Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 7 Chapter 2
Hiraṇyakaśipu, King of the Demons
bhrātary evaṁ vinihate
paryatapyad ruṣā śucā
śrī-nāradaḥ uvāca — Śrī Nārada Muni said; bhrātari — when the brother (Hiraṇyākṣa); evam — thus; vinihate — was killed; hariṇā — by Hari; kroḍa-mūrtinā — in the form of the boar, Varāha; hiraṇyakaśipuḥ — Hiraṇyakaśipu; rājan — O King; paryatapyat — was afflicted; ruṣā — by anger; śucā — by grief.
Śrī Nārada Muni said: My dear King Yudhiṣṭhira, when Lord Viṣṇu, in the form of Varāha, the boar, killed Hiraṇyākṣa, Hiraṇyākṣa’s brother Hiraṇyakaśipu was extremely angry and began to lament.
āha cedaṁ ruṣā pūrṇaḥ
nirīkṣan dhūmram ambaram
āha — said; ca — and; idam — this; ruṣā — with anger; pūrṇaḥ — full; sandaṣṭa — bitten; daśana-chadaḥ — whose lips; kopa-ujjvaladbhyām — blazing with anger; cakṣurbhyām — with eyes; nirīkṣan — looking over; dhūmram — smoky; ambaram — the sky.
Filled with rage and biting his lips, Hiraṇyakaśipu gazed at the sky with eyes that blazed in anger, making the whole sky smoky. Thus he began to speak.
śūlam udyamya sadasi
dānavān idam abravīt
karāla-daṁṣṭra — with terrible teeth; ugra-dṛṣṭyā — and fierce glance; duṣprekṣya — horrible to see; bhru-kuṭī — with frowning eyebrows; mukhaḥ — whose face; śūlam — trident; udyamya — raising; sadasi — in the assembly; dānavān — to the demons; idam — this; abravīt — spoke.
Exhibiting his terrible teeth, fierce glance and frowning eyebrows, terrible to see, he took up his weapon, a trident, and thus began speaking to his associates, the assembled demons.
bho bho dānava-daiteyā
dvimūrdhaṁs tryakṣa śambara
namuce pāka ilvala
vipracitte mama vacaḥ
kriyatām āśu mā ciram
bhoḥ — O; bhoḥ — O; dānava-daiteyāḥ — Dānavas and Daityas; dvi-mūrdhan — Dvimūrdha (two-headed); tri-akṣa — Tryakṣa (three-eyed); śambara — Śambara; śata-bāho — Śatabāhu (hundred-armed); hayagrīva — Hayagrīva (horse-headed); namuce — Namuci; pāka — Pāka; ilvala — Ilvala; vipracitte — Vipracitti; mama — my; vacaḥ — words; puloman — Puloma; śakuna — Śakuna; ādayaḥ — and others; śṛṇuta — just hear; anantaram — after that; sarve — all; kriyatām — let it be done; āśu — quickly; mā — do not; ciram — delay.
O Dānavas and Daityas! O Dvimūrdha, Tryakṣa, Śambara and Śatabāhu! O Hayagrīva, Namuci, Pāka and Ilvala! O Vipracitti, Puloman, Śakuna and other demons! All of you, kindly hear me attentively and then act according to my words without delay.
sapatnair ghātitaḥ kṣudrair
bhrātā me dayitaḥ suhṛt
sapatnaiḥ — by the enemies*; ghātitaḥ — killed; kṣudraiḥ — insignificant in power; bhrātā — brother; me — my; dayitaḥ — very dear; suhṛt — well-wisher; pārṣṇi-grāheṇa — attacking from the rear; hariṇā — by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samena — equal to everyone (both the demigods and demons); api — although; upadhāvanaiḥ — by the worshipers, the demigods.
My insignificant enemies the demigods have combined to kill my very dear and obedient well-wisher, my brother Hiraṇyākṣa. Although the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu, is always equal to both of us — namely, the demigods and the demons — this time, being devoutly worshiped by the demigods, He has taken their side and helped them kill Hiraṇyākṣa.
bhūriṇā rudhireṇa vai
bhrātaraṁ me gata-vyathaḥ
tasya — of Him (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); tyakta-svabhāvasya — who has given up His natural position (of being equal to everyone); ghṛṇeḥ — most abominable; māyā — under the influence of the illusory energy; vana-okasaḥ — behaving exactly like an animal in the jungle; bhajantam — unto the devotee engaged in devotional service; bhajamānasya — being worshiped; bālasya — a child; iva — like; asthira-ātmanaḥ — who is always restless and changing; mat — my; śūla — by the trident; bhinna — separated; grīvasya — whose neck; bhūriṇā — profuse; rudhireṇa — by blood; vai — indeed; asṛk-priyam — who was fond of blood; tarpayiṣye — I shall please; bhrātaram — brother; me — my; gata-vyathaḥ — becoming peaceful myself.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead has given up His natural tendency of equality toward the demons and demigods. Although He is the Supreme Person, now, influenced by māyā, He has assumed the form of a boar to please His devotees, the demigods, just as a restless child leans toward someone. I shall therefore sever Lord Viṣṇu’s head from His trunk by my trident, and with the profuse blood from His body I shall please my brother Hiraṇyākṣa, who was so fond of sucking blood. Thus shall I too be peaceful.
tasmin kūṭe ’hite naṣṭe
viṭapā iva śuṣyanti
tasmin — when He; kūṭe — the most deceitful; ahite — enemy; naṣṭe — is finished; kṛtta-mūle — having its roots cut off; vanas-patau — a tree; viṭapāḥ — the branches and leaves; iva — like; śuṣyanti — dry up; viṣṇu-prāṇāḥ — whose life is Lord Viṣṇu; diva-okasaḥ — the demigods.
When the root of a tree is cut and the tree falls down, its branches and twigs automatically dry up. Similarly, when I have killed this diplomatic Viṣṇu, the demigods, for whom Lord Viṣṇu is the life and soul, will lose the source of their life and wither away.
tāvad yāta bhuvaṁ yūyaṁ
tāvat — as long as (I am engaged in the matter of killing Viṣṇu); yāta — go; bhuvam — to the planet earth; yūyam — all of you; brahma-kṣatra — of the brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas; samedhitām — made prosperous by the activities (brahminical culture and Vedic government); sūdayadhvam — just destroy; tapaḥ — the performers of austerities; yajña — sacrifices; svādhyāya — study of Vedic knowledge; vrata — the regulative vows; dāninaḥ — and those giving charity.
While I am engaged in the business of killing Lord Viṣṇu, go down to the planet earth, which is flourishing due to brahminical culture and a kṣatriya government. These people engage in austerity, sacrifice, Vedic study, regulative vows, and charity. Destroy all the people thus engaged!
yajño dharmamayaḥ pumān
dharmasya ca parāyaṇam
viṣṇuḥ — Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dvija — of the brāhmaṇas and kṣatriyas; kriyā-mūlaḥ — whose root is the performance of yajña and the ritualistic ceremonies mentioned in the Vedas; yajñaḥ — personified yajña (Lord Viṣṇu, who is known as the yajña-puruṣa); dharma-mayaḥ — full of religious principles; pumān — the Supreme Person; deva-ṛṣi — of the demigods and great ṛṣis like Vyāsadeva and Nārada; pitṛ — of the forefathers; bhūtānām — and of all other living entities; dharmasya — of the religious principles; ca — also; parāyaṇam — the shelter.
The basic principle of brahminical culture is to satisfy Lord Viṣṇu, the personification of sacrificial and ritualistic ceremonies. Lord Viṣṇu is the personified reservoir of all religious principles, and He is the shelter of all the demigods, the great pitās, and the people in general. When the brāhmaṇas are killed, no one will exist to encourage the kṣatriyas to perform yajñas, and thus the demigods, not being appeased by yajña, will automatically die.
yatra yatra dvijā gāvo
taṁ taṁ janapadaṁ yāta
yatra yatra — wherever; dvijāḥ — the brāhmaṇas; gāvaḥ — the protected cows; vedāḥ — the Vedic culture; varṇa-āśrama — of the Āryan civilization of four varṇas and four āśramas; kriyāḥ — the activities; tam tam — that; jana-padam — to the city or town; yāta — go; sandīpayata — set fire; vṛścata — cut down (all the trees).
Immediately go wherever there is good protection for the cows and brāhmaṇas and wherever the Vedas are studied in terms of the varṇāśrama principles. Set fire to those places and cut from the roots the trees there, which are the source of life.
iti te bhartṛ-nirdeśam
tathā prajānāṁ kadanaṁ
iti — thus; te — they; bhartṛ — of the master; nirdeśam — the direction; ādāya — receiving; śirasā — with their heads; ādṛtāḥ — respecting; tathā — so also; prajānām — of all the citizens; kadanam — persecution; vidadhuḥ — executed; kadana-priyāḥ — who are expert in persecuting others.
Thus the demons, being fond of disastrous activities, took Hiraṇyakaśipu’s instructions on their heads with great respect and offered him obeisances. According to his directions, they engaged in envious activities directed against all living beings.
dadahuḥ pattanāni ca
pura — cities and towns; grāma — villages; vraja — pasturing grounds; udyāna — gardens; kṣetra — agricultural fields; ārāma — natural forests; āśrama — hermitages of saintly persons; ākarān — and mines (that produce valuable metals to maintain brahminical culture); kheṭa — farm villages; kharvaṭa — mountain villages; ghoṣān — the little villages of cowherds; ca — and; dadahuḥ — they burned; pattanāni — the capitals; ca — also.
The demons set fire to the cities, villages, pasturing grounds, cowpens, gardens, agricultural fields and natural forests. They burned the hermitages of the saintly persons, the important mines that produced valuable metals, the residential quarters of the agriculturalists, the mountain villages, and the villages of the cow protectors, the cowherd men. They also burned the government capitals.
kecit khanitrair bibhiduḥ
ājīvyāṁś cicchidur vṛkṣān
prādahañ śaraṇāny eke
kecit — some of the demons; khanitraiḥ — with digging instruments; bibhiduḥ — broke to pieces; setu — bridges; prākāra — protective walls; gopurān — city gates; ājīvyān — the source of livelihood; cicchiduḥ — cut down; vṛkṣān — trees; kecit — some; paraśu-pāṇayaḥ — taking axes in hand; prādahan — burned down; śaraṇāni — the dwellings; eke — other demons; prajānām — of the citizens; jvalita — blazing; ulmukaiḥ — with firebrands.
Some of the demons took digging instruments and broke down the bridges, the protective walls and the gates [gopuras] of the cities. Some took axes and began cutting the important trees that produced mango, jackfruit and other sources of food. Some of the demons took firebrands and set fire to the residential quarters of the citizens.
evaṁ viprakṛte loke
divaṁ devāḥ parityajya
bhuvi cerur alakṣitāḥ
evam — thus; viprakṛte — being disturbed; loke — when all the people; daitya-indra-anucaraiḥ — by the followers of Hiraṇyakaśipu, the King of the Daityas; muhuḥ — again and again; divam — the heavenly planets; devāḥ — the demigods; parityajya — giving up; bhuvi — on the planet earth; ceruḥ — wandered (to see the extent of the disturbances); alakṣitāḥ — unseen by the demons.
Thus disturbed again and again by the unnatural occurrences caused by the followers of Hiraṇyakaśipu, all the people had to cease the activities of Vedic culture. Not receiving the results of yajña, the demigods also became disturbed. They left their residential quarters in the heavenly planets and, unobserved by the demons, began wandering on the planet earth to see the disasters.
hiraṇyakaśipuḥ — Hiraṇyakaśipu; bhrātuḥ — of the brother; samparetasya — deceased; duḥkhitaḥ — being very much distressed; kṛtvā — performing; kaṭodaka-ādīni — ceremonies observed after a death; bhrātṛ-putrān — the sons of his brother; asāntvayat — pacified.
After performing the ritualistic observances for the death of his brother, Hiraṇyakaśipu, being extremely unhappy, tried to pacify his nephews.
śakuniṁ śambaraṁ dhṛṣṭiṁ
ditiṁ ca jananīṁ girā
idam āha janeśvara
śakunim — Śakuni; śambaram — Śambara; dhṛṣṭim — Dhṛṣṭi; bhūtasantāpanam — Bhūtasantāpana; vṛkam — Vṛka; kālanābham — Kālanābha; mahānābham — Mahānābha; hariśmaśrum — Hariśmaśru; atha — as well as; utkacam — Utkaca; tat-mātaram — their mother; ruṣābhānum — Ruṣābhānu; ditim — Diti; ca — and; jananīm — his own mother; girā — by words; ślakṣṇayā — very sweet; deśa-kāla-jñaḥ — who was expert in understanding the time and situation; idam — this; āha — said; jana-īśvara — O King.
O King, Hiraṇyakaśipu was extremely angry, but since he was a great politician, he knew how to act according to the time and situation. With sweet words he began pacifying his nephews, whose names were Śakuni, Śambara, Dhṛṣṭi, Bhūtasantāpana, Vṛka, Kālanābha, Mahānābha, Hariśmaśru and Utkaca. He also consoled their mother, his sister-in-law, Ruṣābhānu, as well as his own mother, Diti. He spoke to them all as follows.
ambāmba he vadhūḥ putrā
vīraṁ mārhatha śocitum
ripor abhimukhe ślāghyaḥ
śūrāṇāṁ vadha īpsitaḥ
śrī-hiraṇyakaśipuḥ uvāca — Hiraṇyakaśipu said; amba amba — my mother, my mother; he — O; vadhūḥ — my sister-in-law; putrāḥ — O sons of my brother; vīram — the hero; mā — not; arhatha — you deserve; śocitum — to lament about; ripoḥ — of the enemy; abhimukhe — in front; ślāghyaḥ — glorious; śūrāṇām — of those who are actually great; vadhaḥ — killing; īpsitaḥ — desired.
Hiraṇyakaśipu said: My dear mother, sister-in-law and nephews, you should not lament for the death of the great hero, for a hero’s death in front of his enemy is glorious and desirable.
bhūtānām iha saṁvāsaḥ
prapāyām iva suvrate
bhūtānām — of all living entities; iha — in this material world; saṁvāsaḥ — the living together; prapāyām — in a place for drinking cold water; iva — like; su-vrate — O my gentle mother; daivena — by the superior arrangement; ekatra — in one place; nītānām — of those brought; unnītānām — of those led apart; sva-karmabhiḥ — by their own reactions.
My dear mother, in a restaurant or place for drinking cold water, many travelers are brought together, and after drinking water they continue to their respective destinations. Similarly, living entities join together in a family, and later, as a result of their own actions, they are led apart to their destinations.
nitya ātmāvyayaḥ śuddhaḥ
sarvagaḥ sarva-vit paraḥ
dhatte ’sāv ātmano liṅgaṁ
māyayā visṛjan guṇān
nityaḥ — eternal; ātmā — spirit soul; avyayaḥ — inexhaustible; śuddhaḥ — with no material tinge; sarva-gaḥ — qualified to go anywhere in the material or spiritual worlds; sarva-vit — full of knowledge; paraḥ — transcendental to material conditions; dhatte — accepts; asau — that ātmā, or living being; ātmanaḥ — of the self; liṅgam — a body; māyayā — by the material energy; visṛjan — creating; guṇān — various material qualities.
The spirit soul, the living entity, has no death, for he is eternal and inexhaustible. Being free from material contamination, he can go anywhere in the material or spiritual worlds. He is fully aware and completely different from the material body, but because of being misled by misuse of his slight independence, he is obliged to accept subtle and gross bodies created by the material energy and thus be subjected to so-called material happiness and distress. Therefore, no one should lament for the passing of the spirit soul from the body.
taravo ’pi calā iva
dṛśyate calatīva bhūḥ
yathā — just as; ambhasā — by water; pracalatā — moving; taravaḥ — the trees (on the bank of the river); api — also; calāḥ — moving; iva — as if; cakṣuṣā — by the eye; bhrāmyamāṇena — moving; dṛśyate — is seen; calatī — moving; iva — as if; bhūḥ — the ground.
Because of the movements of the water, the trees on the bank of a river, when reflected on the water, seem to move. Similarly, when the eyes move because of some mental derangement, the land appears to move also.
evaṁ guṇair bhrāmyamāṇe
manasy avikalaḥ pumān
yāti tat-sāmyatāṁ bhadre
hy aliṅgo liṅgavān iva
evam — in this way; guṇaiḥ — by the modes of material nature; bhrāmyamāṇe — when shaken; manasi — the mind; avikalaḥ — changeless; pumān — the living entity; yāti — approaches; tat-sāmyatām — the same condition of agitation as the mind; bhadre — O my gentle mother; hi — indeed; aliṅgaḥ — without a subtle or gross body; liṅga-vān — possessing a material body; iva — as if.
In the same way, O my gentle mother, when the mind is agitated by the movements of the modes of material nature, the living entity, although freed from all the different phases of the subtle and gross bodies, thinks that he has changed from one condition to another.
hy aliṅge liṅga-bhāvanā
eṣa priyāpriyair yogo
sambhavaś ca vināśaś ca
śokaś ca vividhaḥ smṛtaḥ
avivekaś ca cintā ca
vivekāsmṛtir eva ca
eṣaḥ — this; ātma-viparyāsaḥ — bewilderment of the living being; hi — indeed; aliṅge — in that which does not possess a material body; liṅga-bhāvanā — accepting the material body to be the self; eṣaḥ — this; priya — with those who are very dear; apriyaiḥ — and with those who are not dear (enemies, those not in the family, etc); yogaḥ — connection; viyogaḥ — separation; karma — the fruits of action; saṁsṛtiḥ — the material condition of life; sambhavaḥ — accepting birth; ca — and; vināśaḥ — accepting death; ca — and; śokaḥ — lamentation; ca — and; vividhaḥ — varieties; smṛtaḥ — mentioned in scripture; avivekaḥ — lack of discrimination; ca — and; cintā — anxiety; ca — also; viveka — of proper discrimination; asmṛtiḥ — forgetfulness; eva — indeed; ca — also.
In his bewildered state, the living entity, accepting the body and mind to be the self, considers some people to be his kinsmen and others to be outsiders. Because of this misconception, he suffers. Indeed, the accumulation of such concocted material ideas is the cause of suffering and so-called happiness in the material world. The conditioned soul thus situated must take birth in different species and work in various types of consciousness, thus creating new bodies. This continued material life is called saṁsāra. Birth, death, lamentation, foolishness and anxiety are due to such material considerations. Thus we sometimes come to a proper understanding and sometimes fall again to a wrong conception of life.
saṁvādaṁ taṁ nibodhata
atra — in this connection; api — indeed; udāharanti — they cite; imam — this; itihāsam — history; purātanam — very old; yamasya — of Yamarāja, the superintendent of death, who gives judgment after death; preta-bandhūnām — of the friends of a dead man; saṁvādam — discussion; tam — that; nibodhata — try to understand.
In this regard, an example is given from an old history. This involves a discourse between Yamarāja and the friends of a dead person. Please hear it attentively.
uśīnareṣv abhūd rājā
suyajña iti viśrutaḥ
sapatnair nihato yuddhe
jñātayas tam upāsata
uśīnareṣu — in the state known as Uśīnara; abhūt — there was; rājā — a king; suyajñaḥ — Suyajña; iti — thus; viśrutaḥ — celebrated; sapatnaiḥ — by enemies; nihataḥ — killed; yuddhe — in war; jñātayaḥ — the kinsmen; tam — him; upāsata — sat around.
In the state known as Uśīnara there was a celebrated king named Suyajña. When the King was killed in battle by his enemies, his kinsmen sat down around the dead body and began to lament the death of their friend.
uśīnarendraṁ vidhinā tathā kṛtaṁ
patiṁ mahiṣyaḥ prasamīkṣya duḥkhitāḥ
hatāḥ sma nātheti karair uro bhṛśaṁ
ghnantyo muhus tat-padayor upāpatan
viśīrṇa — scattered here and there; ratna — made of jewels; kavacam — protective armor; vibhraṣṭa — fallen off; ābharaṇa — ornaments; srajam — garlands; śara-nirbhinna — pierced by arrows; hṛdayam — the heart; śayānam — lying down; asṛk-āvilam — smeared with blood; prakīrṇa-keśam — his hair loosened and scattered; dhvasta-akṣam — his eyes obscured; rabhasā — with anger; daṣṭa — bitten; dacchadam — his lips; rajaḥ-kuṇṭha — covered with dust; mukha-ambhojam — his face, which had formerly resembled a lotus flower; chinna — cut off; āyudha-bhujam — his arms and weapons; mṛdhe — on the battlefield; uśīnara-indram — the master of the state of Uśīnara; vidhinā — by providence; tathā — thus; kṛtam — forced into this position; patim — the husband; mahiṣyaḥ — the queens; prasamīkṣya — seeing; duḥkhitāḥ — very much aggrieved; hatāḥ — killed; sma — certainly; nātha — O husband; iti — thus; karaiḥ — with the hands; uraḥ — the breast; bhṛśam — constantly; ghnantyaḥ — pounding; muhuḥ — again and again; tat-padayoḥ — at the feet of the King; upāpatan — fell down.
His golden, bejeweled armor smashed, his ornaments and garlands fallen from their places, his hair scattered and his eyes lusterless, the slain King lay on the battlefield, his entire body smeared with blood, his heart pierced by the arrows of the enemy. When he died he had wanted to show his prowess, and thus he had bitten his lips, and his teeth remained in that position. His beautiful lotuslike face was now black and covered with dust from the battlefield. His arms, with his sword and other weapons, were cut and broken. When the queens of the King of Uśīnara saw their husband lying in that position, they began crying, “O lord, now that you have been killed, we also have been killed.” Repeating these words again and again, they fell down, pounding their breasts, at the feet of the dead King.
rudatya uccair dayitāṅghri-paṅkajaṁ
siñcantya asraiḥ kuca-kuṅkumāruṇaiḥ
visrasta-keśābharaṇāḥ śucaṁ nṛṇāṁ
sṛjantya ākrandanayā vilepire
rudatyaḥ — crying; uccaiḥ — very loudly; dayita — of their beloved husband; aṅghri-paṅkajam — the lotus feet; siñcantyaḥ — moistening; asraiḥ — with tears; kuca-kuṅkuma-aruṇaiḥ — which were red from the kuṅkuma covering their breasts; visrasta — scattered; keśa — hair; ābharaṇāḥ — and ornaments; śucam — grief; nṛṇām — of the people in general; sṛjantyaḥ — creating; ākrandanayā — by crying very pitiably; vilepire — began to lament.
As the queens loudly cried, their tears glided down their breasts, becoming reddened by kuṅkuma powder, and fell upon the lotus feet of their husband. Their hair became disarrayed, their ornaments fell, and in a way that evoked sympathy from the hearts of others, the queens began lamenting their husband’s death.
aho vidhātrākaruṇena naḥ prabho
bhavān praṇīto dṛg-agocarāṁ daśām
uśīnarāṇām asi vṛttidaḥ purā
kṛto ’dhunā yena śucāṁ vivardhanaḥ
aho — alas; vidhātrā — by providence; akaruṇena — who is merciless; naḥ — our; prabho — O lord; bhavān — Your Lordship; praṇītaḥ — taken away; dṛk — of sight; agocarām — beyond the range; daśām — to a state; uśīnarāṇām — to the inhabitants of the state of Uśīnara; asi — you were; vṛtti-daḥ — giving livelihood; purā — formerly; kṛtaḥ — finished; adhunā — now; yena — by whom; śucām — of lamentation; vivardhanaḥ — increasing.
O lord, you have now been removed by cruel providence to a state beyond our sight. You had previously sustained the livelihood of the inhabitants of Uśīnara, and thus they were happy, but your condition now is the cause of their unhappiness.
tvayā kṛtajñena vayaṁ mahī-pate
kathaṁ vinā syāma suhṛttamena te
tatrānuyānaṁ tava vīra pādayoḥ
śuśrūṣatīnāṁ diśa yatra yāsyasi
tvayā — you; kṛtajñena — a most grateful personality; vayam — we; mahī-pate — O King; katham — how; vinā — without; syāma — shall exist; suhṛt-tamena — the best of our friends; te — of you; tatra — there; anuyānam — the following; tava — of you; vīra — O hero; pādayoḥ — of the lotus feet; śuśrūṣatīnām — of those engaging in the service; diśa — please order; yatra — where; yāsyasi — you will go.
O King, O hero, you were a very grateful husband and the most sincere friend of all of us. How shall we exist without you? O hero, wherever you are going, please direct us there so that we may follow in your footsteps and engage again in your service. Let us go along with you!
evaṁ vilapatīnāṁ vai
parigṛhya mṛtaṁ patim
arko ’staṁ sannyavartata
evam — thus; vilapatīnām — of the lamenting queens; vai — indeed; parigṛhya — taking on their laps; mṛtam — the dead; patim — husband; anicchatīnām — not desiring; nirhāram — the carrying out of the body for the funeral ceremony; arkaḥ — the sun; astam — the setting position; sannyavartata — passed away.
The time was appropriate for the body to be burned, but the queens, not allowing it to be taken away, continued lamenting for the dead body, which they kept on their laps. In the meantime, the sun completed its movements for setting in the west.
tatra ha preta-bandhūnām
āha tān bālako bhūtvā
yamaḥ svayam upāgataḥ
tatra — there; ha — certainly; preta-bandhūnām — of the friends and relatives of the dead King; āśrutya — hearing; paridevitam — the loud lamentation (so loud that it could be heard from the planet of Yamarāja); āha — said; tān — unto them (the lamenting queens); bālakaḥ — a boy; bhūtvā — becoming; yamaḥ — Yamarāja, the superintendent of death; svayam — personally; upāgataḥ — after coming.
While the queens were lamenting for the dead body of the King, their loud cries were heard even from the abode of Yamarāja. Assuming the body of a boy, Yamarāja personally approached the relatives of the dead body and advised them as follows.
aho amīṣāṁ vayasādhikānāṁ
vipaśyatāṁ loka-vidhiṁ vimohaḥ
yatrāgatas tatra gataṁ manuṣyaṁ
svayaṁ sadharmā api śocanty apārtham
śrī-yamaḥ uvāca — Śrī Yamarāja said; aho — alas; amīṣām — of these; vayasā — by age; adhikānām — of those advanced; vipaśyatām — seeing every day; loka-vidhim — the law of nature (that everyone dies); vimohaḥ — the bewilderment; yatra — from where; āgataḥ — came; tatra — there; gatam — returned; manuṣyam — the man; svayam — themselves; sa-dharmāḥ — similar in nature (prone to die); api — although; śocanti — they lament; apārtham — uselessly.
Śrī Yamarāja said: Alas, how amazing it is! These persons, who are older than me, have full experience that hundreds and thousands of living entities have taken birth and died. Thus they should understand that they also are apt to die, yet still they are bewildered. The conditioned soul comes from an unknown place and returns after death to that same unknown place. There is no exception to this rule, which is conducted by material nature. Knowing this, why do they uselessly lament?
aho vayaṁ dhanyatamā yad atra
tyaktāḥ pitṛbhyāṁ na vicintayāmaḥ
abhakṣyamāṇā abalā vṛkādibhiḥ
sa rakṣitā rakṣati yo hi garbhe
aho — alas; vayam — we; dhanya-tamāḥ — most fortunate; yat — because; atra — at the present moment; tyaktāḥ — left alone, without protection; pitṛbhyām — by both father and mother; na — not; vicintayāmaḥ — worry; abhakṣyamāṇāḥ — not being eaten; abalāḥ — very weak; vṛka-ādibhiḥ — by tigers and other ferocious animals; saḥ — He (the Supreme Personality of Godhead); rakṣitā — will protect; rakṣati — has protected; yaḥ — who; hi — indeed; garbhe — within the womb.
It is wonderful that these elderly women do not have a higher sense of life than we do. Indeed, we are most fortunate, for although we are children and have been left to struggle in material life, unprotected by father and mother, and although we are very weak, we have not been vanquished or eaten by ferocious animals. Thus we have a firm belief that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who has given us protection even in the womb of the mother, will protect us everywhere.
ya icchayeśaḥ sṛjatīdam avyayo
ya eva rakṣaty avalumpate ca yaḥ
tasyābalāḥ krīḍanam āhur īśituś
carācaraṁ nigraha-saṅgrahe prabhuḥ
yaḥ — who; icchayā — by His will (without being forced by anyone); īśaḥ — the supreme controller; sṛjati — creates; idam — this (material world); avyayaḥ — remaining as He is (not having lost His own existence because of having created so many material manifestations); yaḥ — who; eva — indeed; rakṣati — maintains; avalumpate — annihilates; ca — also; yaḥ — who; tasya — of Him; abalāḥ — O poor women; krīḍanam — the playing; āhuḥ — they say; īśituḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; cara-acaram — moving and not moving; nigraha — in destruction; saṅgrahe — or in protection; prabhuḥ — fully able.
The boy addressed the women: O weak women! Only by the will of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is never diminished, is the entire world created, maintained and again annihilated. This is the verdict of the Vedic knowledge. This material creation, consisting of the moving and nonmoving, is exactly like His plaything. Being the Supreme Lord, He is completely competent to destroy and protect.
pathi cyutaṁ tiṣṭhati diṣṭa-rakṣitaṁ
gṛhe sthitaṁ tad-vihataṁ vinaśyati
jīvaty anātho ’pi tad-īkṣito vane
gṛhe ’bhigupto ’sya hato na jīvati
pathi — on the public road; cyutam — some possession dropped; tiṣṭhati — it remains; diṣṭa-rakṣitam — protected by destiny; gṛhe — at home; sthitam — although situated; tat-vihatam — struck by the will of the Supreme; vinaśyati — it is lost; jīvati — remains alive; anāthaḥ api — although without a protector; tat-īkṣitaḥ — being protected by the Lord; vane — in the forest; gṛhe — at home; abhiguptaḥ — well hidden and protected; asya — of this one; hataḥ — struck; na — not; jīvati — lives.
Sometimes one loses his money on a public street, where everyone can see it, and yet his money is protected by destiny and not seen by others. Thus the man who lost it gets it back. On the other hand, if the Lord does not give protection, even money maintained very securely at home is lost. If the Supreme Lord gives one protection, even though one has no protector and is in the jungle, one remains alive, whereas a person well protected at home by relatives and others sometimes dies, no one being able to protect him.
bhūtāni tais tair nija-yoni-karmabhir
bhavanti kāle na bhavanti sarvaśaḥ
na tatra hātmā prakṛtāv api sthitas
tasyā guṇair anyatamo hi badhyate
bhūtāni — all the bodies of the living entities; taiḥ taiḥ — their own respective; nija-yoni — causing their own bodies; karmabhiḥ — by past activities; bhavanti — appear; kāle — in due course of time; na bhavanti — disappear; sarvaśaḥ — in all respects; na — not; tatra — there; ha — indeed; ātmā — the soul; prakṛtau — within this material world; api — although; sthitaḥ — situated; tasyāḥ — of her (the material energy); guṇaiḥ — by different modes; anya-tamaḥ — most different; hi — indeed; badhyate — is bound.
Every conditioned soul receives a different type of body according to his work, and when the engagement is finished the body is finished. Although the spirit soul is situated in subtle and gross material bodies in different forms of life, he is not bound by them, for he is always understood to be completely different from the manifested body.
idaṁ śarīraṁ puruṣasya mohajaṁ
yathā pṛthag bhautikam īyate gṛham
yathaudakaiḥ pārthiva-taijasair janaḥ
kālena jāto vikṛto vinaśyati
idam — this; śarīram — body; puruṣasya — of the conditioned soul; moha-jam — born of ignorance; yathā — just as; pṛthak — separate; bhautikam — material; īyate — is seen; gṛham — a house; yathā — just as; udakaiḥ — with water; pārthiva — with earth; taijasaiḥ — and with fire; janaḥ — the conditioned soul; kālena — in due course of time; jātaḥ — born; vikṛtaḥ — transformed; vinaśyati — is vanquished.
Just as a householder, although different from the identity of his house, thinks his house to be identical with him, so the conditioned soul, due to ignorance, accepts the body to be himself, although the body is actually different from the soul. This body is obtained through a combination of portions of earth, water and fire, and when the earth, water and fire are transformed in the course of time, the body is vanquished. The soul has nothing to do with this creation and dissolution of the body.
yathānalo dāruṣu bhinna īyate
yathānilo deha-gataḥ pṛthak sthitaḥ
yathā nabhaḥ sarva-gataṁ na sajjate
tathā pumān sarva-guṇāśrayaḥ paraḥ
yathā — just as; analaḥ — the fire; dāruṣu — in wood; bhinnaḥ — separate; īyate — is perceived; yathā — just as; anilaḥ — the air; deha-gataḥ — within the body; pṛthak — separate; sthitaḥ — situated; yathā — just as; nabhaḥ — the sky; sarva-gatam — all-pervading; na — not; sajjate — mix; tathā — similarly; pumān — the living entity; sarva-guṇa-āśrayaḥ — although now the shelter of the modes of material nature; paraḥ — transcendental to material contamination.
As fire, although situated in wood, is perceived to be different from the wood, as air, although situated within the mouth and nostrils, is perceived to be separate, and as the sky, although all-pervading, never mixes with anything, so the living entity, although now encaged within the material body, of which it is the source, is separate from it.
suyajño nanv ayaṁ śete
mūḍhā yam anuśocatha
yaḥ śrotā yo ’nuvakteha
sa na dṛśyeta karhicit
suyajñaḥ — the king named Suyajña; nanu — indeed; ayam — this; śete — lies; mūḍhāḥ — O foolish people; yam — whom; anuśocatha — you cry for; yaḥ — he who; śrotā — the hearer; yaḥ — he who; anuvaktā — the speaker; iha — in this world; saḥ — he; na — not; dṛśyeta — is visible; karhicit — at any time.
Yamarāja continued: O lamenters, you are all fools! The person named Suyajña, for whom you lament, is still lying before you and has not gone anywhere. Then what is the cause for your lamentation? Previously he heard you and replied to you, but now, not finding him, you are lamenting. This is contradictory behavior, for you have never actually seen the person within the body who heard you and replied. There is no need for your lamentation, for the body you have always seen is lying here.
na śrotā nānuvaktāyaṁ
mukhyo ’py atra mahān asuḥ
yas tv ihendriyavān ātmā
sa cānyaḥ prāṇa-dehayoḥ
na — not; śrotā — the listener; na — not; anuvaktā — the speaker; ayam — this; mukhyaḥ — chief; api — although; atra — in this body; mahān — the great; asuḥ — life air; yaḥ — he who; tu — but; iha — in this body; indriya-vān — possessing all the sense organs; ātmā — the soul; saḥ — he; ca — and; anyaḥ — different; prāṇa-dehayoḥ — from the life air and the material body.
In the body the most important substance is the life air, but that also is neither the listener nor the speaker. Beyond even the life air, the soul also can do nothing, for the Supersoul is actually the director, in cooperation with the individual soul. The Supersoul conducting the activities of the body is different from the body and living force.
dehān uccāvacān vibhuḥ
bhajaty utsṛjati hy anyas
tac cāpi svena tejasā
bhūta — by the five material elements; indriya — the ten senses; manaḥ — and the mind; liṅgān — characterized; dehān — gross material bodies; ucca-avacān — high class and low class; vibhuḥ — the individual soul, which is the lord of the body and senses; bhajati — achieves; utsṛjati — gives up; hi — indeed; anyaḥ — being different; tat — that; ca — also; api — indeed; svena — by his own; tejasā — power of advanced knowledge.
The five material elements, the ten senses and the mind all combine to form the various parts of the gross and subtle bodies. The living entity comes in contact with his material bodies, whether high or low, and later gives them up by his personal prowess. This strength can be perceived in a living entity’s personal power to possess different types of bodies.
yāval liṅgānvito hy ātmā
tato viparyayaḥ kleśo
yāvat — as long as; liṅga-anvitaḥ — covered by the subtle body; hi — indeed; ātmā — the soul; tāvat — that long; karma — of fruitive activities; nibandhanam — bondage; tataḥ — from that; viparyayaḥ — reversal (wrongly thinking the body to be the self); kleśaḥ — misery; māyā-yogaḥ — a strong relationship with the external, illusory energy; anuvartate — follows.
As long as the spirit soul is covered by the subtle body, consisting of the mind, intelligence and false ego, he is bound to the results of his fruitive activities. Because of this covering, the spirit soul is connected with the material energy and must accordingly suffer material conditions and reversals, continually, life after life.
yad guṇeṣv artha-dṛg-vacaḥ
yathā manorathaḥ svapnaḥ
sarvam aindriyakaṁ mṛṣā
vitatha — fruitless; abhiniveśaḥ — the conception; ayam — this; yat — which; guṇeṣu — in the modes of material nature; artha — as a fact; dṛk-vacaḥ — the seeing and talking of; yathā — just as; manorathaḥ — a mental concoction (daydream); svapnaḥ — a dream; sarvam — everything; aindriyakam — produced by the senses; mṛṣā — false.
It is fruitless to see and talk of the material modes of nature and their resultant so-called happiness and distress as if they were factual. When the mind wanders during the day and a man begins to think himself extremely important, or when he dreams at night and sees a beautiful woman enjoying with him, these are merely false dreams. Similarly, the happiness and distress caused by the material senses should be understood to be meaningless.
atha nityam anityaṁ vā
neha śocanti tad-vidaḥ
nānyathā śakyate kartuṁ
sva-bhāvaḥ śocatām iti
atha — therefore; nityam — the eternal spirit soul; anityam — the temporary material body; vā — or; na — not; iha — in this world; śocanti — they lament for; tat-vidaḥ — those who are advanced in knowledge of the body and soul; na — not; anyathā — otherwise; śakyate — is able; kartum — to do; sva-bhāvaḥ — the nature; śocatām — of those prone to lamentation; iti — thus.
Those who have full knowledge of self-realization, who know very well that the spirit soul is eternal whereas the body is perishable, are not overwhelmed by lamentation. But persons who lack knowledge of self-realization certainly lament. Therefore it is difficult to educate a person in illusion.
lubdhako vipine kaścit
pakṣiṇāṁ nirmito ’ntakaḥ
vitatya jālaṁ vidadhe
tatra tatra pralobhayan
lubdhakaḥ — hunter; vipine — in the forest; kaścit — some; pakṣiṇām — of birds; nirmitaḥ — appointed; antakaḥ — killer; vitatya — spreading; jālam — a net; vidadhe — captured; tatra tatra — here and there; pralobhayan — luring with food.
There was once a hunter who lured birds with food and captured them after spreading a net. He lived as if appointed by death personified as the killer of the birds.
tayoḥ kuliṅgī sahasā
kuliṅga-mithunam — a pair of (male and female) birds known as kuliṅga; tatra — there (where the hunter was hunting); vicarat — wandering; samadṛśyata — he saw; tayoḥ — of the pair; kuliṅgī — the female bird; sahasā — suddenly; lubdhakena — by the hunter; pralobhitā — allured.
While wandering in the forest, the hunter saw a pair of kuliṅga birds. Of the two, the female was captivated by the hunter’s lure.
sāsajjata sicas tantryāṁ
kuliṅgas tāṁ tathāpannāṁ
snehād akalpaḥ kṛpaṇaḥ
sā — the female bird; asajjata — trapped; sicaḥ — of the net; tantryām — in the rope; mahiṣyaḥ — O queens; kāla-yantritā — being forced by time; kuliṅgaḥ — the male kuliṅga bird; tām — her; tathā — in that condition; āpannām — captured; nirīkṣya — seeing; bhṛśa-duḥkhitaḥ — very unhappy; snehāt — out of affection; akalpaḥ — unable to do anything; kṛpaṇaḥ — the poor bird; kṛpaṇām — the poor wife; paryadevayat — began to lament for.
O queens of Suyajña, the male kuliṅga bird, seeing his wife put into the greatest danger in the grip of Providence, became very unhappy. Because of affection, the poor bird, being unable to release her, began to lament for his wife.
aho akaruṇo devaḥ
kṛpaṇaṁ mām anuśocantyā
dīnayā kiṁ kariṣyati
aho — alas; akaruṇaḥ — most unkind; devaḥ — providence; striyā — with my wife; ākaruṇayā — who is fully compassionate; vibhuḥ — the Supreme Lord; kṛpaṇam — poor; mām — me; anuśocantyā — lamenting for; dīnayā — poor; kim — what; kariṣyati — shall do.
Alas, how merciless is Providence! My wife, unable to be helped by anyone, is in such an awkward position and lamenting for me. What will Providence gain by taking away this poor bird? What will be the profit?
kāmaṁ nayatu māṁ devaḥ
kim ardhenātmano hi me
dīnena jīvatā duḥkham
kāmam — as He likes; nayatu — let Him take away; mām — me; devaḥ — the Supreme Lord; kim — what use; ardhena — with half; ātmanaḥ — of the body; hi — indeed; me — my; dīnena — poor; jīvatā — living; duḥkham — in suffering; anena — this; vidhura-āyuṣā — having a lifetime full of affliction.
If unkind Providence takes away my wife, who is half my body, why should He not take me also? What is the use of my living with half of my body, bereaved by loss of my wife? What shall I gain in this way?
kathaṁ tv ajāta-pakṣāṁs tān
mātṛ-hīnān bibharmy aham
nīḍe me mātaraṁ prajāḥ
katham — how; tu — but; ajāta-pakṣān — who have not grown wings to fly; tān — them; mātṛ-hīnān — bereft of their mother; bibharmi — shall maintain; aham — I; manda-bhāgyāḥ — very unfortunate; pratīkṣante — they await; nīḍe — in the nest; me — my; mātaram — their mother; prajāḥ — baby birds.
The unfortunate baby birds, bereft of their mother, are waiting in the nest for her to feed them. They are still very small and have not yet grown their wings. How shall I be able to maintain them?
evaṁ kuliṅgaṁ vilapantam ārāt
sa eva taṁ śākunikaḥ śareṇa
vivyādha kāla-prahito vilīnaḥ
evam — thus; kuliṅgam — the bird; vilapantam — while lamenting; ārāt — from a distance; priyā-viyoga — because of the loss of his wife; āturam — very aggrieved; aśru-kaṇṭham — with tears in the eyes; saḥ — he (that hunter); eva — indeed; tam — him (the male bird); śākunikaḥ — who could kill even a vulture; śareṇa — by an arrow; vivyādha — pierced; kāla-prahitaḥ — being moved by time; vilīnaḥ — hidden.
Because of the loss of his wife, the kuliṅga bird lamented with tears in his eyes. Meanwhile, following the dictations of mature time, the hunter, who was very carefully hidden in the distance, released his arrow, which pierced the body of the kuliṅga bird and killed him.
evaṁ yūyam apaśyantya
nainaṁ prāpsyatha śocantyaḥ
patiṁ varṣa-śatair api
evam — thus; yūyam — you; apaśyantyaḥ — not seeing; ātma-apāyam — own death; abuddhayaḥ — O ignorant ones; na — not; enam — him; prāpsyatha — you will obtain; śocantyaḥ — lamenting for; patim — your husband; varṣa-śataiḥ — for a hundred years; api — even.
Thus Yamarāja, in the guise of a small boy, told all the queens: You are all so foolish that you lament but do not see your own death. Afflicted by a poor fund of knowledge, you do not know that even if you lament for your dead husband for hundreds of years, you will never get him back alive, and in the meantime your lives will be finished.
bāla evaṁ pravadati
jñātayo menire sarvam
śrī-hiraṇyakaśipuḥ uvāca — Śrī Hiraṇyakaśipu said; bāle — while Yamarāja in the form of a boy; evam — thus; pravadati — was speaking very philosophically; sarve — all; vismita — struck with wonder; cetasaḥ — their hearts; jñātayaḥ — the relatives; menire — they thought; sarvam — everything material; anityam — temporary; ayathā-utthitam — arisen from temporary phenomena.
Hiraṇyakaśipu said: While Yamarāja, in the form of a small boy, was instructing all the relatives surrounding the dead body of Suyajña, everyone was struck with wonder by his philosophical words. They could understand that everything material is temporary, not continuing to exist.
yama etad upākhyāya
jñātayo hi suyajñasya
cakrur yat sāmparāyikam
yamaḥ — Yamarāja in the form of a boy; etat — this; upākhyāya — instructing; tatra — there; eva — indeed; antaradhīyata — disappeared; jñātayaḥ — the relatives; hi — indeed; suyajñasya — of King Suyajña; cakruḥ — performed; yat — which is; sāmparāyikam — the funeral ceremony.
After instructing all the foolish relatives of Suyajña, Yamarāja, in the form of a boy, disappeared from their vision. Then the relatives of King Suyajña performed the ritualistic funeral ceremonies.
ataḥ śocata mā yūyaṁ
paraṁ cātmānam eva vā
ka ātmā kaḥ paro vātra
svīyaḥ pārakya eva vā
ataḥ — therefore; śocata — lament for; mā — do not; yūyam — all of you; param — another; ca — and; ātmānam — yourself; eva — certainly; vā — or; kaḥ — who; ātmā — self; kaḥ — who; paraḥ — other; vā — or; atra — in this material world; svīyaḥ — one’s own; pārakyaḥ — for others; eva — indeed; vā — or; sva-para-abhiniveśena — consisting of absorption in the bodily concept of oneself and others; vinā — besides; ajñānena — the lack of knowledge; dehinām — of all the embodied living entities.
Therefore none of you should be aggrieved for the loss of the body — whether your own or those of others. Only in ignorance does one make bodily distinctions, thinking “Who am I? Who are the others? What is mine? What is for others?”
iti daitya-pater vākyaṁ
ditir ākarṇya sasnuṣā
putra-śokaṁ kṣaṇāt tyaktvā
tattve cittam adhārayat
śrī-nāradaḥ uvāca — Śrī Nārada Muni said; iti — thus; daitya-pateḥ — of the King of the demons; vākyam — the speech; ditiḥ — Diti, the mother of Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa; ākarṇya — hearing; sa-snuṣā — with the wife of Hiraṇyākṣa; putra-śokam — the great bereavement for her son, Hiraṇyākṣa; kṣaṇāt — immediately; tyaktvā — giving up; tattve — in the real philosophy of life; cittam — heart; adhārayat — engaged.
Śrī Nārada Muni continued: Diti, the mother of Hiraṇyakaśipu and Hiraṇyākṣa, heard the instructions of Hiraṇyakaśipu along with her daughter-in-law, Ruṣābhānu, Hiraṇyākṣa’s wife. She then forgot her grief over her son’s death and thus engaged her mind and attention in understanding the real philosophy of life.