Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 4
The Characteristics of Ṛṣabhadeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead
atha ha tam utpattyaivābhivyajyamāna-bhagaval-lakṣaṇaṁ sāmyopaśama-vairāgyaiśvarya-mahā-vibhūtibhir anudinam edhamānānubhāvaṁ prakṛtayaḥ prajā brāhmaṇā devatāś cāvani-tala-samavanāyātitarāṁ jagṛdhuḥ.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; atha ha — thus (after the Supreme Personality of Godhead appeared); tam — Him; utpattyā — from the beginning of His appearance; eva — even; abhivyajyamāna — distinctly manifested; bhagavat-lakṣaṇam — possessing the symptoms of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sāmya — equal to everyone; upaśama — completely peaceful, in control of the senses and mind; vairāgya — renunciation; aiśvarya — opulences; mahā-vibhūtibhiḥ — with great attributes; anudinam — day after day; edhamāna — increasing; anubhāvam — His power; prakṛtayaḥ — the ministers; prajāḥ — the citizens; brāhmaṇāḥ — the learned scholars in full knowledge of Brahman; devatāḥ — the demigods; ca — and; avani-tala — the surface of the globe; samavanāya — to rule; atitarām — greatly; jagṛdhuḥ — desired.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: As soon as the Lord was born as the son of Mahārāja Nābhi, He manifested symptoms of the Supreme Lord, such as marks on the bottoms of His feet [the flag, thunderbolt, etc.]. This son was equal to everyone and very peaceful. He could control His senses and His mind, and, possessing all opulence, He did not hanker for material enjoyment. Endowed with all these attributes, the son of Mahārāja Nābhi became more powerful day after day. Due to this, the citizens, learned brāhmaṇas, demigods and ministers wanted Ṛṣabhadeva to be appointed ruler of the earth.
tasya ha vā itthaṁ varṣmaṇā varīyasā bṛhac-chlokena caujasā balena śriyā yaśasā vīrya-śauryābhyāṁ ca pitā ṛṣabha itīdaṁ nāma cakāra.
tasya — of Him; ha vā — certainly; ittham — thus; varṣmaṇā — by the bodily features; varīyasā — most exalted; bṛhat-ślokena — decorated with all the high qualities described by poets; ca — also; ojasā — by prowess; balena — by strength; śriyā — by beauty; yaśasā — by fame; vīrya-śauryābhyām — by influence and heroism; ca — and; pitā — the father (Mahārāja Nābhi); ṛṣabhaḥ — the best; iti — thus; idam — this; nāma — name; cakāra — gave.
When the son of Mahārāja Nābhi became visible, He evinced all good qualities described by the great poets — namely, a well-built body with all the symptoms of the Godhead, prowess, strength, beauty, name, fame, influence and enthusiasm. When the father, Mahārāja Nābhi, saw all these qualities, he thought his son to be the best of human beings or the supreme being. Therefore he gave Him the name Ṛṣabha.
yasya hīndraḥ spardhamāno bhagavān varṣe na vavarṣa tad avadhārya bhagavān ṛṣabhadevo yogeśvaraḥ prahasyātma-yogamāyayā sva-varṣam ajanābhaṁ nāmābhyavarṣat.
yasya — of whom; hi — indeed; indraḥ — King Indra of heaven; spardhamānaḥ — being envious; bhagavān — very opulent; varṣe — on Bhārata-varṣa; na vavarṣa — did not pour water; tat — that; avadhārya — knowing; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ṛṣabhadevaḥ — Ṛṣabhadeva; yoga-īśvaraḥ — the master of all mystic power; prahasya — smiling; ātma-yoga-māyayā — by His own spiritual potency; sva-varṣam — on His place; ajanābham — Ajanābha; nāma — named; abhyavarṣat — He poured water.
Indra, the King of heaven, who is very materially opulent, became envious of King Ṛṣabhadeva. Consequently he stopped pouring water on the planet known as Bhārata-varṣa. At that time the Supreme Lord, Ṛṣabhadeva, the master of all mystic power, understood King Indra’s purpose and smiled a little. Then, by His own prowess, through yoga-māyā [His internal potency], He profusely poured water upon His own place, which was known as Ajanābha.
nābhis tu yathābhilaṣitaṁ suprajastvam avarudhyāti-pramoda-bhara-vihvalo gadgadākṣarayā girā svairaṁ gṛhīta-naraloka-sadharmaṁ bhagavantaṁ purāṇa-puruṣaṁ māyā-vilasita-matir vatsa tāteti sānurāgam upalālayan parāṁ nirvṛtim upagataḥ.
nābhiḥ — King Nābhi; tu — certainly; yathā-abhilaṣitam — according to his desire; su-prajastvam — the most beautiful son; avarudhya — getting; ati-pramoda — of great jubilation; bhara — by an excess; vihvalaḥ — being overwhelmed; gadgada-akṣarayā — faltering in ecstasy; girā — with a voice; svairam — by His independent will; gṛhīta — accepted; nara-loka-sadharmam — acting as if a human being; bhagavantam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; purāṇa-puruṣam — the oldest among living beings; māyā — by yoga-māyā; vilasita — bewildered; matiḥ — his mentality; vatsa — my dear son; tāta — my darling; iti — thus; sa-anurāgam — with great affection; upalālayan — raising; parām — transcendental; nirvṛtim — bliss; upagataḥ — achieved.
Due to getting a perfect son according to his desire, King Nābhi was always overwhelmed with transcendental bliss and was very affectionate to his son. It was with ecstasy and a faltering voice that he addressed Him, “My dear son, my darling.” This mentality was brought about by yoga-māyā, whereby he accepted the Supreme Lord, the supreme father, as his own son. Out of His supreme good will, the Lord became his son and dealt with everyone as if He were an ordinary human being. Thus King Nābhi began to raise his transcendental son with great affection, and he was overwhelmed with transcendental bliss, joy and devotion.
viditānurāgam āpaura-prakṛti jana-pado rājā nābhir ātmajaṁ samaya-setu-rakṣāyām abhiṣicya brāhmaṇeṣūpanidhāya saha merudevyā viśālāyāṁ prasanna-nipuṇena tapasā samādhi-yogena nara-nārāyaṇākhyaṁ bhagavantaṁ vāsudevam upāsīnaḥ kālena tan-mahimānam avāpa.
vidita — known very well; anurāgam — popularity; āpaura-prakṛti — among all the citizens and government officers; jana-padaḥ — desiring to serve the people in general; rājā — the King; nābhiḥ — Nābhi; ātmajam — his son; samaya-setu-rakṣāyām — to protect the people strictly according to the Vedic principles of religious life; abhiṣicya — enthroning; brāhmaṇeṣu — to the learned brāhmaṇas; upanidhāya — entrusting; saha — with; merudevyā — his wife, Merudevī; viśālāyām — in Badarikāśrama; prasanna-nipuṇena — performed with great satisfaction and expertise; tapasā — by austerities and penances; samādhi-yogena — by full samādhi; nara-nārāyaṇa-ākhyam — named Nara-Nārāyaṇa; bhagavantam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudevam — Kṛṣṇa; upāsīnaḥ — worshiping; kālena — in due course of time; tat-mahimānam — His glorious abode, the spiritual world, Vaikuṇṭha; avāpa — achieved.
King Nābhi understood that his son, Ṛṣabhadeva, was very popular among the citizens and among government officers and ministers. Understanding the popularity of his son, Mahārāja Nābhi enthroned Him as the emperor of the world to give protection to the general populace in terms of the Vedic religious system. To do this, he entrusted Him into the hands of learned brāhmaṇas, who would guide Him in administrating the government. Then Mahārāja Nābhi and his wife, Merudevī, went to Badarikāśrama in the Himālaya Mountains, where the King engaged Himself very expertly in austerities and penances with great jubilation. In full samādhi he worshiped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nara-Nārāyaṇa, who is Kṛṣṇa in His plenary expansion. By doing so, in course of time Mahārāja Nābhi was elevated to the spiritual world known as Vaikuṇṭha.
yasya ha pāṇḍaveya ślokāv udāharanti —
ko nu tat karma rājarṣer
nābher anv ācaret pumān
apatyatām agād yasya
hariḥ śuddhena karmaṇā
yasya — of whom; ha — indeed; pāṇḍaveya — O Mahārāja Parīkṣit; ślokau — two verses; udāharanti — recite; kaḥ — who; nu — then; tat — that; karma — work; rāja-ṛṣeḥ — of the pious King; nābheḥ — Nābhi; anu — following; ācaret — could execute; pumān — a man; apatyatām — sonhood; agāt — accepted; yasya — whose; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; śuddhena — pure, executed in devotional service; karmaṇā — by activities.
O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, to glorify Mahārāja Nābhi the old sages composed two verses. One of them is this: “Who can attain the perfection of Mahārāja Nābhi? Who can attain his activities? Because of his devotional service, the Supreme Personality of Godhead agreed to become his son.”
brahmaṇyo ’nyaḥ kuto nābher
yasya barhiṣi yajñeśaṁ
darśayām āsur ojasā
brahmaṇyaḥ — a devotee of the brāhmaṇas; anyaḥ — any, other; kutaḥ — where is; nābheḥ — besides Mahārāja Nābhi; viprāḥ — the brāhmaṇas; maṅgala-pūjitāḥ — well worshiped and satisfied; yasya — of whom; barhiṣi — in the sacrificial arena; yajña-īśam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the enjoyer of all sacrificial ceremonies; darśayām āsuḥ — showed; ojasā — by their brahminical prowess.
[The second prayer is this.] “Who is a better worshiper of brāhmaṇas than Mahārāja Nābhi? Because he worshiped the qualified brāhmaṇas to their full satisfaction, the brāhmaṇas, by their brahminical prowess, showed Mahārāja Nābhi the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Nārāyaṇa, in person.”
atha ha bhagavān ṛṣabhadevaḥ sva-varṣaṁ karma-kṣetram anumanyamānaḥ pradarśita-gurukula-vāso labdha-varair gurubhir anujñāto gṛhamedhināṁ dharmān anuśikṣamāṇo jayantyām indra-dattāyām ubhaya-lakṣaṇaṁ karma samāmnāyāmnātam abhiyuñjann ātmajānām ātma-samānānāṁ śataṁ janayām āsa.
atha — thereupon (after the departure of his father); ha — indeed; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ṛṣabha-devaḥ — Ṛṣabhadeva; sva — His own; varṣam — kingdom; karma-kṣetram — the field of activities; anumanyamānaḥ — accepting as; pradarśita — shown as an example; gurukula-vāsaḥ — lived at the gurukula; labdha — having achieved; varaiḥ — gifts; gurubhiḥ — by the spiritual masters; anujñātaḥ — being ordered; gṛha-medhinām — of the householders; dharmān — duties; anuśikṣamāṇaḥ — teaching by example; jayantyām — in His wife, Jayantī; indra-dattāyām — offered by Lord Indra; ubhaya-lakṣaṇam — of both types; karma — activities; samāmnāyāmnātam — mentioned in the scriptures; abhiyuñjan — performing; ātmajānām — sons; ātma-samānānām — exactly like Himself; śatam — one hundred; janayām āsa — begot.
After Nābhi Mahārāja departed for Badarikāśrama, the Supreme Lord, Ṛṣabhadeva, understood that His kingdom was His field of activities. He therefore showed Himself as an example and taught the duties of a householder by first accepting brahmacarya under the direction of spiritual masters. He also went to live at the spiritual masters’ place, gurukula. After His education was finished, He gave gifts (guru-dakṣiṇā) to His spiritual masters and then accepted the life of a householder. He took a wife named Jayantī and begot one hundred sons who were as powerful and qualified as He Himself. His wife Jayantī had been offered to Him by Indra, the King of heaven. Ṛṣabhadeva and Jayantī performed householder life in an exemplary way, carrying out ritualistic activities ordained by the śruti and smṛti śāstra.
yeṣāṁ khalu mahā-yogī bharato jyeṣṭhaḥ śreṣṭha-guṇa āsīd yenedaṁ varṣaṁ bhāratam iti vyapadiśanti.
yeṣām — of whom; khalu — indeed; mahā-yogī — a very highly exalted devotee of the Lord; bharataḥ — Bharata; jyeṣṭhaḥ — the eldest; śreṣṭha-guṇaḥ — qualified with the best attributes; āsīt — was; yena — by whom; idam — this; varṣam — planet; bhāratam — Bhārata; iti — thus; vyapadiśanti — people call.
Of Ṛṣabhadeva’s one hundred sons, the eldest, named Bharata, was a great, exalted devotee qualified with the best attributes. In his honor, this planet has become known as Bhārata-varṣa.
tam anu kuśāvarta ilāvarto brahmāvarto malayaḥ ketur bhadrasena indraspṛg vidarbhaḥ kīkaṭa iti nava navati pradhānāḥ.
tam — him; anu — following; kuśāvarta — Kuśāvarta; ilāvartaḥ — Ilāvarta; brahmāvartaḥ — Brahmāvarta; malayaḥ — Malaya; ketuḥ — Ketu; bhadra-senaḥ — Bhadrasena; indra-spṛk — Indraspṛk; vidarbhaḥ — Vidarbha; kīkaṭaḥ — Kīkaṭa; iti — thus; nava — nine; navati — ninety; pradhānāḥ — older than.
Following Bharata, there were ninety-nine other sons. Among these were nine elderly sons, named Kuśāvarta, Ilāvarta, Brahmāvarta, Malaya, Ketu, Bhadrasena, Indraspṛk, Vidarbha and Kīkaṭa.
kavir havir antarikṣaḥ
āvirhotro ’tha drumilaś
iti bhāgavata-dharma-darśanā nava mahā-bhāgavatās teṣāṁ sucaritaṁ bhagavan-mahimopabṛṁhitaṁ vasudeva-nārada-saṁvādam upaśamāyanam upariṣṭād varṇayiṣyāmaḥ.
kaviḥ — Kavi; haviḥ — Havi; antarikṣaḥ — Antarikṣa; prabuddhaḥ — Prabuddha; pippalāyanaḥ — Pippalāyana; āvirhotraḥ — Āvirhotra; atha — also; drumilaḥ — Drumila; camasaḥ — Camasa; karabhājanaḥ — Karabhājana; iti — thus; bhāgavata-dharma-darśanāḥ — authorized preachers of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; nava — nine; mahā-bhāgavatāḥ — highly advanced devotees; teṣām — of them; sucaritam — good characteristics; bhagavat-mahimā-upabṛṁhitam — accompanied by the glories of the Supreme Lord; vasudeva-nārada-saṁvādam — within the conversation between Vasudeva and Nārada; upaśamāyanam — which gives full satisfaction to the mind; upariṣṭāt — hereafter (in the Eleventh Canto); varṇayiṣyāmaḥ — I shall vividly explain.
In addition to these sons were Kavi, Havi, Antarikṣa, Prabuddha, Pippalāyana, Āvirhotra, Drumila, Camasa and Karabhājana. These were all very exalted, advanced devotees and authorized preachers of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. These devotees were glorified due to their strong devotion to Vāsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Therefore they were very exalted. To satisfy the mind perfectly, I [Śukadeva Gosvāmī] shall hereafter describe the characteristics of these nine devotees when I discuss the conversation between Nārada and Vasudeva.
yavīyāṁsa ekāśītir jāyanteyāḥ pitur ādeśakarā mahā-śālīnā mahā-śrotriyā yajña-śīlāḥ karma-viśuddhā brāhmaṇā babhūvuḥ.
yavīyāṁsaḥ — younger; ekāśītiḥ — numbering eighty-one; jāyanteyāḥ — the sons of Jayantī, the wife of Ṛṣabhadeva; pituḥ — of their father; ādeśakarāḥ — following the order; mahā-śālīnāḥ — well-behaved, well-cultured; mahā-śrotriyāḥ — extremely learned in Vedic knowledge; yajña-śīlāḥ — expert in performing ritualistic ceremonies; karma-viśuddhāḥ — very pure in their activities; brāhmaṇāḥ — qualified brāhmaṇas; babhūvuḥ — became.
In addition to these nineteen sons mentioned above, there were eighty-one younger ones, all born of Ṛṣabhadeva and Jayantī. According to the order of their father, they became well-cultured, well-behaved, very pure in their activities and expert in Vedic knowledge and the performance of Vedic rituals. Thus they all became perfectly qualified brāhmaṇas.
bhagavān ṛṣabha-saṁjña ātma-tantraḥ svayaṁ nitya-nivṛttānartha-paramparaḥ kevalānandānubhava īśvara eva viparītavat karmāṇy ārabhamāṇaḥ kālenānugataṁ dharmam ācaraṇenopaśikṣayann atad-vidāṁ sama upaśānto maitraḥ kāruṇiko dharmārtha-yaśaḥ-prajānandāmṛtāvarodhena gṛheṣu lokaṁ niyamayat.
bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ṛṣabha — Ṛṣabha; saṁjñaḥ — named; ātma-tantraḥ — fully independent; svayam — personally; nitya — eternally; nivṛtta — free from; anartha — of things not wanted (birth, old age, disease and death); paramparaḥ — the continual succession, one after another; kevala — only; ānanda-anubhavaḥ — full of transcendental bliss; īśvaraḥ — the Supreme Lord, the controller; eva — indeed; viparīta-vat — just like the opposite; karmāṇi — material activities; ārabhamāṇaḥ — performing; kālena — in course of time; anugatam — neglected; dharmam — the varṇāśrama-dharma; ācaraṇena — by executing; upaśikṣayan — teaching; a-tat-vidām — persons who are in ignorance; samaḥ — equipoised; upaśāntaḥ — undisturbed by the material senses; maitraḥ — very friendly to everyone; kāruṇikaḥ — very merciful to all; dharma — religious principles; artha — economic development; yaśaḥ — reputation; prajā — sons and daughters; ānanda — material pleasure; amṛta — eternal life; avarodhena — for achieving; gṛheṣu — in household life; lokam — the people in general; niyamayat — He regulated.
Being an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Ṛṣabhadeva was fully independent because His form was spiritual, eternal and full of transcendental bliss. He eternally had nothing to do with the four principles of material misery [birth, death, old age and disease]. Nor was He materially attached. He was always equipoised, and He saw everyone on the same level. He was unhappy to see others unhappy, and He was the well-wisher of all living entities. Although He was a perfect personality, the Supreme Lord and controller of all, He nonetheless acted as if He were an ordinary conditioned soul. Therefore He strictly followed the principles of varṇāśrama-dharma and acted accordingly. In due course of time, the principles of varṇāśrama-dharma had become neglected; therefore through His personal characteristics and behavior, He taught the ignorant public how to perform duties within the varṇāśrama-dharma. In this way He regulated the general populace in householder life, enabling them to develop religion and economic well-being and to attain reputations, sons and daughters, material pleasure and finally eternal life. By His instructions, He showed how people could remain householders and at the same time become perfect by following the principles of varṇāśrama-dharma.
yad yac chīrṣaṇyācaritaṁ tat tad anuvartate lokaḥ.
yat yat — whatever; śīrṣaṇya — by the leading personalities; ācaritam — performed; tat tat — that; anuvartate — follow; lokaḥ — the people in general.
Whatever action is performed by a great man, common men follow.
yadyapi sva-viditaṁ sakala-dharmaṁ brāhmaṁ guhyaṁ brāhmaṇair darśita-mārgeṇa sāmādibhir upāyair janatām anuśaśāsa.
yadyapi — although; sva-viditam — known by Him; sakala-dharmam — which includes all different types of occupational duties; brāhmam — Vedic instruction; guhyam — very confidential; brāhmaṇaiḥ — by the brāhmaṇas; darśita-mārgeṇa — by the path showed; sāma-ādibhiḥ — sāma, dama, titikṣā (controlling the mind, controlling the senses, practicing tolerance) and so on; upāyaiḥ — by the means; janatām — the people in general; anuśaśāsa — he ruled over.
Although Lord Ṛṣabhadeva knew everything about confidential Vedic knowledge, which includes information about all types of occupational duties, He still maintained Himself as a kṣatriya and followed the instructions of the brāhmaṇas as they related to mind control, sense control, tolerance and so forth. Thus He ruled the people according to the system of varṇāśrama-dharma, which enjoins that the brāhmaṇas instruct the kṣatriyas and the kṣatriyas administer to the state through the vaiśyas and śūdras.
dravya-deśa-kāla-vayaḥ-śraddhartvig-vividhoddeśopacitaiḥ sarvair api kratubhir yathopadeśaṁ śata-kṛtva iyāja.
dravya — the ingredients for performing yajña; deśa — the particular place, a holy place or a temple; kāla — the suitable time, such as springtime; vayaḥ — the age, especially youth; śraddhā — faith in goodness, not in passion and ignorance; ṛtvik — the priests; vividha-uddeśa — worshiping different demigods for different purposes; upacitaiḥ — enriched by; sarvaiḥ — all kinds of; api — certainly; kratubhiḥ — by sacrificial ceremonies; yathā-upadeśam — according to the instruction; śata-kṛtvaḥ — one hundred times; iyāja — He worshiped.
Lord Ṛṣabhadeva performed all kinds of sacrifices one hundred times according to the instructions of the Vedic literatures. Thus He satisfied Lord Viṣṇu in every respect. All the rituals were enriched by first-class ingredients. They were executed in holy places according to the proper time by priests who were all young and faithful. In this way Lord Viṣṇu was worshiped, and the prasāda was offered to all the demigods. Thus the functions and festivals were all successful.
bhagavatarṣabheṇa parirakṣyamāṇa etasmin varṣe na kaścana puruṣo vāñchaty avidyamānam ivātmano ’nyasmāt kathañcana kimapi karhicid avekṣate bhartary anusavanaṁ vijṛmbhita-snehātiśayam antareṇa.
bhagavatā — by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ṛṣabheṇa — King Ṛṣabha; parirakṣyamāṇe — being protected; etasmin — on this; varṣe — planet; na — not; kaścana — anyone; puruṣaḥ — even a common man; vāñchati — desires; avidyamānam — not existing in reality; iva — as if; ātmanaḥ — for himself; anyasmāt — from anyone else; kathañcana — by any means; kimapi — anything; karhicit — at any time; avekṣate — does care to see; bhartari — toward the master; anusavanam — always; vijṛmbhita — expanding; sneha-atiśayam — very great affection; antareṇa — within one’s self.
No one likes to possess anything that is like a will-o’-the-wisp or a flower in the sky, for everyone knows very well that such things do not exist. When Lord Ṛṣabhadeva ruled this planet of Bhāratavarṣa, even common men did not want to ask for anything, at any time or by any means. No one ever asks for a will-o’-the-wisp. In other words, everyone was completely satisfied, and therefore there was no chance of anyone’s asking for anything. The people were absorbed in great affection for the King. Since this affection was always expanding, they were not inclined to ask for anything.
sa kadācid aṭamāno bhagavān ṛṣabho brahmāvarta-gato brahmarṣi-pravara-sabhāyāṁ prajānāṁ niśāmayantīnām ātmajān avahitātmanaḥ praśraya-praṇaya-bhara-suyantritān apy upaśikṣayann iti hovāca.
saḥ — He; kadācit — once; aṭamānaḥ — while on tour; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ṛṣabhaḥ — Lord Ṛṣabha; brahmāvarta-gataḥ — when He reached the place known as Brahmāvarta (identified by some as Burma and by others as a place near Kanpura, Uttar Pradesh); brahma-ṛṣi-pravara-sabhāyām — in a meeting of first-class brāhmaṇas; prajānām — while the citizens; niśāmayantīnām — were hearing; ātmajān — His sons; avahita-ātmanaḥ — attentive; praśraya — of good behavior; praṇaya — of devotion; bhara — by an abundance; su-yantritān — well controlled; api — although; upaśikṣayan — teaching; iti — thus; ha — certainly; uvāca — said.
Once while touring the world, Lord Ṛṣabhadeva, the Supreme Lord, reached a place known as Brahmāvarta. There was a great conference of learned brāhmaṇas at that place, and all the King’s sons attentively heard the instructions of the brāhmaṇas there. At that assembly, within the hearing of the citizens, Ṛṣabhadeva instructed His sons, although they were already very well-behaved, devoted and qualified. He instructed them so that in the future they could rule the world very perfectly. Thus he spoke as follows.