Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 19
A Description of the Island of Jambūdvīpa
kimpuruṣe varṣe bhagavantam ādi-puruṣaṁ lakṣmaṇāgrajaṁ sītābhirāmaṁ rāmaṁ tac-caraṇa-sannikarṣābhirataḥ parama-bhāgavato hanumān saha kimpuruṣair avirata-bhaktir upāste.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued to speak; kimpuruṣe varṣe — the tract of land known as Kimpuruṣa; bhagavantam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ādi-puruṣam — the original cause of all causes; lakṣmaṇa-agra-jam — the elder brother of Lakṣmaṇa; sītā-abhirāmam — who is very pleasing to mother Sītā, or who is the husband of Sītādevī; rāmam — Lord Rāmacandra; tat-caraṇa-sannikarṣa-abhirataḥ — one always engaged in service at the lotus feet of Lord Rāmacandra; parama-bhāgavataḥ — the great devotee celebrated throughout the universe; hanumān — His Grace Hanumānjī; saha — with; kimpuruṣaiḥ — the inhabitants of the tract of land known as Kimpuruṣa; avirata — continuous; bhaktiḥ — who possesses devotional service; upāste — worships.
Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, in Kimpuruṣa-varṣa the great devotee Hanumān is always engaged with the inhabitants of that land in devotional service to Lord Rāmacandra, the elder brother of Lakṣmaṇa and dear husband of Sītādevī.
ārṣṭiṣeṇena saha gandharvair anugīyamānāṁ parama-kalyāṇīṁ bhartṛ-bhagavat-kathāṁ samupaśṛṇoti svayaṁ cedaṁ gāyati.
ārṣṭi-ṣeṇena — Ārṣṭiṣeṇa, the chief personality of Kimpuruṣa-varṣa; saha — with; gandharvaiḥ — by a company of Gandharvas; anugīyamānām — being chanted; parama-kalyāṇīm — most auspicious; bhartṛ-bhagavat-kathām — the glories of his master, who is also the Supreme Personality of Godhead; samupaśṛṇoti — he hears with great attention; svayam ca — and personally; idam — this; gāyati — chants.
A host of Gandharvas is always engaged in chanting the glories of Lord Rāmacandra. That chanting is always extremely auspicious. Hanumānjī and Arṣṭiṣeṇa, the chief person in Kimpuruṣa-varṣa, constantly hear those glories with complete attention. Hanumān chants the following mantras.
oṁ namo bhagavate uttamaślokāya nama ārya-lakṣaṇa-śīla-vratāya nama upaśikṣitātmana upāsita-lokāya namaḥ sādhu-vāda-nikaṣaṇāya namo brahmaṇya-devāya mahā-puruṣāya mahā-rājāya nama iti.
om — O my Lord; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; bhagavate — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; uttama-ślokāya — who is always worshiped with selected verses; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; ārya-lakṣaṇa-śīla-vratāya — who possesses all the good qualities of advanced personalities; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; upaśikṣita-ātmane — unto You whose senses are under control; upāsita-lokāya — who is always remembered and worshiped by all the different classes of living entities; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; sādhu-vāda-nikaṣaṇāya — to the Lord, who is like a stone for examining all the good qualities of a sādhu; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; brahmaṇya-devāya — who is worshiped by the most qualified brāhmaṇas; mahā-puruṣāya — unto the Supreme Lord, who is worshiped by the Puruṣa-sūkta because of being the cause of this material creation; mahā-rājāya — unto the supreme king, or the king of all kings; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; iti — thus.
Let me please Your Lordship by chanting the bīja-mantra oṁkāra. I wish to offer my respectful obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead, who is the best among the most highly elevated personalities. Your Lordship is the reservoir of all the good qualities of Āryans, people who are advanced. Your character and behavior are always consistent, and You always control Your senses and mind. Acting just like an ordinary human being, You exhibit exemplary character to teach others how to behave. There is a touchstone that can be used to examine the quality of gold, but You are like a touchstone that can verify all good qualities. You are worshiped by brāhmaṇas who are the foremost of all devotees. You, the Supreme Person, are the King of kings, and therefore I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.
yat tad viśuddhānubhava-mātram ekaṁ
pratyak praśāntaṁ sudhiyopalambhanaṁ
hy anāma-rūpaṁ nirahaṁ prapadye
yat — which; tat — to that supreme truth; viśuddha — transcendentally pure, without contamination by material nature; anubhava — experience; mātram — that sac-cid-ānanda transcendental body; ekam — the one; sva-tejasā — by His own spiritual potency; dhvasta — vanquished; guṇa-vyavastham — the influence of the modes of material nature; pratyak — transcendental, not to be seen with material eyes; praśāntam — undisturbed by material agitation; sudhiyā — by Kṛṣṇa consciousness, or purified consciousness, uncontaminated by material desires, fruitive activities and speculative philosophy; upalambhanam — who can be achieved; hi — indeed; anāma-rūpam — without a material name and form; niraham — without a material ego; prapadye — let me offer my respectful obeisances.
The Lord, whose pure form [sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha] is uncontaminated by the modes of material nature, can be perceived by pure consciousness. In the Vedānta He is described as being one without a second. Because of His spiritual potency, He is untouched by the contamination of material nature, and because He is not subjected to material vision, He is known as transcendental. He has no material activities, nor has He a material form or name. Only in pure consciousness, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, can one perceive the transcendental form of the Lord. Let us be firmly fixed at the lotus feet of Lord Rāmacandra, and let us offer our respectful obeisances unto those transcendental lotus feet.
martyāvatāras tv iha martya-śikṣaṇaṁ
rakṣo-vadhāyaiva na kevalaṁ vibhoḥ
kuto ’nyathā syād ramataḥ sva ātmanaḥ
martya — as a human being; avatāraḥ — whose incarnation; tu — however; iha — in the material world; martya-śikṣaṇam — for teaching all the living entities, especially human beings; rakṣaḥ-vadhāya — to kill the demon Rāvaṇa; eva — certainly; na — not; kevalam — only; vibhoḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kutaḥ — from where; anyathā — otherwise; syāt — there would be; ramataḥ — of one enjoying; sve — in Himself; ātmanaḥ — the spiritual identity of the universe; sītā — of the wife of Lord Rāmacandra; kṛtāni — appearing due to the separation; vyasanāni — all the miseries; īśvarasya — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
It was ordained that Rāvaṇa, chief of the Rākṣasas, could not be killed by anyone but a man, and for this reason Lord Rāmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, appeared in the form of a human being. Lord Rāmacandra’s mission, however, was not only to kill Rāvaṇa but also to teach mortal beings that material happiness centered around sex life or centered around one’s wife is the cause of many miseries. He is the self-sufficient Supreme Personality of Godhead, and nothing is lamentable for Him. Therefore why else could He be subjected to tribulations by the kidnapping of mother Sītā?
na vai sa ātmātmavatāṁ suhṛttamaḥ
saktas tri-lokyāṁ bhagavān vāsudevaḥ
na strī-kṛtaṁ kaśmalam aśnuvīta
na lakṣmaṇaṁ cāpi vihātum arhati
na — not; vai — indeed; saḥ — He; ātmā — the Supreme Soul; ātmavatām — of the self-realized souls; suhṛt-tamaḥ — the best friend; saktaḥ — attached; tri-lokyām — to anything within the three worlds; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudevaḥ — the all-pervading Lord; na — not; strī-kṛtam — obtained because of His wife; kaśmalam — sufferings of separation; aśnuvīta — would obtain; na — not; lakṣmaṇam — His younger brother Lakṣmaṇa; ca — also; api — certainly; vihātum — to give up; arhati — be able.
Since Lord Śrī Rāmacandra is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Vāsudeva, He is not attached to anything in this material world. He is the most beloved Supersoul of all self-realized souls, and He is their very intimate friend. He is full of all opulences. Therefore He could not possibly have suffered because of separation from His wife, nor could He have given up His wife and Lakṣmaṇa, His younger brother. To give up either would have been absolutely impossible.
na janma nūnaṁ mahato na saubhagaṁ
na vāṅ na buddhir nākṛtis toṣa-hetuḥ
tair yad visṛṣṭān api no vanaukasaś
cakāra sakhye bata lakṣmaṇāgrajaḥ
na — not; janma — birth in a very polished, aristocratic family; nūnam — indeed; mahataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na — nor; saubhagam — great fortune; na — nor; vāk — an elegant manner of speaking; na — nor; buddhiḥ — sharpness of intelligence; na — not; ākṛtiḥ — features of the body; toṣa-hetuḥ — the cause of pleasure to the Lord; taiḥ — by all those above-mentioned qualities; yat — because; visṛṣṭān — rejected; api — although; naḥ — us; vana-okasaḥ — the inhabitants of the forest; cakāra — accepted; sakhye — in friendship; bata — alas; lakṣmaṇa-agra-jaḥ — Lord Śrī Rāmacandra, the elder brother of Lakṣmaṇa.
One cannot establish a friendship with the Supreme Lord Rāmacandra on the basis of material qualities such as one’s birth in an aristocratic family, one’s personal beauty, one’s eloquence, one’s sharp intelligence or one’s superior race or nation. None of these qualifications is actually a prerequisite for friendship with Lord Śrī Rāmacandra. Otherwise how is it possible that although we uncivilized inhabitants of the forest have not taken noble births, although we have no physical beauty and although we cannot speak like gentlemen, Lord Rāmacandra has nevertheless accepted us as friends?
suro ’suro vāpy atha vānaro naraḥ
sarvātmanā yaḥ sukṛtajñam uttamam
bhajeta rāmaṁ manujākṛtiṁ hariṁ
ya uttarān anayat kosalān divam iti
suraḥ — demigod; asuraḥ — demon; vā api — or; atha — therefore; vā — or; anaraḥ — other than a human being (bird, beast, animal and so on); naraḥ — a human being; sarva-ātmanā — wholeheartedly; yaḥ — who; su-kṛtajñam — easily made grateful; uttamam — most highly elevated; bhajeta — should worship; rāmam — Lord Rāmacandra; manuja-ākṛtim — appearing as a human being; harim — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yaḥ — who; uttarān — of northern India; anayat — brought back; kosalān — the inhabitants of Kosala-deśa, Ayodhyā; divam — to the spiritual world, Vaikuṇṭha; iti — thus.
Therefore, whether one is a demigod or a demon, a man or a creature other than man, such as a beast or bird, everyone should worship Lord Rāmacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who appears on this earth just like a human being. There is no need of great austerities or penances to worship the Lord, for He accepts even a small service offered by His devotee. Thus He is satisfied, and as soon as He is satisfied, the devotee is successful. Indeed, Lord Śrī Rāmacandra brought all the devotees of Ayodhyā back home, back to Godhead [Vaikuṇṭha].
bhārate ’pi varṣe bhagavān nara-nārāyaṇākhya ākalpāntam upacita-dharma-jñāna-vairāgyaiśvaryopaśamoparamātmopalambhanam anugrahāyātmavatām anukampayā tapo ’vyakta-gatiś carati.
bhārate — in Bhārata; api — also; varṣe — the tract of land; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nara-nārāyaṇa-ākhyaḥ — known as Nara-Nārāyaṇa; ā-kalpa-antam — up to the end of the millennium; upacita — increasing; dharma — religion; jñāna — knowledge; vairāgya — renunciation or nonattachment; aiśvarya — mystic opulences; upaśama — control of the senses; uparama — freedom from false ego; ātma-upalambhanam — self-realization; anugrahāya — to show favor; ātma-vatām — unto persons interested in self-realization; anukampayā — by causeless mercy; tapaḥ — austerities; avyakta-gatiḥ — whose glories are inconceivable; carati — executes.
[Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued:] The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are inconceivable. He has appeared in the form of Nara-Nārāyaṇa in the land of Bhārata-varṣa, at the place known as Badarikāśrama, to favor His devotees by teaching them religion, knowledge, renunciation, spiritual power, sense control and freedom from false ego. He is advanced in the opulence of spiritual assets, and He engages in executing austerity until the end of this millennium. This is the process of self-realization.
taṁ bhagavān nārado varṇāśramavatībhir bhāratībhiḥ prajābhir bhagavat-proktābhyāṁ sāṅkhya-yogābhyāṁ bhagavad-anubhāvopavarṇanaṁ sāvarṇer upadekṣyamāṇaḥ parama-bhakti-bhāvenopasarati idaṁ cābhigṛṇāti.
tam — Him (Nara-Nārāyaṇa); bhagavān — the most powerful saintly person; nāradaḥ — the great sage Nārada; varṇa-āśrama-vatībhiḥ — by followers of the institution of the four varṇas and four āśramas; bhāratībhiḥ — of the land known as Bhārata-varṣa (India); prajābhiḥ — who are the inhabitants; bhagavat-proktābhyām — which was stated by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sāṅkhya — by the sāṅkhya-yoga system (the analytical study of material conditions); yogābhyām — by practice of the yoga system; bhagavat-anubhāva-upavarṇanam — which describes the process of God realization; sāvarṇeḥ — unto Sāvarṇi Manu; upadekṣyamāṇaḥ — instructing; parama-bhakti-bhāvena — in greatly ecstatic loving service to the Lord; upasarati — serves the Lord; idam — this; ca — and; abhigṛṇāti — chants.
In his own book, known as Nārada Pañcarātra, Bhagavān Nārada has very vividly described how to work to achieve the ultimate goal of life — devotion — through knowledge and through execution of the mystic yoga system. He has also described the glories of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The great sage Nārada instructed the tenets of this transcendental literature to Sāvarṇi Manu in order to teach those inhabitants of Bhārata-varṣa who strictly follow the principles of varṇāśrama-dharma how to achieve the devotional service of the Lord. Thus Nārada Muni, along with the other inhabitants of Bhārata-varṣa, always engages in the service of Nara-Nārāyaṇa, and he chants as follows.
oṁ namo bhagavate upaśama-śīlāyoparatānātmyāya namo ’kiñcana-vittāya ṛṣi-ṛṣabhāya nara-nārāyaṇāya paramahaṁsa-parama-gurave ātmārāmādhipataye namo nama iti.
om — O Supreme Lord; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; bhagavate — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; upaśama-śīlāya — who has mastered the senses; uparata-anātmyāya — having no attachment for this material world; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; akiñcana-vittāya — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the only asset of persons who have no material possessions; ṛṣi-ṛṣabhāya — the most exalted of saintly persons; nara-nārāyaṇāya — Nara-Nārāyaṇa; paramahaṁsa-parama-gurave — the most exalted spiritual master of all paramahaṁsas, liberated persons; ātmārāma-adhipataye — the best of self-realized persons; namaḥ namaḥ — my respectful obeisances again and again; iti — thus.
Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto Nara-Nārāyaṇa, the best of all saintly persons, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the most self-controlled and self-realized, He is free from false prestige, and He is the asset of persons who have no material possessions. He is the spiritual master of all paramahaṁsas, who are the most exalted human beings, and He is the master of the self-realized. Let me offer my repeated obeisances at His lotus feet.
gāyati cedam —
kartāsya sargādiṣu yo na badhyate
na hanyate deha-gato ’pi daihikaiḥ
draṣṭur na dṛg yasya guṇair vidūṣyate
tasmai namo ’sakta-vivikta-sākṣiṇe
gāyati — he sings; ca — and; idam — this; kartā — the executor; asya — of this cosmic manifestation; sarga-ādiṣu — of the creation, maintenance and destruction; yaḥ — one who; na badhyate — is not attached as the creator, master or proprietor; na — not; hanyate — is victimized; deha-gataḥ api — although appearing as a human being; daihikaiḥ — by bodily tribulations such as hunger, thirst and fatigue; draṣṭuḥ — of Him who is the seer of everything; na — not; dṛk — the power of vision; yasya — of whom; guṇaiḥ — by the material qualities; vidūṣyate — is polluted; tasmai — unto Him; namaḥ — my respectful obeisances; asakta — unto the Supreme Person, who is unattached; vivikta — without affection; sākṣiṇe — the witness of everything.
Nārada, the most powerful saintly sage, also worships Nara-Nārāyaṇa by chanting the following mantra: The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the master of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this visible cosmic manifestation, yet He is completely free from false prestige. Although to the foolish He appears to have accepted a material body like us, He is unaffected by bodily tribulations like hunger, thirst and fatigue. Although He is the witness who sees everything, His senses are unpolluted by the objects He sees. Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto that unattached, pure witness of the world, the Supreme Soul, the Personality of Godhead.
idaṁ hi yogeśvara yoga-naipuṇaṁ
hiraṇyagarbho bhagavāñ jagāda yat
yad anta-kāle tvayi nirguṇe mano
idam — this; hi — certainly; yoga-īśvara — O my Lord, master of all mystic power; yoga-naipuṇam — the expert process of executing yogic principles; hiraṇya-garbhaḥ — Lord Brahmā; bhagavān — the most powerful; jagāda — spoke; yat — which; yat — which; anta-kāle — at the time of death; tvayi — in You; nirguṇe — the transcendence; manaḥ — the mind; bhaktyā — with a devotional attitude; dadhīta — one should place; ujjhita-duṣkalevaraḥ — having given up his identification with the material body.
O my Lord, master of all mystic yoga, this is the explanation of the yogic process spoken of by Lord Brahmā [Hiraṇyagarbha], who is self-realized. At the time of death, all yogīs give up the material body with full detachment simply by placing their minds at Your lotus feet. That is the perfection of yoga.
suteṣu dāreṣu dhaneṣu cintayan
śaṅketa vidvān kukalevarātyayād
yas tasya yatnaḥ śrama eva kevalam
yathā — as; aihika — in the present life; amuṣmika — in the expected future life; kāma-lampaṭaḥ — a person who is very attached to lusty desires for bodily enjoyment; suteṣu — children; dāreṣu — wife; dhaneṣu — wealth; cintayan — thinking about; śaṅketa — is afraid; vidvān — a person advanced in spiritual knowledge; ku-kalevara — of this body, which is full of stool and urine; atyayāt — because of loss; yaḥ — anyone; tasya — his; yatnaḥ — endeavors; śramaḥ — a waste of time and energy; eva — certainly; kevalam — only.
Materialists are generally very attached to their present bodily comforts and to the bodily comforts they expect in the future. Therefore they are always absorbed in thoughts of their wives, children and wealth and are afraid of giving up their bodies, which are full of stool and urine. If a person engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, however, is also afraid of giving up his body, what is the use of his having labored to study the śāstras? It was simply a waste of time.
tan naḥ prabho tvaṁ kukalevarārpitāṁ
bhindyāma yenāśu vayaṁ sudurbhidāṁ
vidhehi yogaṁ tvayi naḥ svabhāvam iti
tat — therefore; naḥ — our; prabho — O my Lord; tvam — You; ku-kalevara-arpitām — invested in this bad body full of stool and urine; tvat-māyayā — by Your illusory energy; aham-mamatām — the conception of “I and my”; adhokṣaja — O Transcendence; bhindyāma — may give up; yena — by which; āśu — very soon; vayam — we; sudurbhidām — which is very difficult to give up; vidhehi — please give; yogam — the mystic process; tvayi — unto You; naḥ — our; svabhāvam — which is symptomized by a steady mind; iti — thus.
Therefore, O Lord, O Transcendence, kindly help us by giving us the power to execute bhakti-yoga so that we can control our restless minds and fix them upon You. We are all infected by Your illusory energy; therefore we are very attached to the body, which is full of stool and urine, and to anything related with the body. Except for devotional service, there is no way to give up this attachment. Therefore kindly bestow upon us this benediction.
bhārate ’py asmin varṣe saric-chailāḥ santi bahavo malayo maṅgala-prastho mainākas trikūṭa ṛṣabhaḥ kūṭakaḥ kollakaḥ sahyo devagirir ṛṣyamūkaḥ śrī-śailo veṅkaṭo mahendro vāridhāro vindhyaḥ śuktimān ṛkṣagiriḥ pāriyātro droṇaś citrakūṭo govardhano raivatakaḥ kakubho nīlo gokāmukha indrakīlaḥ kāmagirir iti cānye ca śata-sahasraśaḥ śailās teṣāṁ nitamba-prabhavā nadā nadyaś ca santy asaṅkhyātāḥ.
bhārate — in the land of Bhārata-varṣa; api — also; asmin — in this; varṣe — tract of land; sarit — rivers; śailāḥ — mountains; santi — there are; bahavaḥ — many; malayaḥ — Malaya; maṅgala-prasthaḥ — Maṅgala-prastha; mainākaḥ — Maināka; tri-kūṭaḥ — Trikūṭa; ṛṣabhaḥ — Ṛṣabha; kūṭakaḥ — Kūṭaka; kollakaḥ — Kollaka; sahyaḥ — Sahya; devagiriḥ — Devagiri; ṛṣya-mūkaḥ — Ṛṣyamūka; śrī-śailaḥ — Śrī-śaila; veṅkaṭaḥ — Veṅkaṭa; mahendraḥ — Mahendra; vāri-dhāraḥ — Vāridhāra; vindhyaḥ — Vindhya; śuktimān — Śuktimān; ṛkṣa-giriḥ — Ṛkṣagiri; pāriyātraḥ — Pāriyātra; droṇaḥ — Droṇa; citra-kūṭaḥ — Citrakūṭa; govardhanaḥ — Govardhana; raivatakaḥ — Raivataka; kakubhaḥ — Kakubha; nīlaḥ — Nīla; gokāmukhaḥ — Gokāmukha; indrakīlaḥ — Indrakīla; kāma-giriḥ — Kāmagiri; iti — thus; ca — and; anye — others; ca — also; śata-sahasraśaḥ — many hundreds and thousands; śailāḥ — mountains; teṣām — of them; nitamba-prabhavāḥ — born of the slopes; nadāḥ — big rivers; nadyaḥ — small rivers; ca — and; santi — there are; asaṅkhyātāḥ — innumerable.
In the tract of land known as Bhārata-varṣa, as in Ilāvṛta-varṣa, there are many mountains and rivers. Some of the mountains are known as Malaya, Maṅgala-prastha, Maināka, Trikūṭa, Ṛṣabha, Kūṭaka, Kollaka, Sahya, Devagiri, Ṛṣyamūka, Śrī-śaila, Veṅkaṭa, Mahendra, Vāridhāra, Vindhya, Śuktimān, Ṛkṣagiri, Pāriyātra, Droṇa, Citrakūṭa, Govardhana, Raivataka, Kakubha, Nīla, Gokāmukha, Indrakīla and Kāmagiri. Besides these, there are many other hills, with many large and small rivers flowing from their slopes.
etāsām apo bhāratyaḥ prajā nāmabhir eva punantīnām ātmanā copaspṛśanti; candravasā tāmraparṇī avaṭodā kṛtamālā vaihāyasī kāverī veṇī payasvinī śarkarāvartā tuṅgabhadrā kṛṣṇāveṇyā bhīmarathī godāvarī nirvindhyā payoṣṇī tāpī revā surasā narmadā carmaṇvatī sindhur andhaḥ śoṇaś ca nadau mahānadī vedasmṛtir ṛṣikulyā trisāmā kauśikī mandākinī yamunā sarasvatī dṛṣadvatī gomatī sarayū rodhasvatī saptavatī suṣomā śatadrūś candrabhāgā marudvṛdhā vitastā asiknī viśveti mahā-nadyaḥ.
etāsām — of all these; apaḥ — water; bhāratyaḥ — of Bhārata-varṣa (India); prajāḥ — the residents; nāmabhiḥ — by the names; eva — only; punantīnām — are purifying; ātmanā — by the mind; ca — also; upaspṛśanti — touch; candra-vasā — Candravasā; tāmra-parṇī — Tāmraparṇī; avaṭodā — Avaṭodā; kṛta-mālā — Kṛtamālā; vaihāyasī — Vaihāyasī; kāverī — Kāverī; veṇī — Veṇī; payasvinī — Payasvinī; śarkarāvartā — Śarkarāvartā; tuṅga-bhadrā — Tuṅgabhadrā; kṛṣṇā-veṇyā — Kṛṣṇāveṇyā; bhīma-rathī — Bhīmarathī; godāvarī — Godāvarī; nirvindhyā — Nirvindhyā; payoṣṇī — Payoṣṇī; tāpī — Tāpī; revā — Revā; surasā — Surasā; narmadā — Narmadā; carmaṇvatī — Carmaṇvatī; sindhuḥ — Sindhu; andhaḥ — Andha; śoṇaḥ — Śoṇa; ca — and; nadau — two rivers; mahā-nadī — Mahānadī; veda-smṛtiḥ — Vedasmṛti; ṛṣi-kulyā — Ṛṣikulyā; tri-sāmā — Trisāmā; kauśikī — Kauśikī; mandākinī — Mandākinī; yamunā — Yamunā; sarasvatī — Sarasvatī; dṛṣadvatī — Dṛṣadvatī; gomatī — Gomatī; sarayū — Sarayū; rodhasvatī — Rodhasvatī; saptavatī — Saptavatī; suṣomā — Suṣomā; śata-drūḥ — Śatadrū; candrabhāgā — Candrabhāgā; marudvṛdhā — Marudvṛdhā; vitastā — Vitastā; asiknī — Asiknī; viśvā — Viśvā; iti — thus; mahā-nadyaḥ — big rivers.
Two of the rivers — the Brahmaputra and the Śoṇa — are called nadas, or main rivers. These are other great rivers that are very prominent: Candravasā, Tāmraparṇī, Avaṭodā, Kṛtamālā, Vaihāyasī, Kāverī, Veṇī, Payasvinī, Śarkarāvartā, Tuṅgabhadrā, Kṛṣṇāveṇyā, Bhīmarathī, Godāvarī, Nirvindhyā, Payoṣṇī, Tāpī, Revā, Surasā, Narmadā, Carmaṇvatī, Mahānadī, Vedasmṛti, Ṛṣikulyā, Trisāmā, Kauśikī, Mandākinī, Yamunā, Sarasvatī, Dṛṣadvatī, Gomatī, Sarayū, Rodhasvatī, Saptavatī, Suṣomā, Śatadrū, Candrabhāgā, Marudvṛdhā, Vitastā, Asiknī and Viśvā. The inhabitants of Bhārata-varṣa are purified because they always remember these rivers. Sometimes they chant the names of these rivers as mantras, and sometimes they go directly to the rivers to touch them and bathe in them. Thus the inhabitants of Bhārata-varṣa become purified.
asminn eva varṣe puruṣair labdha-janmabhiḥ śukla-lohita-kṛṣṇa-varṇena svārabdhena karmaṇā divya-mānuṣa-nāraka-gatayo bahvya ātmana ānupūrvyeṇa sarvā hy eva sarveṣāṁ vidhīyante yathā-varṇa-vidhānam apavargaś cāpi bhavati.
asmin eva varṣe — in this tract of land (Bhārata-varṣa); puruṣaiḥ — by the people; labdha-janmabhiḥ — who have taken birth; śukla — of the mode of goodness; lohita — of the mode of passion; kṛṣṇa — of the mode of ignorance; varṇena — according to the division; sva — by himself; ārabdhena — begun; karmaṇā — by activities; divya — divine; mānuṣa — human; nāraka — hellish; gatayaḥ — goals; bahvyaḥ — many; ātmanaḥ — of his own; ānupūrvyeṇa — according to acts performed previously; sarvāḥ — all; hi — certainly; eva — indeed; sarveṣām — of all of them; vidhīyante — are allotted; yathā-varṇa-vidhānam — in terms of different castes; apavargaḥ — the path of liberation; ca — and; api — also; bhavati — is possible.
The people who take birth in this tract of land are divided according to the qualities of material nature — the modes of goodness [sattva-guṇa], passion [rajo-guṇa], and ignorance [tamo-guṇa]. Some of them are born as exalted personalities, some are ordinary human beings, and some are extremely abominable, for in Bhārata-varṣa one takes birth exactly according to one’s past karma. If one’s position is ascertained by a bona fide spiritual master and one is properly trained to engage in the service of Lord Viṣṇu according to the four social divisions [brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya and śūdra] and the four spiritual divisions [brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha and sannyāsa], one’s life becomes perfect.
yo ’sau bhagavati sarva-bhūtātmany anātmye ’nirukte ’nilayane paramātmani vāsudeve ’nanya-nimitta-bhakti-yoga-lakṣaṇo nānā-gati-nimittāvidyā-granthi-randhana-dvāreṇa yadā hi mahā-puruṣa-puruṣa-prasaṅgaḥ.
yaḥ — anyone who; asau — that; bhagavati — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarva-bhūta-ātmani — the Supersoul of all living entities; anātmye — having no attachment; anirukte — who is beyond the mind and speech; anilayane — not dependent on anything else; parama-ātmani — unto the Supreme Soul; vāsudeve — Lord Vāsudeva, the son of Vasudeva; ananya — without any other; nimitta — cause; bhakti-yoga-lakṣaṇaḥ — having symptoms of pure devotional service; nānā-gati — of varied destinations; nimitta — the cause; avidyā-granthi — the bondage of ignorance; randhana — of cutting; dvāreṇa — by means; yadā — when; hi — indeed; mahā-puruṣa — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; puruṣa — with the devotee; prasaṅgaḥ — an intimate relationship.
After many, many births, when the results of one’s pious activities mature, one gets an opportunity to associate with pure devotees. Then one is able to cut the knot of bondage to ignorance, which bound him because of varied fruitive activities. As a result of associating with devotees, one gradually renders service to Lord Vāsudeva, who is transcendental, free from attachment to the material world, beyond the mind and words, and independent of everything else. That bhakti-yoga, devotional service to Lord Vāsudeva, is the real path of liberation.
etad eva hi devā gāyanti —
aho amīṣāṁ kim akāri śobhanaṁ
prasanna eṣāṁ svid uta svayaṁ hariḥ
yair janma labdhaṁ nṛṣu bhāratājire
mukunda-sevaupayikaṁ spṛhā hi naḥ
etat — this; eva — indeed; hi — certainly; devāḥ — all the demigods; gāyanti — chant; aho — oh; amīṣām — of these inhabitants of Bhāratavarṣa; kim — what; akāri — was done; śobhanam — pious, beautiful activities; prasannaḥ — pleased; eṣām — upon them; svit — or; uta — it is said; svayam — personally; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yaiḥ — by whom; janma — birth; labdham — obtained; nṛṣu — in human society; bhārata-ajire — in the courtyard of Bhārata-varṣa; mukunda — the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who can offer liberation; sevā-aupayikam — which is the means of serving; spṛhā — desire; hi — indeed; naḥ — our.
Since the human form of life is the sublime position for spiritual realization, all the demigods in heaven speak in this way: How wonderful it is for these human beings to have been born in the land of Bhārata-varṣa. They must have executed pious acts of austerity in the past, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself must have been pleased with them. Otherwise, how could they engage in devotional service in so many ways? We demigods can only aspire to achieve human births in Bhārata-varṣa to execute devotional service, but these human beings are already engaged there.
kiṁ duṣkarair naḥ kratubhis tapo-vratair
dānādibhir vā dyujayena phalgunā
na yatra nārāyaṇa-pāda-paṅkaja-
kim — what is the value; duṣkaraiḥ — very difficult to perform; naḥ — our; kratubhiḥ — with performances of sacrifice; tapaḥ — with austerities; vrataiḥ — vows; dāna-ādibhiḥ — with executing charitable activities and so on; vā — or; dyujayena — with achieving the heavenly kingdom; phalgunā — which is insignificant; na — no; yatra — where; nārāyaṇa-pāda-paṅkaja — of the lotus feet of Lord Nārāyaṇa; smṛtiḥ — the remembrance; pramuṣṭa — lost; atiśaya — excessive; indriya-utsavāt — due to material sense gratification.
The demigods continue: After performing the very difficult tasks of executing Vedic ritualistic sacrifices, undergoing austerities, observing vows and giving charity, we have achieved this position as inhabitants of the heavenly planets. But what is the value of this achievement? Here we are certainly very engaged in material sense gratification, and therefore we can hardly remember the lotus feet of Lord Nārāyaṇa. Indeed, because of our excessive sense gratification, we have almost forgotten His lotus feet.
kalpāyuṣāṁ sthānajayāt punar-bhavāt
kṣaṇāyuṣāṁ bhārata-bhūjayo varam
kṣaṇena martyena kṛtaṁ manasvinaḥ
sannyasya saṁyānty abhayaṁ padaṁ hareḥ
kalpa-āyuṣām — of those who have a life duration of many millions of years, like Lord Brahmā; sthāna-jayāt — than achievement of the place or planetary systems; punaḥ-bhavāt — which is liable to birth, death and old age; kṣaṇa-āyuṣām — of persons who have only one hundred years of life; bhārata-bhū-jayaḥ — a birth in the land of Bhārata-varṣa; varam — more valuable; kṣaṇena — for such a short life; martyena — by the body; kṛtam — the work executed; manasvinaḥ — those actually understanding the value of life; sannyasya — surrendering unto the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; saṁyānti — they achieve; abhayam — where there is no anxiety; padam — the abode; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
A short life in the land of Bharata-varṣa is preferable to a life achieved in Brahmaloka for millions and billions of years because even if one is elevated to Brahmaloka, he must return to repeated birth and death. Although life in Bhārata-varṣa, in a lower planetary system, is very short, one who lives there can elevate himself to full Kṛṣṇa consciousness and achieve the highest perfection, even in this short life, by fully surrendering unto the lotus feet of the Lord. Thus one attains Vaikuṇṭhaloka, where there is neither anxiety nor repeated birth in a material body.
na yatra vaikuṇṭha-kathā-sudhāpagā
na sādhavo bhāgavatās tadāśrayāḥ
na yatra yajñeśa-makhā mahotsavāḥ
sureśa-loko ’pi na vai sa sevyatām
na — not; yatra — where; vaikuṇṭha-kathā-sudhā-āpagāḥ — the nectarean rivers of discussions about the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is called Vaikuṇṭha, or one who drives away all anxiety; na — nor; sādhavaḥ — devotees; bhāgavatāḥ — always engaged in the service of the Lord; tat-āśrayāḥ — who are sheltered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; na — nor; yatra — where; yajña-īśa-makhāḥ — the performance of devotional service to the Lord of sacrifices; mahā-utsavāḥ — which are actual festivals; sureśa-lokaḥ — a place inhabited by the denizens of heaven; api — although; na — not; vai — certainly; saḥ — that; sevyatām — be frequented.
An intelligent person does not take interest in a place, even in the topmost planetary system, if the pure Ganges of topics concerning the Supreme Lord’s activities does not flow there, if there are not devotees engaged in service on the banks of such a river of piety, or if there are no festivals of saṅkīrtana-yajña to satisfy the Lord [especially since saṅkīrtana-yajña is recommended in this age].
prāptā nṛ-jātiṁ tv iha ye ca jantavo
na vai yaterann apunar-bhavāya te
bhūyo vanaukā iva yānti bandhanam
prāptāḥ — who have obtained; nṛ-jātim — a birth in human society; tu — certainly; iha — in this land of Bhārata-varṣa; ye — those who; ca — also; jantavaḥ — the living beings; jñāna — with knowledge; kriyā — with activities; dravya — of ingredients; kalāpa — with a collection; sambhṛtām — full; na — not; vai — certainly; yateran — endeavor; apunaḥ-bhavāya — for the position of immortality; te — such persons; bhūyaḥ — again; vanaukāḥ — birds; iva — like; yānti — go; bandhanam — to bondage.
Bhārata-varṣa offers the proper land and circumstances in which to execute devotional service, which can free one from the results of jñāna and karma. If one obtains a human body in the land of Bhārata-varṣa, with clear sensory organs with which to execute the saṅkīrtana-yajña, but in spite of this opportunity he does not take to devotional service, he is certainly like liberated forest animals and birds that are careless and are therefore again bound by a hunter.
yaiḥ śraddhayā barhiṣi bhāgaśo havir
niruptam iṣṭaṁ vidhi-mantra-vastutaḥ
ekaḥ pṛthaṅ-nāmabhir āhuto mudā
gṛhṇāti pūrṇaḥ svayam āśiṣāṁ prabhuḥ
yaiḥ — by whom (the inhabitants of Bhārata-varṣa); śraddhayā — faith and confidence; barhiṣi — in the performance of Vedic ritualistic sacrifices; bhāgaśaḥ — by division; haviḥ — oblations; niruptam — offered; iṣṭam — to the desired deity; vidhi — by the proper method; mantra — by reciting mantras; vastutaḥ — with the proper ingredients; ekaḥ — that one Supreme Personality of Godhead; pṛthak — separate; nāmabhiḥ — by names; āhutaḥ — called; mudā — with great happiness; gṛhṇāti — He accepts; pūrṇaḥ — the Supreme Lordwho is full in Himself; svayam — personally; āśiṣām — of all benedictions; prabhuḥ — the bestower.
In India [Bhārata-varṣa], there are many worshipers of the demigods, the various officials appointed by the Supreme Lord, such as Indra, Candra and Sūrya, all of whom are worshiped differently. The worshipers offer the demigods their oblations, considering the demigods part and parcel of the whole, the Supreme Lord. Therefore the Supreme Personality of Godhead accepts these offerings and gradually raises the worshipers to the real standard of devotional service by fulfilling their desires and aspirations. Because the Lord is complete, He offers the worshipers the benedictions they desire even if they worship only part of His transcendental body.
satyaṁ diśaty arthitam arthito nṛṇāṁ
naivārthado yat punar arthitā yataḥ
svayaṁ vidhatte bhajatām anicchatām
satyam — certainly; diśati — He offers; arthitam — the object prayed for; arthitaḥ — being prayed to; nṛṇām — by the human beings; na — not; eva — indeed; artha-daḥ — the bestower of benedictions; yat — which; punaḥ — again; arthitā — a demand for a benediction; yataḥ — from which; svayam — personally; vidhatte — He gives; bhajatām — unto those engaged in His service; anicchatām — although not desiring it; icchā-pidhānam — which covers all desirable things; nija-pāda-pallavam — His own lotus feet.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead fulfills the material desires of a devotee who approaches Him with such motives, but He does not bestow benedictions upon the devotee that will cause him to demand more benedictions again. However, the Lord willingly gives the devotee shelter at His own lotus feet, even though such a person does not aspire for it, and that shelter satisfies all his desires. That is the Supreme Personality’s special mercy.
yady atra naḥ svarga-sukhāvaśeṣitaṁ
sviṣṭasya sūktasya kṛtasya śobhanam
tenājanābhe smṛtimaj janma naḥ syād
varṣe harir yad-bhajatāṁ śaṁ tanoti
yadi — if; atra — in this heavenly planet; naḥ — of us; svarga-sukha-avaśeṣitam — whatever remains after the enjoyment of heavenly happiness; su-iṣṭasya — of a perfect sacrifice; su-uktasya — of diligently studying the Vedic literature; kṛtasya — of having performed a kind act; śobhanam — the resultant actions; tena — by such a resultant action; ajanābhe — in the land of Bhārata-varṣa; smṛti-mat janma — a birth enabling one to remember the lotus feet of the Lord; naḥ — of us; syāt — let there be; varṣe — in the land; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yat — wherein; bhajatām — of the devotees; śam tanoti — expands the auspiciousness.
We are now living in the heavenly planets, undoubtedly as a result of our having performed ritualistic ceremonies, pious activities and yajñas and having studied the Vedas. However, our lives here will one day be finished. We pray that at that time, if any merit remains from our pious activities, we may again take birth in Bhārata-varṣa as human beings able to remember the lotus feet of the Lord. The Lord is so kind that He personally comes to the land of Bhārata-varṣa and expands the good fortune of its people.
jambūdvīpasya ca rājann upadvīpān aṣṭau haika upadiśanti sagarātmajair aśvānveṣaṇa imāṁ mahīṁ parito nikhanadbhir upakalpitān; tad yathā svarṇaprasthaś candraśukla āvartano ramaṇako mandarahariṇaḥ pāñcajanyaḥ siṁhalo laṅketi.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued to speak; jambūdvīpasya — of the island known as Jambūdvīpa; ca — also; rājan — O King; upadvīpān aṣṭau — eight subordinate islands; ha — certainly; eke — some; upadiśanti — learned scholars describe; sagara-ātma-jaiḥ — by the sons of Mahārāja Sagara; aśva-anveṣaṇe — while trying to find their lost horse; imām — this; mahīm — tract of land; paritaḥ — all around; nikhanadbhiḥ — digging; upakalpitān — created; tat — that; yathā — as follows; svarṇa-prasthaḥ — Svarṇaprastha; candra-śuklaḥ — Candraśukla; āvartanaḥ — Āvartana; ramaṇakaḥ — Ramaṇaka; mandara-hariṇaḥ — Mandara-hariṇa; pāñcajanyaḥ — Pāñcajanya; siṁhalaḥ — Siṁhala; laṅkā — Laṅkā; iti — thus.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, in the opinion of some learned scholars, eight smaller islands surround Jambūdvīpa. When the sons of Mahārāja Sagara were searching all over the world for their lost horse, they dug up the earth, and in this way eight adjoining islands came into existence. The names of these islands are Svarṇaprastha, Candraśukla, Āvartana, Ramaṇaka, Mandara-hariṇa, Pāñcajanya, Siṁhala and Laṅkā.
evaṁ tava bhāratottama jambūdvīpa-varṣa-vibhāgo yathopadeśam upavarṇita iti.
evam — thus; tava — unto you; bhārata-uttama — O best of the descendents of Bharata; jambūdvīpa-varṣa-vibhāgaḥ — the divisions of the island of Jambūdvīpa; yathā-upadeśam — as much as I am instructed by the authorities; upavarṇitaḥ — explained; iti — thus.
My dear King Parīkṣit, O best of the descendants of Bharata Mahārāja, I have thus described to you, as I myself have been instructed, the island of Bhārata-varṣa and its adjoining islands. These are the islands that constitute Jambūdvīpa.