Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 7
The Activities of King Bharata
bharatas tu mahā-bhāgavato yadā bhagavatāvani-tala-paripālanāya sañcintitas tad-anuśāsana-paraḥ pañcajanīṁ viśvarūpa-duhitaram upayeme.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; bharataḥ — Mahārāja Bharata; tu — but; mahā-bhāgavataḥ — a mahā-bhāgavata, most exalted devotee of the Lord; yadā — when; bhagavatā — by the order of his father, Lord Ṛṣabhadeva; avani-tala — the surface of the globe; paripālanāya — for ruling over; sañcintitaḥ — made up his mind; tat-anuśāsana-paraḥ — engaged in governing the globe; pañcajanīm — Pañcajanī; viśvarūpa-duhitaram — the daughter of Viśvarūpa; upayeme — married.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued speaking to Mahārāja Parīkṣit: My dear King, Bharata Mahārāja was a topmost devotee. Following the orders of his father, who had already decided to install him on the throne, he began to rule the earth accordingly. When Bharata Mahārāja ruled the entire globe, he followed the orders of his father and married Pañcajanī, the daughter of Viśvarūpa.
tasyām u ha vā ātmajān kārtsnyenānurūpān ātmanaḥ pañca janayām āsa bhūtādir iva bhūta-sūkṣmāṇi sumatiṁ rāṣṭrabhṛtaṁ sudarśanam āvaraṇaṁ dhūmraketum iti.
tasyām — in her womb; u ha vā — indeed; ātma-jān — sons; kārtsnyena — entirely; anurūpān — exactly like; ātmanaḥ — himself; pañca — five; janayām āsa — begot; bhūta-ādiḥ iva — like the false ego; bhūta-sūkṣmāṇi — the five subtle objects of sense perception; su-matim — Sumatim; rāṣṭra-bhṛtam — Rāṣṭrabhṛta; su-darśanam — Sudarśana; āvaraṇam — Āvaraṇa; dhūmra-ketum — Dhūmraketu; iti — thus.
Just as the false ego creates the subtle sense objects, Mahārāja Bharata created five sons in the womb of Pañcajanī, his wife. These sons were named Sumati, Rāṣṭrabhṛta, Sudarśana, Āvaraṇa and Dhūmraketu.
ajanābhaṁ nāmaitad varṣaṁ bhāratam iti yata ārabhya vyapadiśanti.
ajanābham — Ajanābha; nāma — by the name; etat — this; varṣam — island; bhāratam — Bhārata; iti — thus; yataḥ — from whom; ārabhya — beginning; vyapadiśanti — they celebrate.
Formerly this planet was known as Ajanābha-varṣa, but since Mahārāja Bharata’s reign it has become known as Bhārata-varṣa.
sa bahuvin mahī-patiḥ pitṛ-pitāmahavad uru-vatsalatayā sve sve karmaṇi vartamānāḥ prajāḥ sva-dharmam anuvartamānaḥ paryapālayat.
saḥ — that King (Mahārāja Bharata); bahu-vit — being very advanced in knowledge; mahī-patiḥ — the ruler of the earth; pitṛ — father; pitāmaha — grandfather; vat — exactly like; uru-vatsalatayā — with the quality of being very affectionate to the citizens; sve sve — in their own respective; karmaṇi — duties; vartamānāḥ — remaining; prajāḥ — the citizens; sva-dharmam anuvartamānaḥ — being perfectly situated in his own occupational duty; paryapālayat — ruled.
Mahārāja Bharata was a very learned and experienced king on this earth. He perfectly ruled the citizens, being himself engaged in his own respective duties. Mahārāja Bharata was as affectionate to the citizens as his father and grandfather had been. Keeping them engaged in their occupational duties, he ruled the earth.
īje ca bhagavantaṁ yajña-kratu-rūpaṁ kratubhir uccāvacaiḥ śraddhayāhṛtāgnihotra-darśa-pūrṇamāsa-cāturmāsya-paśu-somānāṁ prakṛti-vikṛtibhir anusavanaṁ cāturhotra-vidhinā.
īje — worshiped; ca — also; bhagavantam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yajña-kratu-rūpam — having the form of sacrifices without animals and sacrifices with animals; kratubhiḥ — by such sacrifices; uccāvacaiḥ — very great and very small; śraddhayā — with faith; āhṛta — being performed; agni-hotra — of the agnihotra-yajña; darśa — of the darśa-yajña; pūrṇamāsa — of the pūrṇamāsa-yajña; cāturmāsya — of the cāturmāsya-yajña; paśu-somānām — of the yajña with animals and the yajña with soma-rasa; prakṛti — by full performances; vikṛtibhiḥ — and by partial performances; anusavanam — almost always; cātuḥ-hotra-vidhinā — by the regulative principles of sacrifice directed by four kinds of priests.
With great faith King Bharata performed various kinds of sacrifice. He performed the sacrifices known as agni-hotra, darśa, pūrṇamāsa, cāturmāsya, paśu-yajña [wherein a horse is sacrificed] and soma-yajña [wherein a kind of beverage is offered]. Sometimes these sacrifices were performed completely and sometimes partially. In any case, in all the sacrifices the regulations of cāturhotra were strictly followed. In this way Bharata Mahārāja worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
sampracaratsu nānā-yāgeṣu viracitāṅga-kriyeṣv apūrvaṁ yat tat kriyā-phalaṁ dharmākhyaṁ pare brahmaṇi yajña-puruṣe sarva-devatā-liṅgānāṁ mantrāṇām artha-niyāma-katayā sākṣāt-kartari para-devatāyāṁ bhagavati vāsudeva eva bhāvayamāna ātma-naipuṇya-mṛdita-kaṣāyo haviḥṣv adhvaryubhir gṛhyamāṇeṣu sa yajamāno yajña-bhājo devāṁs tān puruṣāvayaveṣv abhyadhyāyat.
sampracaratsu — when beginning to perform; nānā-yāgeṣu — various kinds of sacrifice; viracita-aṅga-kriyeṣu — in which the supplementary rites were performed; apūrvam — remote; yat — whatever; tat — that; kriyā-phalam — the result of such sacrifice; dharma-ākhyam — by the name of religion; pare — unto the transcendence; brahmaṇi — the Supreme Lord; yajña-puruṣe — the enjoyer of all sacrifices; sarva-devatā-liṅgānām — which manifest all the demigods; mantrāṇām — of the Vedic hymns; artha-niyāma-katayā — due to being the controller of the objects; sākṣāt-kartari — directly the performer; para-devatāyām — the origin of all demigods; bhagavati — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudeve — unto Kṛṣṇa; eva — certainly; bhāvayamānaḥ — always thinking; ātma-naipuṇya-mṛdita-kaṣāyaḥ — freed from all lust and anger by his expertise in such thinking; haviḥṣu — the ingredients to be offered in the sacrifice; adhvaryubhiḥ — when the priests expert in the sacrifices mentioned in the Atharva Veda; gṛhyamāṇeṣu — taking; saḥ — Mahārāja Bharata; yajamānaḥ — the sacrificer; yajña-bhājaḥ — the recipients of the results of sacrifice; devān — all the demigods; tān — them; puruṣa-avayaveṣu — as different parts and limbs of the body of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda; abhyadhyāyat — he thought.
After performing the preliminaries of various sacrifices, Mahārāja Bharata offered the results in the name of religion to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva. In other words, he performed all the yajñas for the satisfaction of Lord Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa. Mahārāja Bharata thought that since the demigods were different parts of Vāsudeva’s body, He controls those who are explained in the Vedic mantras. By thinking in this way, Mahārāja Bharata was freed from all material contamination, such as attachment, lust and greed. When the priests were about to offer the sacrificial ingredients into the fire, Mahārāja Bharata expertly understood how the offering made to different demigods was simply an offering to the different limbs of the Lord. For instance, Indra is the arm of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and Sūrya [the sun] is His eye. Thus Mahārāja Bharata considered that the oblations offered to different demigods were actually offered unto the different limbs of Lord Vāsudeva.
evaṁ karma-viśuddhyā viśuddha-sattvasyāntar-hṛdayākāśa-śarīre brahmaṇi bhagavati vāsudeve mahā-puruṣa-rūpopalakṣaṇe śrīvatsa-kaustubha-vana-mālāri-dara-gadādibhir upalakṣite nija-puruṣa-hṛl-likhitenātmani puruṣa-rūpeṇa virocamāna uccaistarāṁ bhaktir anudinam edhamāna-rayājāyata.
evam — thus; karma-viśuddhyā — by offering everything for the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and not desiring any results of his pious activities; viśuddha-sattvasya — of Bharata Mahārāja, whose existence was completely purified; antaḥ-hṛdaya-ākāśa-śarīre — the Supersoul within the heart, as meditated on by yogīs; brahmaṇi — into impersonal Brahman, which is worshiped by impersonalist jñānīs; bhagavati — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudeve — the son of Vasudeva, Lord Kṛṣṇa; mahā-puruṣa — of the Supreme Person; rūpa — of the form; upalakṣaṇe — having the symptoms; śrīvatsa — the mark on the chest of the Lord; kaustubha — the Kaustubha gem used by the Lord; vana-mālā — flower garland; ari-dara — by the disc and conchshell; gadā-ādibhiḥ — by the club and other symbols; upalakṣite — being recognized; nija-puruṣa-hṛt-likhitena — which is situated in the heart of His own devotee like an engraved picture; ātmani — in his own mind; puruṣa-rūpeṇa — by His personal form; virocamāne — shining; uccaistarām — on a very high level; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; anudinam — day after day; edhamāna — increasing; rayā — possessing force; ajāyata — appeared.
In this way, being purified by ritualistic sacrifices, the heart of Mahārāja Bharata was completely uncontaminated. His devotional service unto Vāsudeva, Lord Kṛṣṇa, increased day after day. Lord Kṛṣṇa, the son of Vasudeva, is the original Personality of Godhead manifest as the Supersoul [Paramātmā] as well as the impersonal Brahman. Yogīs meditate upon the localized Paramātmā situated in the heart, jñānīs worship the impersonal Brahman as the Supreme Absolute Truth, and devotees worship Vāsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose transcendental body is described in the śāstras. His body is decorated with the Śrīvatsa, the Kaustubha jewel and a flower garland, and His hands hold a conchshell, disc, club and lotus flower. Devotees like Nārada always think of Him within their hearts.
evaṁ varṣāyuta-sahasra-paryantāvasita-karma-nirvāṇāvasaro ’dhibhujyamānaṁ sva-tanayebhyo rikthaṁ pitṛ-paitāmahaṁ yathā-dāyaṁ vibhajya svayaṁ sakala-sampan-niketāt sva-niketāt pulahāśramaṁ pravavrāja.
evam — thus being always engaged; varṣa-ayuta-sahasra — one thousand times ten thousand years; paryanta — until then; avasita-karma-nirvāṇa-avasaraḥ — Mahārāja Bharata who ascertained the moment of the end of his royal opulence; adhibhujyamānam — being enjoyed in this way for that duration; sva-tanayebhyaḥ — unto his own sons; riktham — the wealth; pitṛ-paitāmaham — which he received from his father and forefathers; yathā-dāyam — according to the dāya-bhāk laws of Manu; vibhajya — dividing; svayam — personally; sakala-sampat — of all kinds of opulence; niketāt — the abode; sva-niketāt — from his paternal home; pulaha-āśramam pravavrāja — he went to the āśrama of Pulaha in Hardwar (where the śālagrāma-śilās are obtainable).
Destiny fixed the time for Mahārāja Bharata’s enjoyment of material opulence at one thousand times ten thousand years. When that period was finished, he retired from family life and divided the wealth he had received from his forefathers among his sons. He left his paternal home, the reservoir of all opulence, and started for Pulahāśrama, which is situated in Hardwar. The śālagrāma-śilās are obtainable there.
yatra ha vāva bhagavān harir adyāpi tatratyānāṁ nija-janānāṁ vātsalyena sannidhāpyata icchā-rūpeṇa.
yatra — where; ha vāva — certainly; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hariḥ — the Lord; adya-api — even today; tatratyānām — residing in that place; nija-janānām — for His own devotees; vātsalyena — by His transcendental affection; sannidhāpyate — becomes visible; icchā-rūpeṇa — according to the desire of the devotee.
At Pulaha-āśrama, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, out of His transcendental affection for His devotee, becomes visible to His devotee, satisfying His devotee’s desires.
yatrāśrama-padāny ubhayato nābhibhir dṛṣac-cakraiś cakra-nadī nāma sarit-pravarā sarvataḥ pavitrī-karoti.
yatra — where; āśrama-padāni — all hermitages; ubhayataḥ — both on top and below; nābhibhiḥ — like the symbolic mark of a navel; dṛṣat — visible; cakraiḥ — with the circles; cakra-nadī — the Cakranadī River (generally known as the Gaṇḍakī); nāma — of the name; sarit-pravarā — the most important river of all; sarvataḥ — everywhere; pavitrī-karoti — sanctifies.
In Pulaha-āśrama is the Gaṇḍakī River, which is the best of all rivers. The śālagrāma-śilā, the marble pebbles, purify all those places. On each and every marble pebble, up and down, circles like navels are visible.
tasmin vāva kila sa ekalaḥ pulahāśramopavane vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikāmbubhiḥ kanda-mūla-phalopahāraiś ca samīhamāno bhagavata ārādhanaṁ vivikta uparata-viṣayābhilāṣa upabhṛtopaśamaḥ parāṁ nirvṛtim avāpa.
tasmin — in that āśrama; vāva kila — indeed; saḥ — Bharata Mahārāja; ekalaḥ — alone, only; pulaha-āśrama-upavane — in the gardens situated in Pulaha-āśrama; vividha-kusuma-kisalaya-tulasikā-ambubhiḥ — with varieties of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves, as well as with water; kanda-mūla-phala-upahāraiḥ — by offerings of roots, bulbs and fruits; ca — and; samīhamānaḥ — performing; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ārādhanam — worshiping; viviktaḥ — purified; uparata — being freed from; viṣaya-abhilāṣaḥ — desire for material sense enjoyment; upabhṛta — increased; upaśamaḥ — tranquillity; parām — transcendental; nirvṛtim — satisfaction; avāpa — he obtained.
In the gardens of Pulaha-āśrama, Mahārāja Bharata lived alone and collected a variety of flowers, twigs and tulasī leaves. He also collected the water of the Gaṇḍakī River, as well as various roots, fruits and bulbs. With these he offered food to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva, and, worshiping Him, he remained satisfied. In this way his heart was completely uncontaminated, and he did not have the least desire for material enjoyment. All material desires vanished. In this steady position, he felt full satisfaction and was situated in devotional service.
tayettham avirata-puruṣa-paricaryayā bhagavati pravardhamānā-nurāga-bhara-druta-hṛdaya-śaithilyaḥ praharṣa-vegenātmany udbhidyamāna-roma-pulaka-kulaka autkaṇṭhya-pravṛtta-praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddhāvaloka-nayana evaṁ nija-ramaṇāruṇa-caraṇāravindānudhyāna-paricita-bhakti-yogena paripluta-paramāhlāda-gambhīra-hṛdaya-hradāvagāḍha-dhiṣaṇas tām api kriyamāṇāṁ bhagavat-saparyāṁ na sasmāra.
tayā — by that; ittham — in this manner; avirata — constant; puruṣa — of the Supreme Lord; paricaryayā — by service; bhagavati — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; pravardhamāna — constantly increasing; anurāga — of attachment; bhara — by the load; druta — melted; hṛdaya — heart; śaithilyaḥ — laxity; praharṣa-vegena — by the force of transcendental ecstasy; ātmani — in his body; udbhidyamāna-roma-pulaka-kulakaḥ — standing of the hair on end; autkaṇṭhya — because of intense longing; pravṛtta — produced; praṇaya-bāṣpa-niruddha-avaloka-nayanaḥ — awakening of tears of love in the eyes, obstructing the vision; evam — thus; nija-ramaṇa-aruṇa-caraṇa-aravinda — on the Lord’s reddish lotus feet; anudhyāna — by meditating; paricita — increased; bhakti-yogena — by dint of devotional service; paripluta — spreading everywhere; parama — highest; āhlāda — of spiritual bliss; gambhīra — very deep; hṛdaya-hrada — in the heart, which is compared to a lake; avagāḍha — immersed; dhiṣaṇaḥ — whose intelligence; tām — that; api — although; kriyamāṇām — executing; bhagavat — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; saparyām — the worship; na — not; sasmāra — remembered.
That most exalted devotee, Mahārāja Bharata, in this way engaged constantly in the devotional service of the Lord. Naturally his love for Vāsudeva, Kṛṣṇa, increased more and more and melted his heart. Consequently he gradually lost all attachment for regulative duties. The hairs of his body stood on end, and all the ecstatic bodily symptoms were manifest. Tears flowed from his eyes, so much so that he could not see anything. Thus he constantly meditated on the reddish lotus feet of the Lord. At that time, his heart, which was like a lake, was filled with the water of ecstatic love. When his mind was immersed in that lake, he even forgot the regulative service to the Lord.
itthaṁ dhṛta-bhagavad-vrata aiṇeyājina-vāsasānusavanābhiṣekārdra-kapiśa-kuṭila-jaṭā-kalāpena ca virocamānaḥ sūryarcā bhagavantaṁ hiraṇmayaṁ puruṣam ujjihāne sūrya-maṇḍale ’bhyupatiṣṭhann etad u hovāca.
ittham — in this way; dhṛta-bhagavat-vrataḥ — having accepted the vow to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aiṇeya-ajina-vāsasa — with a dress of a deerskin; anusavana — three times in a day; abhiṣeka — by a bath; ardra — wet; kapiśa — tawny; kuṭila-jaṭā — of curling and matted hair; kalāpena — by masses; ca — and; virocamānaḥ — being very beautifully decorated; sūryarcā — by the Vedic hymns worshiping the expansion of Nārāyaṇa within the sun; bhagavantam — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hiraṇmayam — the Lord, whose bodily hue is just like gold; puruṣam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ujjihāne — when rising; sūrya-maṇḍale — the sun globe; abhyupatiṣṭhan — worshiping; etat — this; u ha — certainly; uvāca — he recited.
Mahārāja Bharata appeared very beautiful. He had a wealth of curly hair on his head, which was wet from bathing three times daily. He dressed in a deerskin. He worshiped Lord Nārāyaṇa, whose body was composed of golden effulgence and who resided within the sun. Mahārāja Bharata worshiped Lord Nārāyaṇa by chanting the hymns given in the Ṛg Veda, and he recited the following verse as the sun rose.
paro-rajaḥ savitur jāta-vedo
devasya bhargo manasedaṁ jajāna
suretasādaḥ punar āviśya caṣṭe
haṁsaṁ gṛdhrāṇaṁ nṛṣad-riṅgirām imaḥ
paraḥ-rajaḥ — beyond the mode of passion (situated in the pure mode of goodness); savituḥ — of the one who illuminates the whole universe; jāta-vedaḥ — from which all the devotee’s desires are fulfilled; devasya — of the Lord; bhargaḥ — the self-effulgence; manasā — simply by contemplating; idam — this universe; jajāna — created; su-retasā — by spiritual potency; adaḥ — this created world; punaḥ — again; āviśya — entering; caṣṭe — sees or maintains; haṁsam — the living entity; gṛdhrāṇam — desiring for material enjoyment; nṛṣat — to the intelligence; riṅgirām — to one who gives motion; imaḥ — let me offer my obeisances.
“The Supreme Personality of Godhead is situated in pure goodness. He illuminates the entire universe and bestows all benedictions upon His devotees. The Lord has created this universe from His own spiritual potency. According to His desire, the Lord entered this universe as the Supersoul, and by virtue of His different potencies He is maintaining all living entities desiring material enjoyment. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto the Lord, who is the giver of intelligence.”