Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 11
Jaḍa Bharata Instructs King Rahūgaṇa
vadasy atho nāti-vidāṁ variṣṭhaḥ
na sūrayo hi vyavahāram enaṁ
brāhmaṇaḥ uvāca — the brāhmaṇa said; akovidaḥ — without having experience; kovida-vāda-vādān — words used by experienced persons; vadasi — you are speaking; atho — therefore; na — not; ati-vidām — of those who are very experienced; variṣṭhaḥ — the most important; na — not; sūrayaḥ — such intelligent persons; hi — indeed; vyavahāram — mundane and social behavior; enam — this; tattva — of the truth; avamarśena — fine judgment by intelligence; saha — with; āmananti — discuss.
The brāhmaṇa Jaḍa Bharata said: My dear King, although you are not at all experienced, you are trying to speak like a very experienced man. Consequently you cannot be considered an experienced person. An experienced person does not speak the way you are speaking about the relationship between a master and a servant or about material pains and pleasures. These are simply external activities. Any advanced, experienced man, considering the Absolute Truth, does not talk in this way.
tathaiva rājann uru-gārhamedha-
na veda-vādeṣu hi tattva-vādaḥ
prāyeṇa śuddho nu cakāsti sādhuḥ
tathā — therefore; eva — indeed; rājan — O King; uru-gārha-medha — rituals related to material household life; vitāna-vidyā — in knowledge that expands; uru — very greatly; vijṛmbhiteṣu — among those interested; na — not; veda-vādeṣu — who speak the version of the Vedas; hi — indeed; tattva-vādaḥ — the spiritual science; prāyeṇa — almost always; śuddhaḥ — free from all contaminated activities; nu — indeed; cakāsti — appear; sādhuḥ — a person who is advanced in devotional service.
My dear King, talks of the relationship between the master and the servant, the king and the subject and so forth are simply talks about material activities. People interested in material activities which are expounded in the Vedas are intent on performing material sacrifices and placing faith in their material activities. For such people, spiritual advancement is definitely not manifest.
na tasya tattva-grahaṇāya sākṣād
varīyasīr api vācaḥ samāsan
svapne niruktyā gṛhamedhi-saukhyaṁ
na yasya heyānumitaṁ svayaṁ syāt
na — not; tasya — of him (a student studying the Vedas); tattva-grahaṇāya — for accepting the real purpose of Vedic knowledge; sākṣāt — directly; varīyasīḥ — very exalted; api — although; vācaḥ — words of the Vedas; samāsan — sufficiently became; svapne — in a dream; niruktyā — by example; gṛha-medhi-saukhyam — happiness within this material world; na — not; yasya — of him who; heya-anumitam — concluded to be inferior; svayam — automatically; syāt — become.
A dream becomes automatically known to a person as false and immaterial, and similarly one eventually realizes that material happiness in this life or the next, on this planet or a higher planet, is insignificant. When one realizes this, the Vedas, although an excellent source, are insufficient to bring about direct knowledge of the truth.
yāvan mano rajasā pūruṣasya
sattvena vā tamasā vānuruddham
cetobhir ākūtibhir ātanoti
niraṅkuśaṁ kuśalaṁ cetaraṁ vā
yāvat — as long as; manaḥ — the mind; rajasā — by the mode of passion; pūruṣasya — of the living entity; sattvena — by the mode of goodness; vā — or; tamasā — by the mode of darkness; vā — or; anuruddham — controlled; cetobhiḥ — by the knowledge-acquiring senses; ākūtibhiḥ — by the senses of action; ātanoti — expands; niraṅkuśam — independent like an elephant not controlled by a trident; kuśalam — auspiciousness; ca — also; itaram — other than auspiciousness, sinful activities; vā — or.
As long as the mind of the living entity is contaminated by the three modes of material nature (goodness, passion and ignorance), his mind is exactly like an independent, uncontrolled elephant. It simply expands its jurisdiction of pious and impious activities by using the senses. The result is that the living entity remains in the material world to enjoy and suffer pleasures and pains due to material activity.
sa vāsanātmā viṣayoparakto
guṇa-pravāho vikṛtaḥ ṣoḍaśātmā
bibhrat pṛthaṅ-nāmabhi rūpa-bhedam
antar-bahiṣṭvaṁ ca purais tanoti
saḥ — that; vāsanā — endowed with many desires; ātmā — the mind; viṣaya-uparaktaḥ — attached to material happiness, sense gratification; guṇa-pravāhaḥ — driven by the force of either sattva-guṇa, rajo-guṇa or tamo-guṇa; vikṛtaḥ — transformed by lust and so on; ṣoḍaśa-ātmā — the chief of the sixteen material elements (the five gross elements, the ten senses and the mind); bibhrat — wandering; pṛthak-nāmabhiḥ — with separate names; rūpa-bhedam — assuming different forms; antaḥ-bahiṣṭvam — the quality of being first-class or last-class; ca — and; puraiḥ — with different bodily forms; tanoti — manifests.
Because the mind is absorbed in desires for pious and impious activities, it is naturally subjected to the transformations of lust and anger. In this way, it becomes attracted to material sense enjoyment. In other words, the mind is conducted by the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance. There are eleven senses and five material elements, and out of these sixteen items, the mind is the chief. Therefore the mind brings about birth in different types of bodies among demigods, human beings, animals and birds. When the mind is situated in a higher or lower position, it accepts a higher or lower material body.
duḥkhaṁ sukhaṁ vyatiriktaṁ ca tīvraṁ
kālopapannaṁ phalam āvyanakti
duḥkham — unhappiness due to impious activities; sukham — happiness due to pious activities; vyatiriktam — illusion; ca — also; tīvram — very severe; kāla-upapannam — obtained in the course of time; phalam — the resultant action; āvyanakti — creates; āliṅgya — embracing; māyā-racita — created by material nature; antaḥ-ātmā — the mind; sva-dehinam — the living being himself; saṁsṛti — of the actions and reactions of material existence; cakra-kūṭaḥ — which deceives the living entity into the wheel.
The materialistic mind covering the living entity’s soul carries it to different species of life. This is called continued material existence. Due to the mind, the living entity suffers or enjoys material distress and happiness. Being thus illusioned, the mind further creates pious and impious activities and their karma, and thus the soul becomes conditioned.
tāvān ayaṁ vyavahāraḥ sadāviḥ
kṣetrajña-sākṣyo bhavati sthūla-sūkṣmaḥ
tasmān mano liṅgam ado vadanti
tāvān — until that time; ayam — this; vyavahāraḥ — the artificial designations (being fat or skinny, or belonging to the demigods or human beings); sadā — always; āviḥ — manifesting; kṣetra-jña — of the living entity; sākṣyaḥ — testimony; bhavati — is; sthūla-sūkṣmaḥ — fat and skinny; tasmāt — therefore; manaḥ — the mind; liṅgam — the cause; adaḥ — this; vadanti — they say; guṇa-aguṇatvasya — of being absorbed in material qualities or devoid of material qualities; para-avarasya — and of lower and higher conditions of life.
The mind makes the living entity within this material world wander through different species of life, and thus the living entity experiences mundane affairs in different forms as a human being, demigod, fat person, skinny person and so forth. Learned scholars say that bodily appearance, bondage and liberation are caused by the mind.
guṇānuraktaṁ vyasanāya jantoḥ
kṣemāya nairguṇyam atho manaḥ syāt
yathā pradīpo ghṛta-vartim aśnan
śikhāḥ sadhūmā bhajati hy anyadā svam
padaṁ tathā guṇa-karmānubaddhaṁ
vṛttīr manaḥ śrayate ’nyatra tattvam
guṇa-anuraktam — being attached to the material modes of nature; vyasanāya — for the conditioning in material existence; jantoḥ — of the living entity; kṣemāya — for the ultimate welfare; nairguṇyam — being unaffected by the material modes of nature; atho — thus; manaḥ — the mind; syāt — becomes; yathā — as much as; pradīpaḥ — a lamp; ghṛta-vartim — a wick within clarified butter; aśnan — burning; śikhāḥ — the flame; sadhūmāḥ — with smoke; bhajati — enjoys; hi — certainly; anyadā — otherwise; svam — its own original; padam — position; tathā — so; guṇa-karma-anubaddham — bound by the modes of nature and the reactions of material activities; vṛttīḥ — various engagements; manaḥ — the mind; śrayate — takes shelter of; anyatra — otherwise; tattvam — its original condition.
When the living entity’s mind becomes absorbed in the sense gratification of the material world, it brings about his conditioned life and suffering within the material situation. However, when the mind becomes unattached to material enjoyment, it becomes the cause of liberation. When the flame in a lamp burns the wick improperly, the lamp is blackened, but when the lamp is filled with ghee and is burning properly, there is bright illumination. Similarly, when the mind is absorbed in material sense gratification, it causes suffering, and when detached from material sense gratification it brings about the original brightness of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.
ekādaśāsan manaso hi vṛttaya
ākūtayaḥ pañca dhiyo ’bhimānaḥ
mātrāṇi karmāṇi puraṁ ca tāsāṁ
vadanti haikādaśa vīra bhūmīḥ
ekādaśa — eleven; āsan — there are; manasaḥ — of the mind; hi — certainly; vṛttayaḥ — activities; ākūtayaḥ — senses of action; pañca — five; dhiyaḥ — senses for gathering knowledge; abhimānaḥ — the false ego; mātrāṇi — different sense objects; karmāṇi — different material activities; puram ca — and the body, society, nation, family or place of nativity; tāsām — of those functions; vadanti — they say; ha — oh; ekādaśa — eleven; vīra — O hero; bhūmīḥ — fields of activity.
There are five working senses and five knowledge-acquiring senses. There is also the false ego. In this way, there are eleven items for the mind’s functions. O hero, the objects of the senses [such as sound and touch], the organic activities [such as evacuation] and the different types of bodies, society, friendship and personality are considered by learned scholars the fields of activity for the functions of the mind.
ekādaśaṁ svīkaraṇaṁ mameti
śayyām ahaṁ dvādaśam eka āhuḥ
gandha — smell; ākṛti — form; sparśa — touch; rasa — taste; śravāṁsi — and sound; visarga — evacuating; rati — sexual intercourse; arti — movement; abhijalpa — speaking; śilpāḥ — grasping or releasing; ekādaśam — eleventh; svīkaraṇam — accepting as; mama — mine; iti — thus; śayyām — this body; aham — I; dvādaśam — twelfth; eke — some; āhuḥ — have said.
Sound, touch, form, taste and smell are the objects of the five knowledge-acquiring senses. Speech, touch, movement, evacuation and sexual intercourse are the objects of the working senses. Besides this, there is another conception by which one thinks, “This is my body, this is my society, this is my family, this is my nation,” and so forth. This eleventh function of the mind is called the false ego. According to some philosophers, this is the twelfth function, and its field of activity is the body.
ekādaśāmī manaso vikārāḥ
sahasraśaḥ śataśaḥ koṭiśaś ca
kṣetrajñato na mitho na svataḥ syuḥ
dravya — by physical objects; sva-bhāva — by nature as the cause of development; āśaya — by culture; karma — by predestined resultant actions; kālaiḥ — by time; ekādaśa — eleven; amī — all these; manasaḥ — of the mind; vikārāḥ — transformations; sahasraśaḥ — in thousands; śataśaḥ — in hundreds; koṭiśaḥ ca — and in millions; kṣetra-jñataḥ — from the original Supreme Personality of Godhead; na — not; mithaḥ — one another; na — nor; svataḥ — from themselves; syuḥ — are.
The physical elements, nature, the original cause, culture, destiny and the time element are all material causes. Agitated by these material causes, the eleven functions transform into hundreds of functions and then into thousands and then into millions. But all these transformations do not take place automatically by mutual combination. Rather, they are under the direction of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
kṣetrajña etā manaso vibhūtīr
jīvasya māyā-racitasya nityāḥ
āvirhitāḥ kvāpi tirohitāś ca
śuddho vicaṣṭe hy aviśuddha-kartuḥ
kṣetra-jñaḥ — the individual soul; etāḥ — all these; manasaḥ — of the mind; vibhūtīḥ — different activities; jīvasya — of the living entity; māyā-racitasya — created by the external, material energy; nityāḥ — from time immemorial; āvirhitāḥ — sometimes manifested; kvāpi — somewhere; tirohitāḥ ca — and not manifested; śuddhaḥ — purified; vicaṣṭe — sees this; hi — certainly; aviśuddha — unpurified; kartuḥ — of the doer.
The individual soul bereft of Kṛṣṇa consciousness has many ideas and activities created in the mind by the external energy. They have been existing from time immemorial. Sometimes they are manifest in the wakening state and in the dream state, but during deep sleep [unconsciousness] or trance, they disappear. A person who is liberated in this life [jīvan-mukta] can see all these things vividly.
kṣetrajña ātmā puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ
sākṣāt svayaṁ jyotir ajaḥ pareśaḥ
nārāyaṇo bhagavān vāsudevaḥ
ātma-svarūpeṇa niviṣṭa īśet
evaṁ paro bhagavān vāsudevaḥ
kṣetrajña ātmedam anupraviṣṭaḥ
kṣetra-jñaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead*; ātmā — all-pervading, present everywhere; puruṣaḥ — the unrestricted controller, who has unlimited power; purāṇaḥ — the original; sākṣāt — perceivable by hearing from the authorities and by direct perception; svayam — personal; jyotiḥ — manifesting His bodily rays (the Brahman effulgence); ajaḥ — never born; pareśaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nārāyaṇaḥ — the resting place of all living entities; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead with six full opulences; vāsudevaḥ — the shelter of everything, manifested and nonmanifest; sva-māyayā — by His own potency; ātmani — in His own self, or in the ordinary living entities; avadhīyamānaḥ — existing as the controller; yathā — as much as; anilaḥ — the air; sthāvara — of nonmoving living entities; jaṅgamānām — and of the moving living entities; ātma-svarūpeṇa — by His expansion as the Supersoul; niviṣṭaḥ — entered; īśet — controls; evam — thus; paraḥ — transcendental; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudevaḥ — the shelter of everything; kṣetra-jñaḥ — known as kṣetrajña; ātmā — the vital force; idam — this material world; anupraviṣṭaḥ — entered within.
There are two kinds of kṣetrajña — the living entity, as explained above, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is explained as follows. He is the all-pervading cause of creation. He is full in Himself and is not dependent on others. He is perceived by hearing and direct perception. He is self-effulgent and does not experience birth, death, old age or disease. He is the controller of all the demigods, beginning with Lord Brahmā. He is called Nārāyaṇa, and He is the shelter of living entities after the annihilation of this material world. He is full of all opulences, and He is the resting place of everything material. He is therefore known as Vāsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. By His own potency, He is present within the hearts of all living entities, just as the air or vital force is within the bodies of all beings, moving and nonmoving. In this way He controls the body. In His partial feature, the Supreme Personality of Godhead enters all bodies and controls them.
na yāvad etāṁ tanu-bhṛn narendra
vidhūya māyāṁ vayunodayena
vedātma-tattvaṁ bhramatīha tāvat
na — not; yāvat — as long as; etām — this; tanu-bhṛt — one who has accepted a material body; narendra — O King; vidhūya māyām — washing away the infection accumulated because of contamination by the material world; vayunā udayena — by awakening of transcendental knowledge due to good association and study of the Vedic literatures; vimukta-saṅgaḥ — free from all material association; jita-ṣaṭ-sapatnaḥ — conquering the six enemies (the five knowledge-acquiring senses and the mind); veda — knows; ātma-tattvam — spiritual truth; bhramati — he wanders; iha — in this material world; tāvat — until that time.
My dear King Rahūgaṇa, as long as the conditioned soul accepts the material body and is not freed from the contamination of material enjoyment, and as long as he does not conquer his six enemies and come to the platform of self-realization by awakening his spiritual knowledge, he has to wander among different places and different species of life in this material world.
na yāvad etan mana ātma-liṅgaṁ
vairānubandhaṁ mamatāṁ vidhatte
na — not; yāvat — as long as; etat — this; manaḥ — mind; ātma-liṅgam — existing as the false designation of the soul; saṁsāra-tāpa — of the miseries of this material world; āvapanam — the growing ground; janasya — of the living being; yat — which; śoka — of lamentation; moha — of illusion; āmaya — of disease; rāga — of attachment; lobha — of greed; vaira — of enmity; anubandham — the consequence; mamatām — the sense of ownership; vidhatte — gives.
The soul’s designation, the mind, is the cause of all tribulations in the material world. As long as this fact is unknown to the conditioned living entity, he has to accept the miserable condition of the material body and wander within this universe in different positions. Because the mind is affected by disease, lamentation, illusion, attachment, greed and enmity, it creates bondage and a false sense of intimacy within this material world.
bhrātṛvyam enaṁ tad adabhra-vīryam
guror hareś caraṇopāsanāstro
jahi vyalīkaṁ svayam ātma-moṣam
bhrātṛvyam — the formidable enemy; enam — this mind; tat — that; adabhra-vīryam — very, very powerful; upekṣayā — by neglecting; adhyedhitam — unnecessarily increased in power; apramattaḥ — one who is without illusion; guroḥ — of the spiritual master; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caraṇa — of the lotus feet; upāsanā-astraḥ — applying the weapon of worshiping; jahi — conquer; vyalīkam — false; svayam — personally; ātma-moṣam — which covers the constitutional position of the living entity.
This uncontrolled mind is the greatest enemy of the living entity. If one neglects it or gives it a chance, it will grow more and more powerful and will become victorious. Although it is not factual, it is very strong. It covers the constitutional position of the soul. O King, please try to conquer this mind by the weapon of service to the lotus feet of the spiritual master and of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Do this with great care.