kapila, the saint who is an incarnation of Viṣṇu, sitting there by the horse. Aṁśumān offered Him respectful obeisances, folded his hands and offered Him prayers with great attention.
na paśyati tvāṁ param ātmano ’jano
na budhyate ’dyāpi samādhi-yuktibhiḥ
kuto ’pare tasya manaḥ-śarīra-dhī-
visarga-sṛṣṭā vayam aprakāśāḥ
aṁśumān uvāca — Aṁśumān said; na — not; paśyati — can see; tvām — Your Lordship; param — transcendental; ātmanaḥ — of us living beings; ajanaḥ — Lord Brahmā; na — not; budhyate — can understand; adya api — even today; samādhi — by meditation; yuktibhiḥ — or by mental speculation; kutaḥ — how; apare — others; tasya — his; manaḥ-śarīra-dhī — who consider the body or mind to be the self; visarga-sṛṣṭāḥ — created beings within the material world; vayam — we; aprakāśāḥ — without transcendental knowledge.
Aṁśumān said: My Lord, even Lord Brahmā is to this very day unable to understand Your position, which is far beyond himself, either by meditation or by mental speculation. So what to speak of others like us, who have been created by Brahmā in various forms as demigods, animals, human beings, birds and beasts? We are completely in ignorance. Therefore, how can we know You, who are the Transcendence?
ye deha-bhājas tri-guṇa-pradhānā
guṇān vipaśyanty uta vā tamaś ca
yan-māyayā mohita-cetasas tvāṁ
viduḥ sva-saṁsthaṁ na bahiḥ-prakāśāḥ
ye — those persons who; deha-bhājaḥ — have accepted the material body; tri-guṇa-pradhānāḥ — influenced by the three modes of material nature; guṇān — the manifestation of the three modes of material nature; vipaśyanti — can see only; uta — it is so said; vā — either; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; ca — and; yat-māyayā — by the illusory energy of whom; mohita — has been bewildered; cetasaḥ — the core of whose heart; tvām — Your Lordship; viduḥ — know; sva-saṁstham — situated in one’s own body; na — not; bahiḥ-prakāśāḥ — those who can see only the products of external energy.
My Lord, You are fully situated in everyone’s heart, but the living entities, covered by the material body, cannot see You, for they are influenced by the external energy, conducted by the three modes of material nature. Their intelligence being covered by sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa and tamo-guṇa, they can see only the actions and reactions of these three modes of material nature. Because of the actions and reactions of the mode of ignorance, whether the living entities are awake or sleeping, they can see only the workings of material nature; they cannot see Your Lordship.
taṁ tvāṁ ahaṁ jñāna-ghanaṁ svabhāva-
sanandanādyair munibhir vibhāvyaṁ
kathaṁ vimūḍhaḥ paribhāvayāmi
tam — that personality; tvām — unto You; aham — I; jñāna-ghanam — Your Lordship, who are concentrated knowledge; svabhāva — by spiritual nature; pradhvasta — free from contamination; māyā-guṇa — caused by the three modes of material nature; bheda-mohaiḥ — by exhibition of the bewilderment of differentiation; sanandana-ādyaiḥ — by such personalities as the four Kumāras (Sanat-kumāra, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanātana); munibhiḥ — by such great sages; vibhāvyam — worshipable; katham — how; vimūḍhaḥ — being fooled by the material nature; paribhāvayāmi — can I think of You.
O my Lord, sages freed from the influence of the three modes of material nature — sages such as the four Kumāras [Sanat, Sanaka, Sanandana and Sanātana] — are able to think of You, who are concentrated knowledge. But how can an ignorant person like me think of You?
namāmahe tvāṁ puruṣaṁ purāṇam
praśānta — O completely peaceful one; māyā-guṇa — the modes of material nature; karma-liṅgam — symptomized by fruitive activities; anāma-rūpam — one who has no material name or form; sat-asat-vimuktam — transcendental to the manifested and nonmanifested modes of material nature; jñāna-upadeśāya — for distributing transcendental knowledge (as in Bhagavad-gītā); gṛhīta-deham — has assumed a form like a material body; namāmahe — I offer my respectful obeisances; tvām — unto You; puruṣam — the Supreme Person; purāṇam — the original.
O completely peaceful Lord, although material nature, fruitive activities and their consequent material names and forms are Your creation, You are unaffected by them. Therefore, Your transcendental name is different from material names, and Your form is different from material forms. You assume a form resembling a material body just to give us instructions like those of Bhagavad-gītā, but actually You are the supreme original person. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
tvat-māyā — through Your material energy; racite — which is manufactured; loke — in this world; vastu-buddhyā — accepting as factual; gṛha-ādiṣu — in hearth and home, etc; bhramanti — wander; kāma — by lusty desires; lobha — by greed; īrṣyā — by envy; moha — and by illusion; vibhrānta — is bewildered; cetasaḥ — the cores of whose hearts.
O my Lord, those whose hearts are bewildered by the influence of lust, greed, envy and illusion are interested only in false hearth and home in this world created by Your māyā. Attached to home, wife and children, they wander in this material world perpetually.
adya naḥ sarva-bhūtātman
moha-pāśo dṛḍhaś chinno
bhagavaṁs tava darśanāt
adya — today; naḥ — our; sarva-bhūta-ātman — O You, who are the Supersoul; kāma-karma-indriya-āśayaḥ — being under the influence of lusty desires and fruitive activities; moha-pāśaḥ — this hard knot of illusion; dṛḍhaḥ — very strong; chinnaḥ — broken; bhagavan — O my Lord; tava darśanāt — simply by seeing You.
O Supersoul of all living entities, O Personality of Godhead, simply by seeing You I have now been freed from all lusty desires, which are the root cause of insurmountable illusion and bondage in the material world.
itthaṁ gītānubhāvas taṁ
bhagavān kapilo muniḥ
anugrāhya dhiyā nṛpa
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; ittham — in this way; gīta-anubhāvaḥ — whose glories are described; tam — unto Him; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; kapilaḥ — named Kapila Muni; muniḥ — the great sage; aṁśumantam — unto Aṁśumān; uvāca — said; idam — this; anugrāhya — being very merciful; dhiyā — with the path of knowledge; nṛpa — O King Parīkṣit.
O King Parīkṣit, when Aṁśumān had glorified the Lord in this way, the great sage Kapila, the powerful incarnation of Viṣṇu, being very merciful to him, explained to him the path of knowledge.
aśvo ’yaṁ nīyatāṁ vatsa
ime ca pitaro dagdhā
gaṅgāmbho ’rhanti netarat
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the great personality Kapila Muni said; aśvaḥ — horse; ayam — this; nīyatām — take; vatsa — O My son; pitāmaha — of your grandfather; paśuḥ — this animal; tava — your; ime — all these; ca — also; pitaraḥ — bodies of forefathers; dagdhāḥ — burnt to ashes; gaṅgā-ambhaḥ — the water of the Ganges; arhanti — can be saved; na — not; itarat — any other means.
The Personality of Godhead said: My dear Aṁśumān, here is the animal sought by your grandfather for sacrifice. Please take it. As for your forefathers, who have been burnt to ashes, they can be delivered only by Ganges water, and not by any other means.
taṁ parikramya śirasā
prasādya hayam ānayat
sagaras tena paśunā
tam — that great sage; parikramya — after circumambulating; śirasā — (by bowing down) with his head; prasādya — making Him fully satisfied; hayam — the horse; ānayat — brought back; sagaraḥ — King Sagara; tena — by that; paśunā — animal; yajña-śeṣam — the last ritualistic ceremony of the sacrifice; samāpayat — executed.
Thereafter, Aṁśumān circumambulated Kapila Muni and offered Him respectful obeisances, bowing his head. After fully satisfying Him in this way, Aṁśumān brought back the horse meant for sacrifice, and with this horse Mahārāja Sagara performed the remaining ritualistic ceremonies.
rājyam aṁśumate nyasya
lebhe gatim anuttamām
rājyam — his kingdom; aṁśumate — unto Aṁśumān; nyasya — after delivering; niḥspṛhaḥ — without further material desires; mukta-bandhanaḥ — completely freed from material bondage; aurva-upadiṣṭa — instructed by the great sage Aurva; mārgeṇa — by following that path; lebhe — achieved; gatim — destination; anuttamām — supreme.
After delivering charge of his kingdom to Aṁśumān and thus being freed from all material anxiety and bondage, Sagara Mahārāja, following the means instructed by Aurva Muni, achieved the supreme destination.