Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 9 Chapter 20
The Dynasty of Pūru
pūror vaṁśaṁ pravakṣyāmi
yatra jāto ’si bhārata
yatra rājarṣayo vaṁśyā
brahma-vaṁśyāś ca jajñire
śrī-bādarāyaṇiḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; pūroḥ vaṁśam — the dynasty of Mahārāja Pūru; pravakṣyāmi — now I shall narrate; yatra — in which dynasty; jātaḥ asi — you were born; bhārata — O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, descendant of Mahārāja Bharata; yatra — in which dynasty; rāja-ṛṣayaḥ — all the kings were saintly; vaṁśyāḥ — one after another; brahma-vaṁśyāḥ — many brāhmaṇa dynasties; ca — also; jajñire — grew up.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, descendant of Mahārāja Bharata, I shall now describe the dynasty of Pūru, in which you were born, in which many saintly kings appeared, and from which many dynasties of brāhmaṇas began.
janamejayo hy abhūt pūroḥ
pracinvāṁs tat-sutas tataḥ
pravīro ’tha manusyur vai
tasmāc cārupado ’bhavat
janamejayaḥ — King Janamejaya; hi — indeed; abhūt — appeared; pūroḥ — from Pūru; pracinvān — Pracinvān; tat — his (Janamejaya’s); sutaḥ — son; tataḥ — from him (Pracinvān); pravīraḥ — Pravīra; atha — thereafter; manusyuḥ — Pravīra’s son Manusyu; vai — indeed; tasmāt — from him (Manusyu); cārupadaḥ — King Cārupada; abhavat — appeared.
King Janamejaya was born of this dynasty of Pūru. Janamejaya’s son was Pracinvān, and his son was Pravīra. Thereafter, Pravīra’s son was Manusyu, and from Manusyu came the son named Cārupada.
tasya sudyur abhūt putras
tasmād bahugavas tataḥ
raudrāśvas tat-sutaḥ smṛtaḥ
tasya — of him (Cārupada); sudyuḥ — by the name Sudyu; abhūt — appeared; putraḥ — a son; tasmāt — from him (Sudyu); bahugavaḥ — a son named Bahugava; tataḥ — from him; saṁyātiḥ — a son named Saṁyāti; tasya — and from him; ahaṁyātiḥ — a son named Ahaṁyāti; raudrāśvaḥ — Raudrāśva; tat-sutaḥ — his son; smṛtaḥ — well known.
The son of Cārupada was Sudyu, and the son of Sudyu was Bahugava. Bahugava’s son was Saṁyāti. From Saṁyāti came a son named Ahaṁyāti, from whom Raudrāśva was born.
ṛteyus tasya kakṣeyuḥ
jaleyuḥ sannateyuś ca
daśaite ’psarasaḥ putrā
vaneyuś cāvamaḥ smṛtaḥ
ṛteyuḥ — Ṛteyu; tasya — of him (Raudrāśva); kakṣeyuḥ — Kakṣeyu; sthaṇḍileyuḥ — Sthaṇḍileyu; kṛteyukaḥ — Kṛteyuka; jaleyuḥ — Jaleyu; sannateyuḥ — Sannateyu; ca — also; dharma — Dharmeyu; satya — Satyeyu; vrateyavaḥ — and Vrateyu; daśa — ten; ete — all of them; apsarasaḥ — born of an Apsarā; putrāḥ — sons; vaneyuḥ — the son named Vaneyu; ca — and; avamaḥ — the youngest; smṛtaḥ — known; ghṛtācyām — Ghṛtācī; indriyāṇi iva — exactly like the ten senses; mukhyasya — of the living force; jagat-ātmanaḥ — the living force of the entire universe.
Raudrāśva had ten sons, named Ṛteyu, Kakṣeyu, Sthaṇḍileyu, Kṛteyuka, Jaleyu, Sannateyu, Dharmeyu, Satyeyu, Vrateyu and Vaneyu. Of these ten sons, Vaneyu was the youngest. As the ten senses, which are products of the universal life, act under the control of life, these ten sons of Raudrāśva acted under Raudrāśva’s full control. All of them were born of the Apsarā named Ghṛtācī.
ṛteyo rantināvo ’bhūt
trayas tasyātmajā nṛpa
sumatir dhruvo ’pratirathaḥ
ṛteyoḥ — from the son named Ṛteyu; rantināvaḥ — the son named Rantināva; abhūt — appeared; trayaḥ — three; tasya — his (Rantināva’s); ātmajāḥ — sons; nṛpa — O King; sumatiḥ — Sumati; dhruvaḥ — Dhruva; apratirathaḥ — Apratiratha; kaṇvaḥ — Kaṇva; apratiratha-ātmajaḥ — the son of Apratiratha.
Ṛteyu had a son named Rantināva, who had three sons, named Sumati, Dhruva and Apratiratha. Apratiratha had only one son, whose name was Kaṇva.
tasya medhātithis tasmāt
putro ’bhūt sumate rebhir
duṣmantas tat-suto mataḥ
tasya — of him (Kaṇva); medhātithiḥ — a son named Medhātithi; tasmāt — from him (Medhātithi); praskanna-ādyāḥ — sons headed by Praskanna; dvijātayaḥ — all brāhmaṇas; putraḥ — a son; abhūt — there was; sumateḥ — from Sumati; rebhiḥ — Rebhi; duṣmantaḥ — Mahārāja Duṣmanta; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Rebhi; mataḥ — is well-known.
The son of Kaṇva was Medhātithi, whose sons, all brāhmaṇas, were headed by Praskanna. The son of Rantināva named Sumati had a son named Rebhi. Mahārāja Duṣmanta is well known as the son of Rebhi.
duṣmanto mṛgayāṁ yātaḥ
maṇḍayantīṁ ramām iva
vilokya sadyo mumuhe
deva-māyām iva striyam
babhāṣe tāṁ varārohāṁ
bhaṭaiḥ katipayair vṛtaḥ
duṣmantaḥ — Mahārāja Duṣmanta; mṛgayām yātaḥ — when he went hunting; kaṇva-āśrama-padam — to the residence of Kaṇva; gataḥ — he came; tatra — there; āsīnām — a woman sitting; sva-prabhayā — by her own beauty; maṇḍayantīm — illuminating; ramām iva — exactly like the goddess of fortune; vilokya — by observing; sadyaḥ — immediately; mumuhe — he became enchanted; deva-māyām iva — exactly like the illusory energy of the Lord; striyam — a beautiful woman; babhāṣe — he addressed; tām — her (the woman); vara-ārohām — who was the best of beautiful women; bhaṭaiḥ — by soldiers; katipayaiḥ — a few; vṛtaḥ — surrounded.
Once when King Duṣmanta went to the forest to hunt and was very much fatigued, he approached the residence of Kaṇva Muni. There he saw a most beautiful woman who looked exactly like the goddess of fortune and who sat there illuminating the entire āśrama by her effulgence. The King was naturally attracted by her beauty, and therefore he approached her, accompanied by some of his soldiers, and spoke to her.
prahasañ ślakṣṇayā girā
tat-darśana-pramuditaḥ — being very much enlivened by seeing the beautiful woman; sannivṛtta-pariśramaḥ — being relieved of the fatigue of the hunting excursion; papraccha — he inquired from her; kāma-santaptaḥ — being agitated by lusty desires; prahasan — in a joking mood; ślakṣṇayā — very beautiful and pleasing; girā — with words.
Seeing the beautiful woman, the King was very much enlivened, and the fatigue of his hunting excursion was relieved. He was of course very much attracted because of lusty desires, and thus he inquired from her as follows, in a joking mood.
kā tvaṁ kamala-patrākṣi
kiṁ svic cikīrṣitaṁ tatra
bhavatyā nirjane vane
kā — who; tvam — are you; kamala-patra-akṣi — O beautiful woman with eyes like the petals of a lotus; kasya asi — with whom are you related; hṛdayam-game — O most beautiful one, pleasing to the heart; kim svit — what kind of business; cikīrṣitam — is being thought of; tatra — there; bhavatyāḥ — by you; nirjane — solitary; vane — in the forest.
O beautiful lotus-eyed woman, who are you? Whose daughter are you? What purpose do you have in this solitary forest? Why are you staying here?
vedmy ahaṁ tvāṁ sumadhyame
na hi cetaḥ pauravāṇām
adharme ramate kvacit
vyaktam — it appears; rājanya-tanayām — the daughter of a kṣatriya; vedmi — can realize; aham — I; tvām — your good self; su-madhyame — O most beautiful; na — not; hi — indeed; cetaḥ — the mind; pauravāṇām — of persons who have taken birth in the Pūru dynasty; adharme — in irreligion; ramate — enjoys; kvacit — at any time.
O most beautiful one, it appears to my mind that you must be the daughter of a kṣatriya. Because I belong to the Pūru dynasty, my mind never endeavors to enjoy anything irreligiously.
tyaktā menakayā vane
vedaitad bhagavān kaṇvo
vīra kiṁ karavāma te
śrī-śakuntalā uvāca — Śrī Śakuntalā replied; viśvāmitra-ātmajā — the daughter of Viśvāmitra; eva — indeed; aham — I (am); tyaktā — left; menakayā — by Menakā; vane — in the forest; veda — knows; etat — all these incidents; bhagavān — the most powerful saintly person; kaṇvaḥ — Kaṇva Muni; vīra — O hero; kim — what; karavāma — can I do; te — for you.
Śakuntalā said: I am the daughter of Viśvāmitra. My mother, Menakā, left me in the forest. O hero, the most powerful saint Kaṇva Muni knows all about this. Now let me know, how may I serve you?
āsyatāṁ hy aravindākṣa
gṛhyatām arhaṇaṁ ca naḥ
bhujyatāṁ santi nīvārā
uṣyatāṁ yadi rocate
āsyatām — please come sit here; hi — indeed; aravinda-akṣa — O great hero with eyes like the petals of a lotus; gṛhyatām — please accept; arhaṇam — humble reception; ca — and; naḥ — our; bhujyatām — please eat; santi — what there is in stock; nīvārāḥ — nīvārā rice; uṣyatām — stay here; yadi — if; rocate — you so desire.
O King with eyes like the petals of a lotus, kindly come sit down and accept whatever reception we can offer. We have a supply of nīvārā rice that you may kindly take. And if you so desire, stay here without hesitation.
upapannam idaṁ subhru
svayaṁ hi vṛṇute rājñāṁ
kanyakāḥ sadṛśaṁ varam
śrī-duṣmantaḥ uvāca — King Duṣmanta replied; upapannam — just befitting your position; idam — this; su-bhru — O Śakuntalā, with beautiful eyebrows; jātāyāḥ — because of your birth; kuśika-anvaye — in the family of Viśvāmitra; svayam — personally; hi — indeed; vṛṇute — select; rājñām — of a royal family; kanyakāḥ — daughters; sadṛśam — on an equal level; varam — husbands.
King Duṣmanta replied: O Śakuntalā, with beautiful eyebrows, you have taken your birth in the family of the great saint Viśvāmitra, and your reception is quite worthy of your family. Aside from this, the daughters of a king generally select their own husbands.
om ity ukte yathā-dharmam
om iti ukte — by reciting the Vedic praṇava, invoking the Supreme Personality of Godhead to witness the marriage; yathā-dharmam — exactly according to the principles of religion (because Nārāyaṇa becomes the witness in an ordinary religious marriage also); upayeme — he married; śakuntalām — the girl Śakuntalā; gāndharva-vidhinā — by the regulative principle of the Gandharvas, without deviation from religious principles; rājā — Mahārāja Duṣmanta; deśa-kāla-vidhāna-vit — completely aware of duties according to time, position and objective.
When Śakuntalā responded to Mahārāja Duṣmanta’s proposal with silence, the agreement was complete. Then the King, who knew the laws of marriage, immediately married her by chanting the Vedic praṇava [oṁkāra], in accordance with the marriage ceremony as performed among the Gandharvas.
mahiṣyāṁ vīryam ādadhe
śvo-bhūte sva-puraṁ yātaḥ
kālenāsūta sā sutam
amogha-vīryaḥ — a person who discharges semen without being baffled, or, in other words, who must beget a child; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the saintly King Duṣmanta; mahiṣyām — into the Queen, Śakuntalā (after her marriage, Śakuntalā became the Queen); vīryam — semen; ādadhe — placed; śvaḥ-bhūte — in the morning; sva-puram — to his own place; yātaḥ — returned; kālena — in due course of time; asūta — gave birth; sā — she (Śakuntalā); sutam — to a son.
King Duṣmanta, who never discharged semen without a result, placed his semen at night in the womb of his Queen, Śakuntalā, and in the morning he returned to his palace. Thereafter, in due course of time, Śakuntalā gave birth to a son.
kaṇvaḥ kumārasya vane
cakre samucitāḥ kriyāḥ
baddhvā mṛgendraṁ tarasā
krīḍati sma sa bālakaḥ
kaṇvaḥ — Kaṇva Muni; kumārasya — of the son born of Śakuntalā; vane — in the forest; cakre — executed; samucitāḥ — prescribed; kriyāḥ — ritualistic ceremonies; baddhvā — capturing; mṛga-indram — a lion; tarasā — by force; krīḍati — playing; sma — in the past; saḥ — he; bālakaḥ — the child.
In the forest, Kaṇva Muni performed all the ritualistic ceremonies concerning the newborn child. Later, the boy became so powerful that he would capture a lion and play with it.
bhartur antikam āgamat
tam — him; duratyaya-vikrāntam — whose strength was insurmountable; ādāya — taking with her; pramadā-uttamā — the best of women, Śakuntalā; hareḥ — of God; aṁśa-aṁśa-sambhūtam — a partial plenary incarnation; bhartuḥ antikam — unto her husband; āgamat — approached.
Śakuntalā, the best of beautiful women, along with her son, whose strength was insurmountable and who was a partial expansion of the Supreme Godhead, approached her husband, Duṣmanta.
yadā na jagṛhe rājā
khe vāg āhāśarīriṇī
yadā — when; na — not; jagṛhe — accepted; rājā — the King (Duṣmanta); bhāryā-putrau — his real son and real wife; aninditau — not abominable, not accused by anyone; śṛṇvatām — while hearing; sarva-bhūtānām — all the people; khe — in the sky; vāk — a sound vibration; āha — declared; aśarīriṇī — without a body.
When the King refused to accept his wife and son, who were both irreproachable, an unembodied voice spoke from the sky as an omen and was heard by everyone present.
mātā bhastrā pituḥ putro
yena jātaḥ sa eva saḥ
bharasva putraṁ duṣmanta
mātā — the mother; bhastrā — just like the skin of a bellows containing air; pituḥ — of the father; putraḥ — the son; yena — by whom; jātaḥ — one is born; saḥ — the father; eva — indeed; saḥ — the son; bharasva — just maintain; putram — your son; duṣmanta — O Mahārāja Duṣmanta; mā — do not; avamaṁsthāḥ — insult; śakuntalām — Śakuntalā.
The voice said: O Mahārāja Duṣmanta, a son actually belongs to his father, whereas the mother is only a container, like the skin of a bellows. According to Vedic injunctions, the father is born as the son. Therefore, maintain your own son and do not insult Śakuntalā.
reto-dhāḥ putro nayati
tvaṁ cāsya dhātā garbhasya
satyam āha śakuntalā
retaḥ-dhāḥ — a person who discharges semen; putraḥ — the son; nayati — saves; nara-deva — O King (Mahārāja Duṣmanta); yama-kṣayāt — from punishment by Yamarāja, or from the custody of Yamarāja; tvam — your good self; ca — and; asya — of this child; dhātā — the creator; garbhasya — of the embryo; satyam — truthfully; āha — said; śakuntalā — your wife, Śakuntalā.
O King Duṣmanta, he who discharges semen is the actual father, and his son saves him from the custody of Yamarāja. You are the actual procreator of this child. Indeed, Śakuntalā is speaking the truth.
pitary uparate so ’pi
mahimā gīyate tasya
harer aṁśa-bhuvo bhuvi
pitari — after his father; uparate — passed away; saḥ — the King’s son; api — also; cakravartī — the emperor; mahā-yaśāḥ — very famous; mahimā — glories; gīyate — are glorified; tasya — his; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aṁśa-bhuvaḥ — a partial representation; bhuvi — upon this earth.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: When Mahārāja Duṣmanta passed away from this earth, his son became the emperor of the world, the proprietor of the seven islands. He is referred to as a partial representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in this world.
cakraṁ dakṣiṇa-haste ’sya
padma-kośo ’sya pādayoḥ
so ’bhiṣikto ’dhirāḍ vibhuḥ
gaṅgāyām anu vājibhiḥ
yamunām anu ca prabhuḥ
babandha pradadad vasu
bharatasya hi dauṣmanter
agniḥ sācī-guṇe citaḥ
sahasraṁ badvaśo yasmin
brāhmaṇā gā vibhejire
cakram — the mark of Kṛṣṇa’s disc; dakṣiṇa-haste — on the palm of the right hand; asya — of him (Bharata); padma-kośaḥ — the mark of the whorl of a lotus; asya — of him; pādayoḥ — on the soles of the feet; īje — worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mahā-abhiṣekeṇa — by a grand Vedic ritualistic ceremony; saḥ — he (Mahārāja Bharata); abhiṣiktaḥ — being promoted; adhirāṭ — to the topmost position of a ruler; vibhuḥ — the master of everything; pañca-pañcāśatā — fifty-five; medhyaiḥ — fit for sacrifices; gaṅgāyām anu — from the mouth of the Ganges to the source; vājibhiḥ — with horses; māmateyam — the great sage Bhṛgu; purodhāya — making him the great priest; yamunām — on the bank of the Yamunā; anu — in regular order; ca — also; prabhuḥ — the supreme master, Mahārāja Bharata; aṣṭa-saptati — seventy-eight; medhya-aśvān — horses fit for sacrifice; babandha — he bound; pradadat — gave in charity; vasu — riches; bharatasya — of Mahārāja Bharata; hi — indeed; dauṣmanteḥ — the son of Mahārāja Duṣmanta; agniḥ — the sacrificial fire; sācī-guṇe — on an excellent site; citaḥ — established; sahasram — thousands; badvaśaḥ — by the number of one badva (one badva equals 13,084); yasmin — in which sacrifices; brāhmaṇāḥ — all the brāhmaṇas present; gāḥ — the cows; vibhejire — received their respective share.
Mahārāja Bharata, the son of Duṣmanta, had the mark of Lord Kṛṣṇa’s disc on the palm of his right hand, and he had the mark of a lotus whorl on the soles of his feet. By worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead with a grand ritualistic ceremony, he became the emperor and master of the entire world. Then, under the priesthood of Māmateya, Bhṛgu Muni, he performed fifty-five horse sacrifices on the bank of the Ganges, beginning from its mouth and ending at its source, and seventy-eight horse sacrifices on the bank of the Yamunā, beginning from the confluence at Prayāga and ending at the source. He established the sacrificial fire on an excellent site, and he distributed great wealth to the brāhmaṇas. Indeed, he distributed so many cows that each of thousands of brāhmaṇas had one badva [13,084] as his share.
trayas-triṁśac-chataṁ hy aśvān
baddhvā vismāpayan nṛpān
dauṣmantir atyagān māyāṁ
devānāṁ gurum āyayau
trayaḥ — three; triṁśat — thirty; śatam — hundred; hi — indeed; aśvān — horses; baddhvā — arresting in the yajña; vismāpayan — astonishing; nṛpān — all other kings; dauṣmantiḥ — the son of Mahārāja Duṣmanta; atyagāt — surpassed; māyām — material opulences; devānām — of the demigods; gurum — the supreme spiritual master; āyayau — achieved.
Bharata, the son of Mahārāja Duṣmanta, bound thirty-three hundred horses for those sacrifices, and thus he astonished all other kings. He surpassed even the opulence of the demigods, for he achieved the supreme spiritual master, Hari.
mṛgāñ chukla-dataḥ kṛṣṇān
adāt karmaṇi maṣṇāre
mṛgān — first-class elephants; śukla-dataḥ — with very white tusks; kṛṣṇān — with black bodies; hiraṇyena — with gold ornaments; parīvṛtān — completely covered; adāt — give in charity; karmaṇi — in the sacrifice; maṣṇāre — by the name Maṣṇāra, or in the place known as Maṣṇāra; niyutāni — lakhs (one lakh equals one hundred thousand); caturdaśa — fourteen.
When Mahārāja Bharata performed the sacrifice known as Maṣṇāra [or a sacrifice in the place known as Maṣṇāra], he gave in charity fourteen lakhs of excellent elephants with white tusks and black bodies, completely covered with golden ornaments.
bharatasya mahat karma
na pūrve nāpare nṛpāḥ
naivāpur naiva prāpsyanti
bāhubhyāṁ tridivaṁ yathā
bharatasya — of Mahārāja Bharata, the son of Mahārāja Duṣmanta; mahat — very great, exalted; karma — activities; na — neither; pūrve — previously; na — nor; apare — after his time; nṛpāḥ — kings as a class; na — neither; eva — certainly; āpuḥ — attained; na — nor; eva — certainly; prāpsyanti — will get; bāhubhyām — by the strength of his arms; tri-divam — the heavenly planets; yathā — as.
As one cannot approach the heavenly planets simply by the strength of his arms (for who can touch the heavenly planets with his hands?), one cannot imitate the wonderful activities of Mahārāja Bharata. No one could perform such activities in the past, nor will anyone be able to do so in the future.
pauṇḍrān kaṅkān khaśāñ chakān
mlecchān dig-vijaye ’khilān
kirāta — the black people called Kirātas (mostly the Africans); hūṇān — the Huns, the tribes from the far north; yavanān — the meat-eaters; pauṇḍrān — the Pauṇḍras; kaṅkān — the Kaṅkas; khaśān — the Mongolians; śakān — the Śakas; abrahmaṇya — against the brahminical culture; nṛpān — kings; ca — and; ahan — he killed; mlecchān — such atheists, who had no respect for Vedic civilization; dik-vijaye — while conquering all directions; akhilān — all of them.
When Mahārāja Bharata was on tour, he defeated or killed all the Kirātas, Hūṇas, Yavanas, Pauṇḍras, Kaṅkas, Khaśas, Śakas and the kings who were opposed to the Vedic principles of brahminical culture.
jitvā purāsurā devān
ye rasaukāṁsi bhejire
deva-striyo rasāṁ nītāḥ
prāṇibhiḥ punar āharat
jitvā — conquering; purā — formerly; asurāḥ — the demons; devān — the demigods; ye — all who; rasa-okāṁsi — in the lower planetary system known as Rasātala; bhejire — took shelter; deva-striyaḥ — the wives and daughters of the demigods; rasām — in the lower planetary system; nītāḥ — were brought; prāṇibhiḥ — with their own dear associates; punaḥ — again; āharat — brought back to their original places.
Formerly, after conquering the demigods, all the demons had taken shelter in the lower planetary system known as Rasātala and had brought all the wives and daughters of the demigods there also. Mahārāja Bharata, however, rescued all those women, along with their associates, from the clutches of the demons, and he returned them to the demigods.
sarvān kāmān duduhatuḥ
prajānāṁ tasya rodasī
dikṣu cakram avartayat
sarvān kāmān — all necessities or desirable things; duduhatuḥ — fulfilled; prajānām — of the subjects; tasya — his; rodasī — this earth and the heavenly planets; samāḥ — years; tri-nava-sāhasrīḥ — three times nine thousand (that is, twenty-seven thousand); dikṣu — in all directions; cakram — soldiers or orders; avartayat — circulated.
Mahārāja Bharata provided all necessities for his subjects, both on this earth and in the heavenly planets, for twenty-seven thousand years. He circulated his orders and distributed his soldiers in all directions.
sa saṁrāḍ loka-pālākhyam
aiśvaryam adhirāṭ śriyam
cakraṁ cāskhalitaṁ prāṇān
mṛṣety upararāma ha
saḥ — he (Mahārāja Bharata); saṁrāṭ — the emperor; loka-pāla-ākhyam — known as the ruler of all the lokas, or planets; aiśvaryam — such opulences; adhirāṭ — thoroughly in power; śriyam — kingdom; cakram — soldiers or orders; ca — and; askhalitam — without failure; prāṇān — life or sons and family; mṛṣā — all false; iti — thus; upararāma — ceased to enjoy; ha — in the past.
As the ruler of the entire universe, Emperor Bharata had the opulences of a great kingdom and unconquerable soldiers. His sons and family had seemed to him to be his entire life. But finally he thought of all this as an impediment to spiritual advancement, and therefore he ceased from enjoying it.
tasyāsan nṛpa vaidarbhyaḥ
patnyas tisraḥ susammatāḥ
jaghnus tyāga-bhayāt putrān
tasya — of him (Mahārāja Bharata); āsan — there were; nṛpa — O King (Mahārāja Parīkṣit); vaidarbhyaḥ — daughters of Vidarbha; patnyaḥ — wives; tisraḥ — three; su-sammatāḥ — very pleasing and suitable; jaghnuḥ — killed; tyāga-bhayāt — fearing rejection; putrān — their sons; na anurūpāḥ — not exactly like the father; iti — like this; īrite — considering.
O King Parīkṣit, Mahārāja Bharata had three pleasing wives, who were daughters of the King of Vidarbha. When all three of them bore children who did not resemble the King, these wives thought that he would consider them unfaithful queens and reject them, and therefore they killed their own sons.
tasyaivaṁ vitathe vaṁśe
tad-arthaṁ yajataḥ sutam
tasya — his (Mahārāja Bharata’s); evam — thus; vitathe — being baffled; vaṁśe — in generating progeny; tat-artham — to get sons; yajataḥ — performing sacrifices; sutam — a son; marut-stomena — by performing a marut-stoma sacrifice; marutaḥ — the demigods named the Maruts; bharadvājam — Bharadvāja; upādaduḥ — presented.
The King, his attempt for progeny frustrated in this way, performed a sacrifice named marut-stoma to get a son. The demigods known as the Maruts, being fully satisfied with him, then presented him a son named Bharadvāja.
pravṛtto vārito garbhaṁ
śaptvā vīryam upāsṛjat
antaḥ-vatnyām — pregnant; bhrātṛ-patnyām — with the brother’s wife; maithunāya — desiring sexual enjoyment; bṛhaspatiḥ — the demigod named Bṛhaspati; pravṛttaḥ — so inclined; vāritaḥ — when forbidden to do so; garbham — the son within the abdomen; śaptvā — by cursing; vīryam — semen; upāsṛjat — discharged.
When the demigod named Bṛhaspati was attracted by his brother’s wife, Mamatā, who at that time was pregnant, he desired to have sexual relations with her. The son within her womb forbade this, but Bṛhaspati cursed him and forcibly discharged semen into the womb of Mamatā.
taṁ tyaktu-kāmāṁ mamatāṁ
ślokam enaṁ surā jaguḥ
tam — that newly born baby; tyaktu-kāmām — who was trying to avoid; mamatām — unto Mamatā; bhartuḥ tyāga-viśaṅkitām — very much afraid of being forsaken by her husband because of giving birth to an illegitimate son; nāma-nirvācanam — a name-giving ceremony, or nāma-karaṇa; tasya — to the child; ślokam — verse; enam — this; surāḥ — the demigods; jaguḥ — enunciated.
Mamatā very much feared being forsaken by her husband for giving birth to an illegitimate son, and therefore she considered giving up the child. But then the demigods solved the problem by enunciating a name for the child.
mūḍhe bhara dvājam imaṁ
bhara dvājaṁ bṛhaspate
yātau yad uktvā pitarau
bharadvājas tatas tv ayam
mūḍhe — O foolish woman; bhara — just maintain; dvājam — although born by an illicit connection between two; imam — this child; bhara — maintain; dvājam — although born by an illicit connection between two; bṛhaspate — O Bṛhaspati; yātau — left; yat — because; uktvā — having said; pitarau — both the father and mother; bharadvājaḥ — by the name Bharadvāja; tataḥ — thereafter; tu — indeed; ayam — this child.
Bṛhaspati said to Mamatā, “You foolish woman, although this child was born from the wife of one man through the semen discharged by another, you should maintain him.” Upon hearing this, Mamatā replied, “O Bṛhaspati, you maintain him!” After speaking in this way, Bṛhaspati and Mamatā both left. Thus the child was known as Bharadvāja.
codyamānā surair evaṁ
matvā vitatham ātmajam
vyasṛjan maruto ’bibhran
datto ’yaṁ vitathe ’nvaye
codyamānā — although Mamatā was encouraged (to maintain the child); suraiḥ — by the demigods; evam — in this way; matvā — considering; vitatham — purposeless; ātmajam — her own child; vyasṛjat — rejected; marutaḥ — the demigods known as the Maruts; abibhran — maintained (the child); dattaḥ — the same child was given; ayam — this; vitathe — was disappointed; anvaye — when the dynasty of Mahārāja Bharata.
Although encouraged by the demigods to maintain the child, Mamatā considered him useless because of his illicit birth, and therefore she left him. Consequently, the demigods known as the Maruts maintained the child, and when Mahārāja Bharata was disappointed for want of a child, this child was given to him as his son.