Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 7 Chapter 15
Instructions for Civilized Human Beings
karma-niṣṭhā dvijāḥ kecit
svādhyāye ’nye pravacane
śrī-nāradaḥ uvāca — Nārada Muni said; karma-niṣṭhāḥ — attached to ritualistic ceremonies (according to one’s social status as a brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya or śūdra); dvi-jāḥ — the twice-born (especially the brāhmaṇas); kecit — some; tapaḥ-niṣṭhāḥ — very much attached to austerities and penances; nṛpa — O King; apare — others; svādhyāye — in studying Vedic literature; anye — others; pravacane — delivering speeches on Vedic literature; kecana — some; jñāna-yogayoḥ — in culturing knowledge and practicing bhakti-yoga.
Nārada Muni continued: My dear King, some brāhmaṇas are very much attached to fruitive activities, some are attached to austerities and penances, and still others study the Vedic literature, whereas some, although very few, cultivate knowledge and practice different yogas, especially bhakti-yoga.
kavyāny ānantyam icchatā
daive ca tad-abhāve syād
jñāna-niṣṭhāya — to the impersonalist or the transcendentalist desiring to merge into the Supreme; deyāni — to be given in charity; kavyāni — ingredients offered to the forefathers as oblations; ānantyam — liberation from material bondage; icchatā — by a person desiring; daive — the ingredients to be offered to the demigods; ca — also; tat-abhāve — in the absence of such advanced transcendentalists; syāt — it should be done; itarebhyaḥ — to others (namely, those addicted to fruitive activities); yathā-arhataḥ — comparatively or with discrimination.
A person desiring liberation for his forefathers or himself should give charity to a brāhmaṇa who adheres to impersonal monism [jñāna-niṣṭhā]. In the absence of such an advanced brāhmaṇa, charity may be given to a brāhmaṇa addicted to fruitive activities [karma-kāṇḍa].
dvau daive pitṛ-kārye trīn
ekaikam ubhayatra vā
bhojayet susamṛddho ’pi
śrāddhe kuryān na vistaram
dvau — two; daive — during the period when oblations are offered to the demigods; pitṛ-kārye — in the śrāddha ceremony, in which oblations are offered to the forefathers; trīn — three; eka — one; ekam — one; ubhayatra — for both occasions; vā — either; bhojayet — one should feed; su-samṛddhaḥ api — even though one is very rich; śrāddhe — when offering oblations to the forefathers; kuryāt — one should do; na — not; vistaram — very expensive arrangements.
During the period for offering oblations to the demigods, one should invite only two brāhmaṇas, and while offering oblations to the forefathers, one may invite three brāhmaṇas. Or, in either case, only one brāhmaṇa will suffice. Even though one is very opulent, he should not endeavor to invite more brāhmaṇas or make various expensive arrangements on those occasions.
samyag bhavanti naitāni
deśa — place; kāla — time; ucita — proper; śraddhā — respect; dravya — ingredients; pātra — a suitable person; arhaṇāni — paraphernalia for worship; ca — and; samyak — proper; bhavanti — are; na — not; etāni — all these; vistarāt — due to expansion; sva-jana-arpaṇāt — or due to inviting relatives.
If one arranges to feed many brāhmaṇas or relatives during the śrāddha ceremony, there will be discrepancies in the time, place, respectability and ingredients, the person to be worshiped, and the method of offering worship.
deśe kāle ca samprāpte
śraddhayā vidhivat pātre
nyastaṁ kāmadhug akṣayam
deśe — in a proper place, namely a holy place of pilgrimage; kāle — at an auspicious time; ca — also; samprāpte — when available; muni-annam — foodstuffs prepared with ghee and suitable to be eaten by great saintly persons; hari-daivatam — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari; śraddhayā — with love and affection; vidhi-vat — according to the directions of the spiritual master and the śāstras; pātre — unto the suitable person; nyastam — if it is so offered; kāmadhuk — becomes a source of prosperity; akṣayam — everlasting.
When one gets the opportunity of a suitable auspicious time and place, one should, with love, offer food prepared with ghee to the Deity of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and then offer the prasāda to a suitable person — a Vaiṣṇava or brāhmaṇa. This will be the cause of everlasting prosperity.
ātmane sva-janāya ca
annaṁ saṁvibhajan paśyet
sarvaṁ tat puruṣātmakam
deva — unto the demigods; ṛṣi — saintly persons; pitṛ — forefathers; bhūtebhyaḥ — the living entities in general; ātmane — relatives; sva-janāya — family members and friends; ca — and; annam — foodstuff (prasāda); saṁvibhajan — offering; paśyet — one should see; sarvam — all; tat — them; puruṣa-ātmakam — related to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
One should offer prasāda to the demigods, the saintly persons, one’s forefathers, the people in general, one’s family members, one’s relatives and one’s friends, seeing them all as devotees of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
na dadyād āmiṣaṁ śrāddhe
na cādyād dharma-tattvavit
muny-annaiḥ syāt parā prītir
yathā na paśu-hiṁsayā
na — never; dadyāt — should offer; āmiṣam — meat, fish, eggs and so on; śrāddhe — in the performance of the śrāddha ceremony; na — nor; ca — also; adyāt — one should eat personally; dharma-tattva-vit — one who is actually learned in regard to religious activities; muni-annaiḥ — by preparations made with ghee for saintly persons; syāt — should be; parā — first-class; prītiḥ — satisfaction; yathā — for the forefathers and the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na — not; paśu-hiṁsayā — by killing animals unnecessarily.
A person fully aware of religious principles should never offer anything like meat, eggs or fish in the śrāddha ceremony, and even if one is a kṣatriya, he himself should not eat such things. When suitable food prepared with ghee is offered to saintly persons, the function is pleasing to the forefathers and the Supreme Lord, who are never pleased when animals are killed in the name of sacrifice.
naitādṛśaḥ paro dharmo
nṛṇāṁ sad-dharmam icchatām
nyāso daṇḍasya bhūteṣu
na — never; etādṛśaḥ — like this; paraḥ — a supreme or superior; dharmaḥ — religion; nṛṇām — of persons; sat-dharmam — superior religion; icchatām — being desirous of; nyāsaḥ — giving up; daṇḍasya — causing trouble because of envy; bhūteṣu — unto the living entities; manaḥ — in terms of the mind; vāk — words; kāya-jasya — and body; yaḥ — which.
Persons who want to advance in superior religion are advised to give up all envy of other living entities, whether in relationship to the body, words or mind. There is no religion superior to this.
eke karmamayān yajñān
eke — some; karma-mayān — resulting in a reaction (such as the killing of animals); yajñān — sacrifices; jñāninaḥ — persons advanced in knowledge; yajña-vit-tamāḥ — who know perfectly well the purpose of sacrifice; ātma-saṁyamane — by self-control; anīhāḥ — who are without material desires; juhvati — execute sacrifice; jñāna-dīpite — enlightened in perfect knowledge.
Because of an awakening of spiritual knowledge, those who are intelligent in regard to sacrifice, who are actually aware of religious principles and who are free from material desires, control the self in the fire of spiritual knowledge, or knowledge of the Absolute Truth. They may give up the process of ritualistic ceremonies.
dṛṣṭvā bhūtāni bibhyati
eṣa mākaruṇo hanyād
ataj-jño hy asu-tṛp dhruvam
dravya-yajñaiḥ — with animals and other eatable things; yakṣyamāṇam — the person engaged in such sacrifices; dṛṣṭvā — by seeing; bhūtāni — the living entities (animals); bibhyati — become afraid; eṣaḥ — this person (the performer of sacrifice); mā — us; akaruṇaḥ — who is inhumane and merciless; hanyāt — will kill; a-tat-jñaḥ — most ignorant; hi — indeed; asu-tṛp — who is most satisfied by killing others; dhruvam — certainly.
Upon seeing the person engaged in performing the sacrifice, animals meant to be sacrificed are extremely afraid, thinking, “This merciless performer of sacrifices, being ignorant of the purpose of sacrifice and being most satisfied by killing others, will surely kill us.”
santuṣṭo ’har ahaḥ kuryān
tasmāt — therefore; daiva-upapannena — obtainable very easily by the grace of the Lord; muni-annena — with food (prepared in ghee and offered to the Supreme Lord); api — indeed; dharma-vit — one who is actually advanced in religious principles; santuṣṭaḥ — very happily; ahaḥ ahaḥ — day after day; kuryāt — one should perform; nitya-naimittikīḥ — regular and occasional; kriyāḥ — duties.
Therefore, day by day, one who is actually aware of religious principles and is not heinously envious of poor animals should happily perform daily sacrifices and those for certain occasions with whatever food is available easily by the grace of the Lord.
vidharmaḥ para-dharmaś ca
ābhāsa upamā chalaḥ
dharma-jño ’dharmavat tyajet
vidharmaḥ — irreligion; para-dharmaḥ — religious principles practiced by others; ca — and; ābhāsaḥ — pretentious religious principles; upamā — principles that appear religious but are not; chalaḥ — a cheating religion; adharma-śākhāḥ — which are different branches of irreligion; pañca — five; imāḥ — these; dharma-jñaḥ — one who is aware of religious principles; adharma-vat — accepting them as irreligious; tyajet — should give up.
There are five branches of irreligion, appropriately known as irreligion [vidharma], religious principles for which one is unfit [para-dharma], pretentious religion [ābhāsa], analogical religion [upadharma] and cheating religion [chala-dharma]. One who is aware of real religious life must abandon these five as irreligious.
dharma-bādho vidharmaḥ syāt
upadharmas tu pākhaṇḍo
dambho vā śabda-bhic chalaḥ
dharma-bādhaḥ — obstructs the execution of one’s own religious principles; vidharmaḥ — against the principles of religion; syāt — should be; para-dharmaḥ — imitating religious systems for which one is unfit; anya-coditaḥ — which is introduced by someone else; upadharmaḥ — concocted religious principles; tu — indeed; pākhaṇḍaḥ — by one who is against the principles of Vedas, standard scriptures; dambhaḥ — who is falsely proud; vā — or; śabda-bhit — by word jugglery; chalaḥ — a cheating religious system.
Religious principles that obstruct one from following his own religion are called vidharma. Religious principles introduced by others are called para-dharma. A new type of religion created by one who is falsely proud and who opposes the principles of the Vedas is called upadharma. And interpretation by one’s jugglery of words is called chala-dharma.
yas tv icchayā kṛtaḥ pumbhir
ābhāso hy āśramāt pṛthak
kasya neṣṭaḥ praśāntaye
yaḥ — that which; tu — indeed; icchayā — whimsically; kṛtaḥ — conducted; pumbhiḥ — by persons; ābhāsaḥ — dim reflection; hi — indeed; āśramāt — from one’s own order of life; pṛthak — different; sva-bhāva — according to one’s own nature; vihitaḥ — regulated; dharmaḥ — religious principle; kasya — in what respect; na — not; iṣṭaḥ — capable; praśāntaye — for relieving all kinds of distress.
A pretentious religious system manufactured by one who willfully neglects the prescribed duties of his order of life is called ābhāsa [a dim reflection or false similarity]. But if one performs the prescribed duties for his particular āśrama or varṇa, why are they not sufficient to mitigate all material distresses?
dharmārtham api neheta
yātrārthaṁ vādhano dhanam
mahāher iva vṛttidā
dharma-artham — in religion or economic development; api — indeed; na — not; īheta — should try to obtain; yātrā-artham — just to maintain the body and soul together; vā — either; adhanaḥ — one who has no wealth; dhanam — money; anīhā — the desirelessness; anīhamānasya — of a person who does not endeavor even to earn his livelihood; mahā-aheḥ — the great serpent known as the python; iva — like; vṛtti-dā — which obtains its livelihood without endeavor.
Even if a man is poor, he should not endeavor to improve his economic condition just to maintain his body and soul together or to become a famous religionist. Just as a great python, although lying in one place, not endeavoring for its livelihood, gets the food it needs to maintain body and soul, one who is desireless also obtains his livelihood without endeavor.
svātmārāmasya yat sukham
kutas tat kāma-lobhena
dhāvato ’rthehayā diśaḥ
santuṣṭasya — of one who is fully satisfied in Kṛṣṇa consciousness; nirīhasya — who does not endeavor for his livelihood; sva — own; ātma-ārāmasya — who is self-satisfied; yat — that; sukham — happiness; kutaḥ — where; tat — such happiness; kāma-lobhena — impelled by lust and greed; dhāvataḥ — of one who is wandering here and there; artha-īhayā — with a desire for accumulating wealth; diśaḥ — in all directions.
One who is content and satisfied and who links his activities with the Supreme Personality of Godhead residing in everyone’s heart enjoys transcendental happiness without endeavoring for his livelihood. Where is such happiness for a materialistic man who is impelled by lust and greed and who therefore wanders in all directions with a desire to accumulate wealth?
sarvāḥ śivamayā diśaḥ
sadā — always; santuṣṭa-manasaḥ — for a person who is self-satisfied; sarvāḥ — everything; śiva-mayāḥ — auspicious; diśaḥ — in all directions; śarkarā — from pebbles; kaṇṭaka-ādibhyaḥ — and thorns, etc; yathā — as; upānat-padaḥ — for a person who has suitable shoes; śivam — there is no danger (auspicious).
For a person who has suitable shoes on his feet, there is no danger even when he walks on pebbles and thorns. For him, everything is auspicious. Similarly, for one who is always self-satisfied there is no distress; indeed, he feels happiness everywhere.
santuṣṭaḥ kena vā rājan
na vartetāpi vāriṇā
santuṣṭaḥ — a person who is always self-satisfied; kena — why; vā — or; rājan — O King; na — not; varteta — should live (happily); api — even; vāriṇā — by drinking water; aupasthya — due to the genitals; jaihvya — and the tongue; kārpaṇyāt — because of a wretched or miserly condition; gṛha-pālāyate — he becomes exactly like a household dog; janaḥ — such a person.
My dear King, a self-satisfied person can be happy even with only drinking water. However, one who is driven by the senses, especially by the tongue and genitals, must accept the position of a household dog to satisfy his senses.
tejo vidyā tapo yaśaḥ
asantuṣṭasya — of one who is not self-satisfied; viprasya — of such a brāhmaṇa; tejaḥ — strength; vidyā — education; tapaḥ — austerity; yaśaḥ — fame; sravanti — dwindle; indriya — of the senses; laulyena — because of greed; jñānam — knowledge; ca — and; eva — certainly; avakīryate — gradually vanishes.
Because of greed for the sake of the senses, the spiritual strength, education, austerity and reputation of a devotee or brāhmaṇa who is not self-satisfied dwindle, and his knowledge gradually vanishes.
kāmasyāntaṁ hi kṣut-tṛḍbhyāṁ
jano yāti na lobhasya
jitvā bhuktvā diśo bhuvaḥ
kāmasya — of the desire for sense gratification or the urgent needs of the body; antam — end; hi — indeed; kṣut-tṛḍbhyām — by one who is very hungry or thirsty; krodhasya — of anger; etat — this; phala-udayāt — by venting chastisement and its reaction; janaḥ — a person; yāti — crosses over; na — not; lobhasya — greed; jitvā — conquering; bhuktvā — enjoying; diśaḥ — all directions; bhuvaḥ — of the globe.
The strong bodily desires and needs of a person disturbed by hunger and thirst are certainly satisfied when he eats. Similarly, if one becomes very angry, that anger is satisfied by chastisement and its reaction. But as for greed, even if a greedy person has conquered all the directions of the world or has enjoyed everything in the world, still he will not be satisfied.
paṇḍitā bahavo rājan
sadasas patayo ’py eke
asantoṣāt patanty adhaḥ
paṇḍitāḥ — very learned scholars; bahavaḥ — many; rājan — O King (Yudhiṣṭhira); bahu-jñāḥ — persons with varied experience; saṁśaya-cchidaḥ — expert in legal advice; sadasaḥ patayaḥ — persons eligible to become presidents of learned assemblies; api — even; eke — by one disqualification; asantoṣāt — simply by dissatisfaction or greed; patanti — fall down; adhaḥ — into hellish conditions of life.
O King Yudhiṣṭhira, many persons with varied experience, many legal advisers, many learned scholars and many persons eligible to become presidents of learned assemblies fall down into hellish life because of not being satisfied with their positions.
asaṅkalpāj jayet kāmaṁ
asaṅkalpāt — by determination; jayet — one should conquer; kāmam — lusty desire; krodham — anger; kāma-vivarjanāt — by giving up the objective of sense desire; artha — accumulation of wealth; anartha — a cause of trouble; īkṣayā — by considering; lobham — greed; bhayam — fear; tattva — the truth; avamarśanāt — by considering.
By making plans with determination, one should give up lusty desires for sense gratification. Similarly, by giving up envy one should conquer anger, by discussing the disadvantages of accumulating wealth one should give up greed, and by discussing the truth one should give up fear.
ānvīkṣikyā — by deliberation upon material and spiritual subject matters; śoka — lamentation; mohau — and illusion; dambham — false pride; mahat — a Vaiṣṇava; upāsayā — by serving; yoga-antarāyān — obstacles on the path of yoga; maunena — by silence; hiṁsām — envy; kāma-ādi — for sense gratification; anīhayā — without endeavor.
By discussing spiritual knowledge one can conquer lamentation and illusion, by serving a great devotee one can become prideless, by keeping silent one can avoid obstacles on the path of mystic yoga, and simply by stopping sense gratification one can conquer envy.
kṛpayā bhūtajaṁ duḥkhaṁ
daivaṁ jahyāt samādhinā
kṛpayā — by being merciful to all other living entities; bhūta-jam — because of other living entities; duḥkham — suffering; daivam — sufferings imposed by providence; jahyāt — one should give up; samādhinā — by trance or meditation; ātma-jam — sufferings due to the body and mind; yoga-vīryeṇa — by practicing haṭha-yoga, prāṇāyāma and so forth; nidrām — sleeping; sattva-niṣevayā — by developing brahminical qualifications or the mode of goodness.
By good behavior and freedom from envy one should counteract sufferings due to other living entities, by meditation in trance one should counteract sufferings due to providence, and by practicing haṭha-yoga, prāṇāyāma and so forth one should counteract sufferings due to the body and mind. Similarly, by developing the mode of goodness, especially in regard to eating, one should conquer sleep.
rajas tamaś ca sattvena
sattvaṁ copaśamena ca
etat sarvaṁ gurau bhaktyā
puruṣo hy añjasā jayet
rajaḥ tamaḥ — the modes of passion and ignorance; ca — and; sattvena — by developing the mode of goodness; sattvam — the mode of goodness; ca — also; upaśamena — by giving up attachment; ca — and; etat — these; sarvam — all; gurau — unto the spiritual master; bhaktyā — by rendering service in devotion; puruṣaḥ — a person; hi — indeed; añjasā — easily; jayet — can conquer.
One must conquer the modes of passion and ignorance by developing the mode of goodness, and then one must become detached from the mode of goodness by promoting oneself to the platform of śuddha-sattva. All this can be automatically done if one engages in the service of the spiritual master with faith and devotion. In this way one can conquer the influence of the modes of nature.
yasya sākṣād bhagavati
martyāsad-dhīḥ śrutaṁ tasya
yasya — one who; sākṣāt — directly; bhagavati — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; jñāna-dīpa-prade — who enlightens with the torch of knowledge; gurau — unto the spiritual master; martya-asat-dhīḥ — considers the spiritual master to be like an ordinary human being and maintains such an unfavorable attitude; śrutam — Vedic knowledge; tasya — for him; sarvam — everything; kuñjara-śauca-vat — like the bath of an elephant in a lake.
The spiritual master should be considered to be directly the Supreme Lord because he gives transcendental knowledge for enlightenment. Consequently, for one who maintains the material conception that the spiritual master is an ordinary human being, everything is frustrated. His enlightenment and his Vedic studies and knowledge are like the bathing of an elephant.
eṣa vai bhagavān sākṣāt
loko yaṁ manyate naram
eṣaḥ — this; vai — indeed; bhagavān — Supreme Personality of Godhead; sākṣāt — directly; pradhāna — the chief cause of the material nature; puruṣa — of all living entities or of the puruṣāvatāra, Lord Viṣṇu; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; yoga-īśvaraiḥ — by great saintly persons, yogīs; vimṛgya-aṅghriḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa’s lotus feet, which are sought; lokaḥ — people in general; yam — Him; manyate — consider; naram — a human being.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa, is the master of all other living entities and of the material nature. His lotus feet are sought and worshiped by great saintly persons like Vyāsa. Nonetheless, there are fools who consider Lord Kṛṣṇa an ordinary human being.
tad-antā yadi no yogān
ṣaṭ-varga — the six elements, namely the five working senses and the mind; saṁyama-ekāntāḥ — the ultimate aim of subjugating; sarvāḥ — all such activities; niyama-codanāḥ — the regulative principles further meant for controlling the senses and mind; tat-antāḥ — the ultimate goal of such activities; yadi — if; no — not; yogān — the positive link with the Supreme; āvaheyuḥ — did lead to; śrama-āvahāḥ — a waste of time and labor.
Ritualistic ceremonies, regulative principles, austerities and the practice of yoga are all meant to control the senses and mind, but even after one is able to control the senses and mind, if he does not come to the point of meditation upon the Supreme Lord, all such activities are simply labor in frustration.
yathā vārtādayo hy arthā
yogasyārthaṁ na bibhrati
anarthāya bhaveyuḥ sma
pūrtam iṣṭaṁ tathāsataḥ
yathā — as; vārtā-ādayaḥ — activities like occupational or professional duties; hi — certainly; arthāḥ — income (from such occupational duties); yogasya — of mystic power for self-realization; artham — benefit; na — not; bibhrati — help; anarthāya — without value (binding one to repeated birth and death); bhaveyuḥ — they are; sma — at all times; pūrtam iṣṭam — ritualistic Vedic ceremonies; tathā — similarly; asataḥ — of a materialistic nondevotee.
As professional activities or business profits cannot help one in spiritual advancement but are a source of material entanglement, the Vedic ritualistic ceremonies cannot help anyone who is not a devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
yaś citta-vijaye yattaḥ
syān niḥsaṅgo ’parigrahaḥ
yaḥ — one who; citta-vijaye — conquering the mind; yattaḥ — is engaged; syāt — must be; niḥsaṅgaḥ — without contaminated association; aparigrahaḥ — without being dependent (on the family); ekaḥ — alone; vivikta-śaraṇaḥ — taking shelter of a solitary place; bhikṣuḥ — a renounced person; bhaikṣya — by begging alms just to maintain the body; mita-aśanaḥ — frugal in eating.
One who desires to conquer the mind must leave the company of his family and live in a solitary place, free from contaminated association. To maintain the body and soul together, he should beg as much as he needs for the bare necessities of life.
deśe śucau same rājan
sthiraṁ sukhaṁ samaṁ tasminn
āsītarjv-aṅga om iti
deśe — in a place; śucau — very sacred; same — level; rājan — O King; saṁsthāpya — placing; āsanam — on the seat; ātmanaḥ — one’s self; sthiram — very steady; sukham — comfortably; samam — equipoised; tasmin — on that sitting place; āsīta — one should sit down; ṛju-aṅgaḥ — the body perpendicularly straight; om — the Vedic mantra praṇava; iti — in this way.
My dear King, in a sacred and holy place of pilgrimage one should select a place in which to perform yoga. The place must be level and not too high or low. There one should sit very comfortably, being steady and equipoised, keeping his body straight, and thus begin chanting the Vedic praṇava.
yāvan manas tyajet kāmān
yato yato niḥsarati
manaḥ kāma-hataṁ bhramat
tatas tata upāhṛtya
hṛdi rundhyāc chanair budhaḥ
prāṇa — incoming breath; apānau — outgoing breath; sannirundhyāt — should stop; pūra-kumbhaka-recakaiḥ — by inhaling, exhaling and holding, which are technically known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recaka; yāvat — so long; manaḥ — the mind; tyajet — should give up; kāmān — all material desires; sva — one’s own; nāsa-agra — the tip of the nose; nirīkṣaṇaḥ — looking at; yataḥ yataḥ — from whatever and wherever; niḥsarati — withdraws; manaḥ — the mind; kāma-hatam — being defeated by lusty desires; bhramat — wandering; tataḥ tataḥ — from here and there; upāhṛtya — after bringing it back; hṛdi — within the core of the heart; rundhyāt — should arrest (the mind); śanaiḥ — gradually, by practice; budhaḥ — a learned yogī.
While continuously staring at the tip of the nose, a learned yogī practices the breathing exercises through the technical means known as pūraka, kumbhaka and recaka — controlling inhalation and exhalation and then stopping them both. In this way the yogī restricts his mind from material attachments and gives up all mental desires. As soon as the mind, being defeated by lusty desires, drifts toward feelings of sense gratification, the yogī should immediately bring it back and arrest it within the core of his heart.
evam abhyasyataś cittaṁ
aniśaṁ tasya nirvāṇaṁ
evam — in this way; abhyasyataḥ — of the person practicing this yoga system; cittam — the heart; kālena — in due course of time; alpīyasā — very shortly; yateḥ — of the person practicing yoga; aniśam — without cessation; tasya — of him; nirvāṇam — purification from all material contamination; yāti — reaches; anindhana — without flame or smoke; vahnivat — like a fire.
When the yogī regularly practices in this way, in a short time his heart becomes fixed and free from disturbance, like a fire without flames or smoke.
kāma-ādibhiḥ — by various lusty desires; anāviddham — unaffected; praśānta — calm and peaceful; akhila-vṛtti — in every respect, or in all activities; yat — that which; cittam — consciousness; brahma-sukha-spṛṣṭam — being situated on the transcendental platform in eternal bliss; na — not; eva — indeed; uttiṣṭheta — can come out; karhicit — at any time.
When one’s consciousness is uncontaminated by material lusty desires, it becomes calm and peaceful in all activities, for one is situated in eternal blissful life. Once situated on that platform, one does not return to materialistic activities.
yaḥ pravrajya gṛhāt pūrvaṁ
yadi seveta tān bhikṣuḥ
sa vai vāntāśy apatrapaḥ
yaḥ — one who; pravrajya — being finished for good and leaving for the forest (being situated in transcendental bliss); gṛhāt — from home; pūrvam — at first; tri-varga — the three principles of religion, economic development and sense gratification; āvapanāt — from the field in which they are sown; punaḥ — again; yadi — if; seveta — should accept; tān — materialistic activities; bhikṣuḥ — a person who has accepted the sannyāsa order; saḥ — that person; vai — indeed; vānta-āśī — one who eats his own vomit; apatrapaḥ — without shame.
One who accepts the sannyāsa order gives up the three principles of materialistic activities in which one indulges in the field of household life — namely religion, economic development and sense gratification. One who first accepts sannyāsa but then returns to such materialistic activities is to be called a vāntāśī, or one who eats his own vomit. He is indeed a shameless person.
yaiḥ sva-dehaḥ smṛto ’nātmā
ta enam ātmasāt kṛtvā
ślāghayanti hy asattamāḥ
yaiḥ — by sannyāsīs who; sva-dehaḥ — own body; smṛtaḥ — consider; anātmā — different from the soul; martyaḥ — subjected to death; viṭ — becoming stool; kṛmi — worms; bhasma-vat — or ashes; te — such persons; enam — this body; ātmasāt kṛtvā — again identifying with the self; ślāghayanti — glorify as very important; hi — indeed; asat-tamāḥ — the greatest rascals.
Sannyāsīs who first consider that the body is subject to death, when it will be transformed into stool, worms or ashes, but who again give importance to the body and glorify it as the self, are to be considered the greatest rascals.
vrata-tyāgo vaṭor api
āśramāpasadā hy ete
gṛhasthasya — for a person situated in householder life; kriyā-tyāgaḥ — to give up the duty of a householder; vrata-tyāgaḥ — to give up vows and austerity; vaṭoḥ — for a brahmacārī; api — also; tapasvinaḥ — for a vānaprastha, one who has adopted a life of austerities; grāma-sevā — to live in a village and serve the people therein; bhikṣoḥ — for a sannyāsī who lived by begging alms; indriya-lolatā — addicted to sense enjoyment; āśrama — of the spiritual orders of life; apasadāḥ — the most abominable; hi — indeed; ete — all these; khalu — indeed; āśrama-viḍambanāḥ — imitating and therefore cheating the different spiritual orders; deva-māyā-vimūḍhān — who are bewildered by the external energy of the Supreme Lord; tān — them; upekṣeta — one should reject and not accept as genuine; anukampayā — or by compassion (teach them real life).
It is abominable for a person living in the gṛhastha-āśrama to give up the regulative principles, for a brahmacārī not to follow the brahmacārī vows while living under the care of the guru, for a vānaprastha to live in the village and engage in so-called social activities, or for a sannyāsī to be addicted to sense gratification. One who acts in this way is to be considered the lowest renegade. Such a pretender is bewildered by the external energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and one should either reject him from any position, or taking compassion upon him, teach him, if possible, to resume his original position.
ātmānaṁ ced vijānīyāt
kim icchan kasya vā hetor
dehaṁ puṣṇāti lampaṭaḥ
ātmānam — the soul and the Supersoul; cet — if; vijānīyāt — can understand; param — who are transcendental, beyond this material world; jñāna — by knowledge; dhuta-āśayaḥ — one who has cleansed his consciousness; kim — what; icchan — desiring material comforts; kasya — for whom; vā — or; hetoḥ — for what reason; deham — the material body; puṣṇāti — he maintains; lampaṭaḥ — being unlawfully addicted to sense gratification.
The human form of body is meant for understanding the self and the Supreme Self, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, both of whom are transcendentally situated. If both of them can be understood when one is purified by advanced knowledge, for what reason and for whom does a foolish, greedy person maintain the body for sense gratification?
āhuḥ śarīraṁ ratham indriyāṇi
hayān abhīṣūn mana indriyeśam
vartmāni mātrā dhiṣaṇāṁ ca sūtaṁ
sattvaṁ bṛhad bandhuram īśa-sṛṣṭam
āhuḥ — it is said; śarīram — the body; ratham — the chariot; indriyāṇi — the senses; hayān — the horses; abhīṣūn — the reins; manaḥ — the mind; indriya — of the senses; īśam — the master; vartmāni — the destinations; mātrāḥ — the sense objects; dhiṣaṇām — the intelligence; ca — and; sūtam — the chariot driver; sattvam — consciousness; bṛhat — great; bandhuram — bondage; īśa — by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sṛṣṭam — created.
Transcendentalists who are advanced in knowledge compare the body, which is made by the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to a chariot. The senses are like the horses; the mind, the master of the senses, is like the reins; the objects of the senses are the destinations; intelligence is the chariot driver; and consciousness, which spreads throughout the body, is the cause of bondage in this material world.
akṣaṁ daśa-prāṇam adharma-dharmau
cakre ’bhimānaṁ rathinaṁ ca jīvam
dhanur hi tasya praṇavaṁ paṭhanti
śaraṁ tu jīvaṁ param eva lakṣyam
akṣam — the spokes (on the chariot wheel); daśa — ten; prāṇam — the ten kinds of air flowing within the body; adharma — irreligion; dharmau — religion (two sides of the wheel, up and down); cakre — in the wheel; abhimānam — false identification; rathinam — the charioteer or master of the body; ca — also; jīvam — the living entity; dhanuḥ — the bow; hi — indeed; tasya — his; praṇavam — the Vedic mantra oṁkāra; paṭhanti — it is said; śaram — an arrow; tu — but; jīvam — the living entity; param — the Supreme Lord; eva — indeed; lakṣyam — the target.
The ten kinds of air acting within the body are compared to the spokes of the chariot’s wheels, and the top and bottom of the wheel itself are called religion and irreligion. The living entity in the bodily concept of life is the owner of the chariot. The Vedic mantra praṇava is the bow, the pure living entity himself is the arrow, and the target is the Supreme Being.
rāgo dveṣaś ca lobhaś ca
śoka-mohau bhayaṁ madaḥ
māno ’vamāno ’sūyā ca
māyā hiṁsā ca matsaraḥ
rajaḥ pramādaḥ kṣun-nidrā
śatravas tv evam ādayaḥ
rāgaḥ — attachment; dveṣaḥ — hostility; ca — also; lobhaḥ — greed; ca — also; śoka — lamentation; mohau — illusion; bhayam — fear; madaḥ — madness; mānaḥ — false prestige; avamānaḥ — insult; asūyā — finding fault with others; ca — also; māyā — deception; hiṁsā — envy; ca — also; matsaraḥ — intolerance; rajaḥ — passion; pramādaḥ — bewilderment; kṣut — hunger; nidrā — sleep; śatravaḥ — enemies; tu — indeed; evam ādayaḥ — even other such conceptions of life; rajaḥ-tamaḥ — because of the conception of passion and ignorance; prakṛtayaḥ — causes; sattva — because of the conception of goodness; prakṛtayaḥ — causes; kvacit — sometimes.
In the conditioned stage, one’s conceptions of life are sometimes polluted by passion and ignorance, which are exhibited by attachment, hostility, greed, lamentation, illusion, fear, madness, false prestige, insults, fault-finding, deception, envy, intolerance, passion, bewilderment, hunger and sleep. All of these are enemies. Sometimes one’s conceptions are also polluted by goodness.
yāvan nṛ-kāya-ratham ātma-vaśopakalpaṁ
dhatte gariṣṭha-caraṇārcanayā niśātam
jñānāsim acyuta-balo dadhad asta-śatruḥ
svānanda-tuṣṭa upaśānta idaṁ vijahyāt
yāvat — as long as; nṛ-kāya — this human form of body; ratham — considered to be a chariot; ātma-vaśa — dependent upon one’s own control; upakalpam — in which there are many other subordinate parts; dhatte — one possesses; gariṣṭha-caraṇa — the lotus feet of the superiors (namely the spiritual master and his predecessors); arcanayā — by serving; niśātam — sharpened; jñāna-asim — the sword or weapon of knowledge; acyuta-balaḥ — by the transcendental strength of Kṛṣṇa; dadhat — holding; asta-śatruḥ — until the enemy is defeated; sva-ānanda-tuṣṭaḥ — being fully self-satisfied by transcendental bliss; upaśāntaḥ — the consciousness being cleansed of all material contamination; idam — this body; vijahyāt — one should give up.
As long as one has to accept a material body, with its different parts and paraphernalia, which are not fully under one’s control, one must have the lotus feet of his superiors, namely his spiritual master and the spiritual master’s predecessors. By their mercy, one can sharpen the sword of knowledge, and with the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead’s mercy one must then conquer the enemies mentioned above. In this way, the devotee should be able to merge into his own transcendental bliss, and then he may give up his body and resume his spiritual identity.
nocet pramattam asad-indriya-vāji-sūtā
nītvotpathaṁ viṣaya-dasyuṣu nikṣipanti
te dasyavaḥ sahaya-sūtam amuṁ tamo ’ndhe
saṁsāra-kūpa uru-mṛtyu-bhaye kṣipanti
nocet — if we do not follow the instructions of Acyuta, Kṛṣṇa, and do not take shelter of Balarāma; pramattam — careless, inattentive; asat — which are always prone to material consciousness; indriya — the senses; vāji — acting as the horses; sūtāḥ — the chariot driver (intelligence); nītvā — bringing; utpatham — to the roadway of material desire; viṣaya — the sense objects; dasyuṣu — in the hands of the plunderers; nikṣipanti — throw; te — those; dasyavaḥ — plunderers; sa — with; haya-sūtam — the horses and chariot driver; amum — all of them; tamaḥ — dark; andhe — blind; saṁsāra-kūpe — into the well of material existence; uru — great; mṛtyu-bhaye — fear of death; kṣipanti — throw.
Otherwise, if one does not take shelter of Acyuta and Baladeva, then the senses, acting as the horses, and the intelligence, acting as the driver, both being prone to material contamination, inattentively bring the body, which acts as the chariot, to the path of sense gratification. When one is thus attracted again by the rogues of viṣaya — eating, sleeping and mating — the horses and chariot driver are thrown into the blinding dark well of material existence, and one is again put into a dangerous and extremely fearful situation of repeated birth and death.
pravṛttaṁ ca nivṛttaṁ ca
dvi-vidhaṁ karma vaidikam
pravṛttam — inclination for material enjoyment; ca — and; nivṛttam — cessation of material enjoyment; ca — and; dvi-vidham — these two varieties; karma — of activities; vaidikam — recommended in the Vedas; āvartate — one travels up and down through the cycle of saṁsāra; pravṛttena — by an inclination for enjoying material activities; nivṛttena — but by ceasing such activities; aśnute — one enjoys; amṛtam — eternal life.
According to the Vedas, there are two kinds of activities — pravṛtti and nivṛtti. Pravṛtti activities involve raising oneself from a lower to a higher condition of materialistic life, whereas nivṛtti means the cessation of material desire. Through pravṛtti activities one suffers from material entanglement, but by nivṛtti activities one is purified and becomes fit to enjoy eternal, blissful life.
hiṁsraṁ dravyamayaṁ kāmyam
darśaś ca pūrṇamāsaś ca
cāturmāsyaṁ paśuḥ sutaḥ
etad iṣṭaṁ pravṛttākhyaṁ
hutaṁ prahutam eva ca
hiṁsram — a system of killing and sacrificing animals; dravya-mayam — requiring much paraphernalia; kāmyam — full of unlimited material desires; agni-hotra-ādi — ritualistic ceremonies such as the agni-hotra-yajña; aśānti-dam — causing anxieties; darśaḥ — the darśa ritualistic ceremony; ca — and; pūrṇamāsaḥ — the pūrṇamāsa ritualistic ceremony; ca — also; cāturmāsyam — observing four months of regulative principles; paśuḥ — the ceremony of sacrificing animals or paśu-yajña; sutaḥ — the soma-yajña; etat — of all this; iṣṭam — the goal; pravṛtta-ākhyam — known as material attachment; hutam — Vaiśvadeva, an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prahutam — a ceremony called Baliharaṇa; eva — indeed; ca — also; pūrtam — for the benefit of the public; sura-ālaya — constructing temples for demigods; ārāma — resting houses and gardens; kūpa — digging wells; ājīvya-ādi — activities like distributing food and water; lakṣaṇam — symptoms.
The ritualistic ceremonies and sacrifices known as agni-hotra-yajña, darśa-yajña, pūrṇamāsa-yajña, cāturmāsya-yajña, paśu-yajña and soma-yajña are all symptomized by the killing of animals and the burning of many valuables, especially food grains, all for the fulfillment of material desires and the creation of anxiety. Performing such sacrifices, worshiping Vaiśvadeva, and performing the ceremony of Baliharaṇa, which all supposedly constitute the goal of life, as well as constructing temples for demigods, building resting houses and gardens, digging wells for the distribution of water, establishing booths for the distribution of food, and performing activities for public welfare — these are all symptomized by attachment to material desires.
dhūmo rātrir apakṣayaḥ
ayanaṁ dakṣiṇaṁ somo
annaṁ reta iti kṣmeśa
bhūtvā bhūtveha jāyate
dravya-sūkṣma-vipākaḥ — the paraphernalia offered as oblations in the fire, such as food grains mixed with ghee; ca — and; dhūmaḥ — turned to smoke, or the demigod in charge of smoke; rātriḥ — the demigod in charge of night; apakṣayaḥ — in the dark fortnight of the moon; ayanam — the demigod in charge of the passing of the sun; dakṣiṇam — in the southern zone; somaḥ — the moon; darśaḥ — returning; oṣadhi — plant life (on the surface of the earth); vīrudhaḥ — vegetation in general (the birth of lamentation); annam — food grains; retaḥ — semen; iti — in this way; kṣma-īśa — O King Yudhiṣṭhira, lord of the earth; pitṛ-yānam — the way of taking birth from the father’s semen; punaḥ-bhavaḥ — again and again; eka-ekaśyena — one after another; anupūrvam — successively, according to the gradation; bhūtvā — taking birth; bhūtvā — again taking birth; iha — in this material world; jāyate — one exists in the materialistic way of life.
My dear King Yudhiṣṭhira, when oblations of ghee and food grains like barley and sesame are offered in sacrifice, they turn into celestial smoke, which carries one to successively higher planetary systems like the kingdoms of Dhumā, Rātri, Kṛṣṇapakṣa, Dakṣiṇam and ultimately the moon. Then, however, the performers of sacrifice descend again to earth to become herbs, creepers, vegetables and food grains. These are eaten by different living entities and turned to semen, which is injected into female bodies. Thus one takes birth again and again.
saṁskāraiḥ saṁskṛto dvijaḥ
niṣeka-ādi — the beginning of life (the purificatory process of garbhādhāna, performed when the father begets a child by discharging semen into the womb of the mother); śmaśāna-antaiḥ — and at death, when the body is put into a crematorium and burnt to ashes; saṁskāraiḥ — by such purificatory processes; saṁskṛtaḥ — purified; dvijaḥ — a twice-born brāhmaṇa; indriyeṣu — into the senses; kriyā-yajñān — activities and sacrifices (which elevate one to a higher planetary system); jñāna-dīpeṣu — by enlightenment in real knowledge; juhvati — offers.
A twice-born brāhmaṇa [dvija] gains his life by the grace of his parents through the process of purification known as garbhādhāna. There are also other processes of purification, until the end of life, when the funeral ceremony [antyeṣṭi-kriyā] is performed. Thus in due course a qualified brāhmaṇa becomes uninterested in materialistic activities and sacrifices, but he offers the sensual sacrifices, in full knowledge, into the working senses, which are illuminated by the fire of knowledge.
indriyāṇi manasy ūrmau
vāci vaikārikaṁ manaḥ
tam oṁkāre svare nyaset
oṁkāraṁ bindau nāde taṁ
taṁ tu prāṇe mahaty amum
indriyāṇi — the senses (acting and knowledge-gathering); manasi — in the mind; ūrmau — in the waves of acceptance and rejection; vāci — in the words; vaikārikam — infected by changes; manaḥ — the mind; vācam — the words; varṇa-samāmnāye — in the aggregate of all alphabets; tam — that (aggregate of all alphabets); oṁkāre — in the concise form of oṁkāra; svare — in the vibration; nyaset — one should give up; oṁkāram — the concise sound vibration; bindau — in the point of oṁkāra; nāde — in the sound vibration; tam — that; tam — that (sound vibration); tu — indeed; prāṇe — in the life air; mahati — unto the Supreme; amum — the living entity.
The mind is always agitated by waves of acceptance and rejection. Therefore all the activities of the senses should be offered into the mind, which should be offered into one’s words. Then one’s words should be offered into the aggregate of all alphabets, which should be offered into the concise form oṁkāra. Oṁkāra should be offered into the point bindu, bindu into the vibration of sound, and that vibration into the life air. Then the living entity, who is all that remains, should be placed in Brahman, the Supreme. This is the process of sacrifice.
agniḥ sūryo divā prāhṇaḥ
śuklo rākottaraṁ sva-rāṭ
viśvo ’tha taijasaḥ prājñas
turya ātmā samanvayāt
agniḥ — fire; sūryaḥ — sun; divā — day; prāhṇaḥ — the end of the day; śuklaḥ — the bright fortnight of the moon; rāka — the full moon at the end of the śukla-pakṣa; uttaram — the period when the sun passes to the north; sva-rāṭ — the Supreme Brahman or Lord Brahmā; viśvaḥ — gross designation; atha — Brahmaloka, the ultimate in material enjoyment; taijasaḥ — subtle designation; prājñaḥ — the witness in the causal designation; turyaḥ — transcendental; ātmā — the soul; samanvayāt — as a natural consequence.
On his path of ascent, the progressive living entity enters the different worlds of fire, the sun, the day, the end of the day, the bright fortnight, the full moon, and the passing of the sun in the north, along with their presiding demigods. When he enters Brahmaloka, he enjoys life for many millions of years, and finally his material designation comes to an end. He then comes to a subtle designation, from which he attains the causal designation, witnessing all previous states. Upon the annihilation of this causal state, he attains his pure state, in which he identifies with the Supersoul. In this way the living entity becomes transcendental.
deva-yānam idaṁ prāhur
hy ātma-stho na nivartate
deva-yānam — the process of elevation known as deva-yāna; idam — on this (path); prāhuḥ — it is said; bhūtvā bhūtvā — having repeated birth; anupūrvaśaḥ — consecutively; ātma-yājī — one who is eager for self-realization; upaśānta-ātmā — completely free from all material desires; hi — indeed; ātma-sthaḥ — situated in his own self; na — not; nivartate — does return.
This gradual process of elevation for self-realization is meant for those who are truly aware of the Absolute Truth. After repeated birth on this path, which is known as deva-yāna, one attains these consecutive stages. One who is completely free from all material desires, being situated in the self, need not traverse the path of repeated birth and death.
ya ete pitṛ-devānām
śāstreṇa cakṣuṣā veda
jana-stho ’pi na muhyati
yaḥ — one who; ete — on this path (as recommended above); pitṛ-devānām — known as pitṛ-yāna and deva-yāna; ayane — on this path; veda-nirmite — recommended in the Vedas; śāstreṇa — by regular study of the scriptures; cakṣuṣā — by enlightened eyes; veda — is fully aware; jana-sthaḥ — a person situated in a material body; api — even though; na — never; muhyati — is bewildered.
Even though situated in a material body, one who is fully aware of the paths known as pitṛ-yāna and deva-yāna, and who thus opens his eyes in terms of Vedic knowledge, is never bewildered in this material world.
ādāv ante janānāṁ sad
bahir antaḥ parāvaram
jñānaṁ jñeyaṁ vaco vācyaṁ
tamo jyotis tv ayaṁ svayam
ādau — in the beginning; ante — at the end; janānām — of all living entities; sat — always existing; bahiḥ — externally; antaḥ — internally; para — transcendental; avaram — material; jñānam — knowledge; jñeyam — the objective; vacaḥ — expression; vācyam — the ultimate object; tamaḥ — darkness; jyotiḥ — light; tu — indeed; ayam — this one (the Supreme Lord); svayam — Himself.
He who exists internally and externally, at the beginning and end of everything and of all living beings, as that which is enjoyable and as the enjoyer of everything, superior and inferior, is the Supreme Truth. He always exists as knowledge and the object of knowledge, as expression and the object of understanding, as darkness and as light. Thus He, the Supreme Lord, is everything.
ābādhito ’pi hy ābhāso
yathā vastutayā smṛtaḥ
ābādhitaḥ — rejected; api — although; hi — certainly; ābhāsaḥ — a reflection; yathā — as; vastutayā — a form of reality; smṛtaḥ — accepted; durghaṭatvāt — because of being very difficult to prove the reality; aindriyakam — knowledge derived from the senses; tadvat — similarly; artha — reality; vikalpitam — speculated or doubtful.
Although one may consider the reflection of the sun from a mirror to be false, it has its factual existence. Accordingly, to prove by speculative knowledge that there is no reality would be extremely difficult.
chāyā na katamāpi hi
na saṅghāto vikāro ’pi
na pṛthaṅ nānvito mṛṣā
kṣiti-ādīnām — of the five elements, beginning with the earth; iha — in this world; arthānām — of those five elements; chāyā — shadow; na — neither; katamā — which of them; api — indeed; hi — certainly; na — nor; saṅghātaḥ — combination; vikāraḥ — transformation; api — although; na pṛthak — nor separated; na anvitaḥ — nor inherent in; mṛṣā — all these theories are without substance.
In this world there are five elements — namely earth, water, fire, air and ether — but the body is not a reflection of them, nor a combination or transformation of them. Because the body and its ingredients are neither distinct nor amalgamated, all such theories are insubstantial.
dhātavo ’vayavitvāc ca
na syur hy asaty avayaviny
asann avayavo ’ntataḥ
dhātavaḥ — the five elements; avayavitvāt — being the cause of the bodily conception; ca — and; tat-mātra — the sense objects (sound, taste, touch, etc); avayavaiḥ — the subtle parts; vinā — without; na — not; syuḥ — can exist; hi — indeed; asati — unreal; avayavini — in the formation of the body; asan — not existing; avayavaḥ — the part of the body; antataḥ — at the end.
Because the body is formed of the five elements, it cannot exist without the subtle sense objects. Therefore, since the body is false, the sense objects are also naturally false or temporary.
syāt sādṛśya-bhramas tāvad
vikalpe sati vastunaḥ
jāgrat-svāpau yathā svapne
syāt — it so becomes; sādṛśya — similarity; bhramaḥ — mistake; tāvat — as long as; vikalpe — in separation; sati — the part; vastunaḥ — from the substance; jāgrat — waking; svāpau — sleeping; yathā — as; svapne — in a dream; tathā — similarly; vidhi-niṣedhatā — the regulative principles, consisting of injunctions and prohibitions.
When a substance and its parts are separated, the acceptance of similarity between one and the other is called illusion. While dreaming, one creates a separation between the existences called wakefulness and sleep. It is in such a state of mind that the regulative principles of the scriptures, consisting of injunctions and prohibitions, are recommended.
trīn svapnān dhunute muniḥ
bhāva-advaitam — oneness in one’s conception of life; kriyā-advaitam — oneness in activities; dravya-advaitam — oneness in different paraphernalia; tathā — as well as; ātmanaḥ — of the soul; vartayan — considering; sva — one’s own; anubhūtyā — according to realization; iha — in this material world; trīn — the three; svapnān — living conditions (wakefulness, dreaming and sleep); dhunute — gives up; muniḥ — the philosopher or speculator.
After considering the oneness of existence, activity and paraphernalia and after realizing the self to be different from all actions and reactions, the mental speculator [muni], according to his own realization, gives up the three states of wakefulness, dreaming and sleep.
bhāvādvaitaṁ tad ucyate
kārya — the result or effect; kāraṇa — the cause; vastu — substance; aikya — oneness; darśanam — observation; paṭa — the cloth; tantu — the thread; vat — like; avastutvāt — because of being ultimately unreality; vikalpasya — of differentiation; bhāva-advaitam — the conception of oneness; tat ucyate — that is called.
When one understands that result and cause are one and that duality is ultimately unreal, like the idea that the threads of a cloth are different from the cloth itself, one reaches the conception of oneness called bhāvādvaita.
yad brahmaṇi pare sākṣāt
kriyādvaitaṁ tad ucyate
yat — that which; brahmaṇi — in the Supreme Brahman; pare — transcendental; sākṣāt — directly; sarva — of all; karma — activities; samarpaṇam — dedication; manaḥ — by the mind; vāk — the words; tanubhiḥ — and the body; pārtha — O Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; kriyā-advaitam — oneness in activities; tat ucyate — it is called.
My dear Yudhiṣṭhira [Pārtha], when all the activities one performs with his mind, words and body are dedicated directly to the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, one reaches oneness of activities, called kriyādvaita.
yat svārtha-kāmayor aikyaṁ
dravyādvaitaṁ tad ucyate
ātma — of one’s self; jāyā — wife; suta-ādīnām — and children; anyeṣām — of one’s relatives, etc; sarva-dehinām — of all other living entities; yat — whatever; sva-artha-kāmayoḥ — of one’s ultimate goal and benefit; aikyam — oneness; dravya-advaitam — oneness of interest; tat ucyate — it is called.
When the ultimate goal and interest of one’s self, one’s wife, one’s children, one’s relatives and all other embodied living beings is one, this is called dravyādvaita, or oneness of interest.
yad yasya vāniṣiddhaṁ syād
yena yatra yato nṛpa
sa teneheta kāryāṇi
naro nānyair anāpadi
yat — whatever; yasya — of a man; vā — either; aniṣiddham — not forbidden; syāt — it is so; yena — by which means; yatra — in place and time; yataḥ — from which; nṛpa — O King; saḥ — such a person; tena — by such a process; īheta — should perform; kāryāṇi — prescribed activities; naraḥ — a person; na — not; anyaiḥ — by other ways; anāpadi — in the absence of danger.
In normal conditions, in the absence of danger, O King Yudhiṣṭhira, a man should perform his prescribed activities according to his status of life with the things, endeavors, process and living place that are not forbidden for him, and not by any other means.
etair anyaiś ca vedoktair
gṛhe ’py asya gatiṁ yāyād
rājaṁs tad-bhakti-bhāṅ naraḥ
etaiḥ — by these ways; anyaiḥ — by other ways; ca — and; veda-uktaiḥ — as directed in the Vedic literatures; vartamānaḥ — abiding; sva-karmabhiḥ — by one’s occupational duties; gṛhe api — even at home; asya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; gatim — destination; yāyāt — can reach; rājan — O King; tat-bhakti-bhāk — who renders devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; naraḥ — any person.
O King, one should perform his occupational duties according to these instructions, as well as other instructions given in the Vedic literature, just to remain a devotee of Lord Kṛṣṇa. Thus, even while at home, one will be able to reach the destination.
yathā hi yūyaṁ nṛpa-deva dustyajād
āpad-gaṇād uttaratātmanaḥ prabhoḥ
ahāraṣīn nirjita-dig-gajaḥ kratūn
yathā — as; hi — indeed; yūyam — all of you (Pāṇḍavas); nṛpa-deva — O lord of the kings, human beings and demigods; dustyajāt — insurmountable; āpat — dangerous conditions; gaṇāt — from all; uttarata — escaped; ātmanaḥ — own; prabhoḥ — of the Lord; yat-pāda-paṅkeruha — whose lotus feet; sevayā — by serving; bhavān — yourself; ahāraṣīt — performed; nirjita — defeating; dik-gajaḥ — the most powerful enemies, who were like elephants; kratūn — ritualistic ceremonies.
O King Yudhiṣṭhira, because of your service to the Supreme Lord, all of you Pāṇḍavas defeated the greatest dangers posed by numerous kings and demigods. By serving the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa, you conquered great enemies, who were like elephants, and thus you collected ingredients for sacrifice. By His grace, may you be delivered from material involvement.
ahaṁ purābhavaṁ kaścid
aham — I myself; purā — formerly; abhavam — existed as; kaścit gandharvaḥ — one of the denizens of Gandharvaloka; upabarhaṇaḥ — Upabarhaṇa; nāmnā — by the name; atīte — long, long ago; mahā-kalpe — in a life of Brahmā, which is known as a mahā-kalpa; gandharvāṇām — among the Gandharvas; su-sammataḥ — a very respectable person.
Long, long ago, in another mahā-kalpa [millennium of Brahmā], I existed as the Gandharva known as Upabarhaṇa. I was very respected by the other Gandharvas.
strīṇāṁ priyatamo nityaṁ
rūpa — beauty; peśala — formation of the body; mādhurya — attractiveness; saugandhya — very fragrant, being decorated with various flower garlands and sandalwood pulp; priya-darśanaḥ — very beautiful to see; strīṇām — of the women; priya-tamaḥ — naturally attracted; nityam — daily; mattaḥ — proud like a madman; sva-pura — in his own city; lampaṭaḥ — very much attached to women because of lusty desires.
I had a beautiful face and a pleasing, attractive bodily structure. Decorated with flower garlands and sandalwood pulp, I was most pleasing to the women of my city. Thus I was bewildered, always feeling lusty desires.
ekadā deva-satre tu
ekadā — once upon a time; deva-satre — in an assembly of the demigods; tu — indeed; gandharva — of the inhabitants of Gandharvaloka; apsarasām — and the inhabitants of Apsaroloka; gaṇāḥ — all; upahūtāḥ — were invited; viśva-sṛgbhiḥ — by the great demigods known as the prajāpatis; hari-gātha-upagāyane — on an occasion of kīrtana for glorifying the Supreme Lord.
Once there was a saṅkīrtana festival to glorify the Supreme Lord in an assembly of the demigods, and the Gandharvas and Apsarās were invited by the prajāpatis to take part in it.
ahaṁ ca gāyaṁs tad-vidvān
strībhiḥ parivṛto gataḥ
jñātvā viśva-sṛjas tan me
helanaṁ śepur ojasā
yāhi tvaṁ śūdratām āśu
aham — I myself; ca — and; gāyan — singing the glories of other demigods rather than those of the Lord; tat-vidvān — knowing very well the art of singing; strībhiḥ — by women; parivṛtaḥ — being surrounded; gataḥ — went there; jñātvā — knowing well; viśva-sṛjaḥ — the prajāpatis, to whom the management of universal affairs was entrusted; tat — the attitude of my singing; me — my; helanam — negligence; śepuḥ — cursed; ojasā — with great force; yāhi — become; tvam — you; śūdratām — a śūdra; āśu — immediately; naṣṭa — devoid of; śrīḥ — beauty; kṛta-helanaḥ — because of transgressing the etiquette.
Nārada Muni continued: Being invited to that festival, I also joined, and, surrounded by women, I began musically singing the glories of the demigods. Because of this, the prajāpatis, the great demigods in charge of the affairs of the universe, forcefully cursed me with these words: “Because you have committed an offense, may you immediately become a śūdra, devoid of beauty.”
tāvad dāsyām ahaṁ jajñe
prāpto ’haṁ brahma-putratām
tāvat — since being cursed; dāsyām — in the womb of a maidservant; aham — I; jajñe — took birth; tatrāpi — although (being a śūdra); brahma-vādinām — unto persons well conversant with the Vedic knowledge; śuśrūṣayā — by rendering service; anuṣaṅgeṇa — simultaneously; prāptaḥ — obtained; aham — I; brahma-putratām — a birth as the son of Lord Brahmā (in this life).
Although I took birth as a śūdra from the womb of a maidservant, I engaged in the service of Vaiṣṇavas who were well-versed in Vedic knowledge. Consequently, in this life I got the opportunity to take birth as the son of Lord Brahmā.
dharmas te gṛha-medhīyo
gṛhastho yena padavīm
añjasā nyāsinām iyāt
dharmaḥ — that religious process; te — to you; gṛha-medhīyaḥ — although attached to household life; varṇitaḥ — explained (by me); pāpa-nāśanaḥ — the destruction of sinful reactions; gṛhasthaḥ — a person in household life; yena — by which; padavīm — the position; añjasā — very easily; nyāsinām — of those in the renounced order of life; iyāt — can obtain.
The process of chanting the holy name of the Lord is so powerful that by this chanting even householders [gṛhasthas] can very easily gain the ultimate result achieved by persons in the renounced order. Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, I have now explained to you that process of religion.
yūyaṁ nṛ-loke bata bhūri-bhāgā
lokaṁ punānā munayo ’bhiyanti
yeṣāṁ gṛhān āvasatīti sākṣād
gūḍhaṁ paraṁ brahma manuṣya-liṅgam
yūyam — all of you Pāṇḍavas; nṛ-loke — in this material world; bata — indeed; bhūri-bhāgāḥ — extremely fortunate; lokam — all the planets of the universe; punānāḥ — who can purify; munayaḥ — great saintly persons; abhiyanti — come to visit (just like ordinary persons); yeṣām — of whom; gṛhān — the house of the Pāṇḍavas; āvasati — resides; iti — thus; sākṣāt — directly; gūḍham — very confidential; param — transcendental; brahma — the Parabrahman, Kṛṣṇa; manuṣya-liṅgam — as if an ordinary human being.
My dear Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, you Pāṇḍavas are so very fortunate in this world that many, many great saints, who can purify all the planets of the universe, come to your house just like ordinary visitors. Furthermore, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, is living confidentially with you in your house, just like your brother.
sa vā ayaṁ brahma mahad-vimṛgya-
priyaḥ suhṛd vaḥ khalu mātuleya
ātmārhaṇīyo vidhi-kṛd guruś ca
saḥ — that Supreme Personality of Godhead; vā — either; ayam — Kṛṣṇa; brahma — the Supreme Brahman; mahat-vimṛgya — sought by great, great saintly persons (devotees of Kṛṣṇa); kaivalya-nirvāṇa-sukha — of liberation and transcendental bliss; anubhūtiḥ — for the realization; priyaḥ — very dear; suhṛt — the well-wisher; vaḥ — of all of you Pāṇḍavas; khalu — famous as; mātuleyaḥ — the son of your maternal uncle; ātmā — heart and soul; arhaṇīyaḥ — the most worshipable person; vidhi-kṛt — giving direction; guruḥ — your spiritual master; ca — and.
How wonderful it is that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Parabrahman, Kṛṣṇa, who is sought by great, great sages for the sake of liberation and transcendental bliss, is acting as your best well-wisher, your friend, your cousin, your heart and soul, your worshipable director, and your spiritual master.
na yasya sākṣād bhava-padmajādibhī
rūpaṁ dhiyā vastutayopavarṇitam
maunena bhaktyopaśamena pūjitaḥ
prasīdatām eṣa sa sātvatāṁ patiḥ
na — not; yasya — of whom (Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa); sākṣāt — directly; bhava — by Lord Śiva; padma-ja-ādibhiḥ — Lord Brahmā and others; rūpam — the form; dhiyā — by meditation; vastutayā — factually; upavarṇitam — could be explained; maunena — by silence; bhaktyā — by devotional service; upaśamena — by finishing all material activities; pūjitaḥ — one who is so worshiped; prasīdatām — may be pleased with us; eṣaḥ — this; saḥ — the same Personality of Godhead; sātvatām — of the devotees; patiḥ — who is the maintainer, master and guide.
Present here now is the same Supreme Personality of Godhead whose true form cannot be understood even by such great personalities as Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva. He is realized by devotees because of their unflinching surrender. May that same Personality of Godhead, who is the maintainer of His devotees and who is worshiped by silence, by devotional service and by cessation of material activities, be pleased with us.
iti devarṣiṇā proktaṁ
pūjayām āsa suprītaḥ
kṛṣṇaṁ ca prema-vihvalaḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; deva-ṛṣiṇā — by the great saint (Nārada Muni); proktam — described; niśamya — hearing; bharata-ṛṣabhaḥ — the best of the descendants in Bharata Mahārāja’s dynasty, namely Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; pūjayām āsa — worshiped; su-prītaḥ — being extremely pleased; kṛṣṇam — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; ca — also; prema-vihvalaḥ — in the ecstasy of love of Kṛṣṇa.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, the best member of the Bharata dynasty, thus learned everything from the descriptions of Nārada Muni. After hearing these instructions, he felt great pleasure from within his heart, and in great ecstasy, love and affection, he worshiped Lord Kṛṣṇa.
pūjitaḥ prayayau muniḥ
śrutvā kṛṣṇaṁ paraṁ brahma
kṛṣṇa — Lord Kṛṣṇa; pārthau — and Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; upāmantrya — bidding farewell; pūjitaḥ — being worshiped by them; prayayau — left (that place); muniḥ — Nārada Muni; śrutvā — after hearing; kṛṣṇam — about Kṛṣṇa; param brahma — as the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pārthaḥ — Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira; parama-vismitaḥ — became most amazed.
Nārada Muni, being worshiped by Kṛṣṇa and Mahārāja Yudhiṣṭhira, bade them farewell and went away. Yudhiṣṭhira Mahārāja, having heard that Kṛṣṇa, his cousin, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, was struck with wonder.
iti dākṣāyaṇīnāṁ te
pṛthag vaṁśāḥ prakīrtitāḥ
lokā yatra carācarāḥ
iti — thus; dākṣāyaṇīnām — of the daughters of Mahārāja Dakṣa, like Aditi and Diti; te — to you; pṛthak — separately; vaṁśāḥ — the dynasties; prakīrtitāḥ — described (by me); deva — the demigods; asura — demons; manuṣya — and human beings; ādyāḥ — and so on; lokāḥ — all the planets within the universe; yatra — wherein; cara-acarāḥ — moving and nonmoving living entities.
On all the planets within this universe, the varieties of living entities, moving and nonmoving, including the demigods, demons and human beings, were all generated from the daughters of Mahārāja Dakṣa. I have now described them and their different dynasties.