Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 5 Chapter 1
The Activities of Mahārāja Priyavrata
ātmārāmaḥ kathaṁ mune
gṛhe ’ramata yan-mūlaḥ
rājā uvāca — King Parīkṣit said; priya-vrataḥ — King Priyavrata; bhāgavataḥ — the great devotee; ātma-ārāmaḥ — who takes pleasure in self-realization; katham — why; mune — O great sage; gṛhe — at home; aramata — enjoyed; yat-mūlaḥ — having which as the root cause; karma-bandhaḥ — the bondage of fruitive activities; parābhavaḥ — the defeat of one’s human mission.
King Parīkṣit inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī: O great sage, why did King Priyavrata, who was a great, self-realized devotee of the Lord, remain in household life, which is the root cause of the bondage of karma [fruitive activities] and which defeats the mission of human life?
na nūnaṁ mukta-saṅgānāṁ
gṛheṣv abhiniveśo ’yaṁ
puṁsāṁ bhavitum arhati
na — not; nūnam — certainly; mukta-saṅgānām — who are free from attachment; tādṛśānām — such; dvija-ṛṣabha — O greatest of the brāhmaṇas; gṛheṣu — to family life; abhiniveśaḥ — excessive attachment; ayam — this; puṁsām — of persons; bhavitum — to be; arhati — is possible.
Devotees are certainly liberated persons. Therefore, O greatest of the brāhmaṇas, they cannot possibly be absorbed in family affairs.
mahatāṁ khalu viprarṣe
na kuṭumbe spṛhā-matiḥ
mahatām — of great devotees; khalu — certainly; vipra-ṛṣe — O great sage among the brāhmaṇas; uttama-śloka-pādayoḥ — of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; chāyā — by the shade; nirvṛta — satiated; cittānām — whose consciousness; na — never; kuṭumbe — to family members; spṛhā-matiḥ — consciousness with attachment.
Elevated mahātmās who have taken shelter of the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are fully satiated by the shade of those lotus feet. Their consciousness cannot possibly become attached to family members.
saṁśayo ’yaṁ mahān brahman
saktasya yat siddhir abhūt
kṛṣṇe ca matir acyutā
saṁśayaḥ — doubt; ayam — this; mahān — great; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; dāra — to the wife; āgāra — home; suta — children; ādiṣu — and so on; saktasya — of a person attached; yat — because; siddhiḥ — perfection; abhūt — became; kṛṣṇe — unto Kṛṣṇa; ca — also; matiḥ — attachment; acyutā — infallible.
The King continued: O great brāhmaṇa, this is my great doubt. How was it possible for a person like King Priyavrata, who was so attached to wife, children and home, to achieve the topmost infallible perfection in Kṛṣṇa consciousness?
bāḍham uktaṁ bhagavata uttamaślokasya śrīmac-caraṇāravinda-makaranda-rasa āveśita-cetaso bhāgavata-paramahaṁsa-dayita-kathāṁ kiñcid antarāya-vihatāṁ svāṁ śivatamāṁ padavīṁ na prāyeṇa hinvanti.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; bāḍham — correct; uktam — what you have said; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; uttama-ślokasya — who is praised with excellent verses; śrīmat-caraṇa-aravinda — of the feet, which are just like the most beautiful fragrant lotus flowers; makaranda — honey; rase — in the nectar; āveśita — absorbed; cetasaḥ — whose hearts; bhāgavata — to the devotees; paramahaṁsa — liberated persons; dayita — pleasing; kathām — glorification; kiñcit — sometimes; antarāya — by impediments; vihatām — checked; svām — own; śiva-tamām — most exalted; padavīm — position; na — do not; prāyeṇa — almost always; hinvanti — give up.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: What you have said is correct. The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is praised in eloquent, transcendental verses by such exalted personalities as Brahmā, are very pleasing to great devotees and liberated persons. One who is attached to the nectarean honey of the Lord’s lotus feet, and whose mind is always absorbed in His glories, may sometimes be checked by some impediment, but he still never gives up the exalted position he has acquired.
yarhi vāva ha rājan sa rāja-putraḥ priyavrataḥ parama-bhāgavato nāradasya caraṇopasevayāñjasāvagata-paramārtha-satattvo brahma-satreṇa dīkṣiṣyamāṇo ’vani-tala-paripālanāyāmnāta-pravara-guṇa-gaṇaikānta-bhājanatayā sva-pitropāmantrito bhagavati vāsudeva evāvyavadhāna-samādhi-yogena samāveśita-sakala-kāraka-kriyā-kalāpo naivābhyanandad yadyapi tad apratyāmnātavyaṁ tad-adhikaraṇa ātmano ’nyasmād asato ’pi parābhavam anvīkṣamāṇaḥ.
yarhi — because; vāva ha — indeed; rājan — O King; saḥ — he; rāja-putraḥ — the Prince; priyavrataḥ — Priyavrata; parama — supreme; bhāgavataḥ — devotee; nāradasya — of Nārada; caraṇa — the lotus feet; upasevayā — by serving; añjasā — quickly; avagata — became aware of; parama-artha — transcendental subject matter; sa-tattvaḥ — with all knowable facts; brahma-satreṇa — by continuous discussion of the Supreme; dīkṣiṣyamāṇaḥ — desiring to fully dedicate himself; avani-tala — the surface of the globe; paripālanāya — to rule over; āmnāta — directed in the revealed scriptures; pravara — highest; guṇa — of qualities; gaṇa — the sum total; ekānta — without deviation; bhājanatayā — because of his possessing; sva-pitrā — by his father; upāmantritaḥ — being asked; bhagavati — in the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudeve — the all-pervading Lord; eva — certainly; avyavadhāna — without cessation; samādhi-yogena — by practicing yoga in complete absorption; samāveśita — completely dedicated; sakala — all; kāraka — senses; kriyā-kalāpaḥ — whose total activities; na — not; eva — thus; abhyanandat — welcomed; yadyapi — although; tat — that; apratyāmnātavyam — not to be rejected for any reason; tat-adhikaraṇe — in occupying that post; ātmanaḥ — of himself; anyasmāt — by other engagements; asataḥ — material; api — certainly; parābhavam — deterioration; anvīkṣamāṇaḥ — foreseeing.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: My dear King, Prince Priyavrata was a great devotee because he sought the lotus feet of Nārada, his spiritual master, and thus achieved the highest perfection in transcendental knowledge. With advanced knowledge, he always engaged in discussing spiritual subjects and did not divert his attention to anything else. The Prince’s father then asked him to take charge of ruling the world. He tried to convince Priyavrata that this was his duty as indicated in the revealed scriptures. Prince Priyavrata, however, was continuously practicing bhakti-yoga by constantly remembering the Supreme Personality of Godhead, thus engaging all his senses in the service of the Lord. Therefore, although the order of his father could not be rejected, the Prince did not welcome it. Thus he very conscientiously raised the question of whether he might be diverted from devotional service by accepting the responsibility of ruling over the world.
atha ha bhagavān ādi-deva etasya guṇa-visargasya paribṛṁhaṇānudhyāna-vyavasita-sakala-jagad-abhiprāya ātma-yonir akhila-nigama-nija-gaṇa-pariveṣṭitaḥ sva-bhavanād avatatāra.
atha — thus; ha — indeed; bhagavān — the most powerful; ādi-devaḥ — the first demigod; etasya — of this universe; guṇa-visargasya — the creation of the three modes of material nature; paribṛṁhaṇa — the welfare; anudhyāna — always thinking of; vyavasita — known; sakala — whole; jagat — of the universe; abhiprāyaḥ — by whom the ultimate purpose; ātma — the Supreme Self; yoniḥ — whose source of birth; akhila — all; nigama — by the Vedas; nija-gaṇa — by personal associates; pariveṣṭitaḥ — being surrounded; sva-bhavanāt — from his own abode; avatatāra — descended.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: The first created being and most powerful demigod in this universe is Lord Brahmā, who is always responsible for developing universal affairs. Born directly from the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he dedicates his activities to the welfare of the entire universe, for he knows the purpose of the universal creation. This supremely powerful Lord Brahmā, accompanied by his associates and the personified Vedas, left his own abode in the highest planetary system and descended to the place of Prince Priyavrata’s meditation.
sa tatra tatra gagana-tala uḍu-patir iva vimānāvalibhir anupatham amara-parivṛḍhair abhipūjyamānaḥ pathi pathi ca varūthaśaḥ siddha-gandharva-sādhya-cāraṇa-muni-gaṇair upagīyamāno gandha-mādana-droṇīm avabhāsayann upasasarpa.
saḥ — he (Lord Brahmā); tatra tatra — here and there; gagana-tale — under the canopy of the sky; uḍu-patiḥ — the moon; iva — like; vimāna-āvalibhiḥ — in their different airplanes; anupatham — along the path; amara — of the demigods; parivṛḍhaiḥ — by the leaders; abhipūjyamānaḥ — being worshiped; pathi pathi — on the way, one after another; ca — also; varūthaśaḥ — in groups; siddha — by the residents of Siddhaloka; gandharva — by the residents of Gandharvaloka; sādhya — by the residents of Sādhyaloka; cāraṇa — by the residents of Cāraṇaloka; muni-gaṇaiḥ — and by great sages; upagīyamānaḥ — being worshiped; gandha-mādana — of the planet where the Gandhamādana Hill is found; droṇīm — the border; avabhāsayan — illuminating; upasasarpa — he approached.
As Lord Brahmā descended on his carrier, the great swan, all the residents of the planets named Siddhaloka, Gandharvaloka, Sādhyaloka and Cāraṇaloka, as well as great sages and demigods flying in their different airplanes, assembled within the canopy of the sky to receive Lord Brahmā and worship him. As he received respect and adoration from the residents of the various planets, Lord Brahmā appeared just like the full moon surrounded by illuminating stars. Lord Brahmā’s great swan then arrived at the border of Gandhamādana Hill and approached Prince Priyavrata, who was sitting there.
tatra ha vā enaṁ devarṣir haṁsa-yānena pitaraṁ bhagavantaṁ hiraṇya-garbham upalabhamānaḥ sahasaivotthāyārhaṇena saha pitā-putrābhyām avahitāñjalir upatasthe.
tatra — there; ha vā — certainly; enam — him; deva-ṛṣiḥ — the great saint Nārada; haṁsa-yānena — by the swan carrier; pitaram — his father; bhagavantam — most powerful; hiraṇya-garbham — Lord Brahmā; upalabhamānaḥ — understanding; sahasā eva — immediately; utthāya — having stood up; arhaṇena — with paraphernalia for worship; saha — accompanied; pitā-putrābhyām — by Priyavrata and his father, Svāyambhuva Manu; avahita-añjaliḥ — with respect and folded hands; upatasthe — worshiped.
Lord Brahmā, the father of Nārada Muni, is the supreme person within this universe. As soon as Nārada saw the great swan, he could understand that Lord Brahmā had arrived. Therefore he immediately stood up, along with Svāyambhuva Manu and his son Priyavrata, whom Nārada was instructing. Then they folded their hands and began to worship Lord Brahmā with great respect.
bhagavān api bhārata tad-upanītārhaṇaḥ sūkta-vākenātitarām udita-guṇa-gaṇāvatāra-sujayaḥ priyavratam ādi-puruṣas taṁ sadaya-hāsāvaloka iti hovāca.
bhagavān — Lord Brahmā; api — moreover; bhārata — O King Parīkṣit; tat — by them; upanīta — brought forward; arhaṇaḥ — worshipable paraphernalia; sūkta — according to Vedic etiquette; vākena — by language; atitarām — highly; udita — praised; guṇa-gaṇa — qualities; avatāra — because of the descent; su-jayaḥ — whose glories; priyavratam — unto Priyavrata; ādi-puruṣaḥ — the original person; tam — unto him; sa-daya — with compassion; hāsa — smiling; avalokaḥ — whose looking; iti — thus; ha — certainly; uvāca — said.
My dear King Parīkṣit, because Lord Brahmā had finally descended from Satyaloka to Bhūloka, Nārada Muni, Prince Priyavrata and Svāyambhuva Manu came forward to offer him objects of worship and to praise him in highly qualified language, according to Vedic etiquette. At that time, Lord Brahmā, the original person of this universe, felt compassion for Priyavrata and, looking upon him with a smiling face, spoke to him as follows.
nibodha tātedam ṛtaṁ bravīmi
māsūyituṁ devam arhasy aprameyam
vayaṁ bhavas te tata eṣa maharṣir
vahāma sarve vivaśā yasya diṣṭam
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the supreme person, Lord Brahmā, said; nibodha — kindly hear with attention; tāta — my dear son; idam — this; ṛtam — true; bravīmi — I am speaking; mā — not; asūyitum — to be jealous of; devam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; arhasi — you ought; aprameyam — who is beyond our experimental knowledge; vayam — we; bhavaḥ — Lord Śiva; te — your; tataḥ — father; eṣaḥ — this; mahā-ṛṣiḥ — Nārada; vahāmaḥ — carry out; sarve — all; vivaśāḥ — unable to deviate; yasya — of whom; diṣṭam — the order.
Lord Brahmā, the supreme person within this universe, said: My dear Priyavrata, kindly hear attentively what I shall say to you. Do not be jealous of the Supreme Lord, who is beyond our experimental measurements. All of us, including Lord Śiva, your father and the great sage Mahārṣi Nārada, must carry out the order of the Supreme. We cannot deviate from His order.
na tasya kaścit tapasā vidyayā vā
na yoga-vīryeṇa manīṣayā vā
naivārtha-dharmaiḥ parataḥ svato vā
kṛtaṁ vihantuṁ tanu-bhṛd vibhūyāt
na — never; tasya — His; kaścit — anyone; tapasā — by austerity; vidyayā — by education; vā — or; na — never; yoga — by power of mystic yoga; vīryeṇa — by personal strength; manīṣayā — by intelligence; vā — or; na — never; eva — certainly; artha — by material opulence; dharmaiḥ — by the power of religion; parataḥ — by any external power; svataḥ — by personal endeavor; vā — or; kṛtam — the order; vihantum — to avoid; tanu-bhṛt — a living entity who has accepted a material body; vibhūyāt — is able.
One cannot avoid the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, not by the strength of severe austerities, an exalted Vedic education, or the power of mystic yoga, physical prowess or intellectual activities. Nor can one use his power of religion, his material opulence or any other means, either by himself or with the help of others, to defy the orders of the Supreme Lord. That is not possible for any living being, from Brahmā down to the ant.
bhavāya nāśāya ca karma kartuṁ
śokāya mohāya sadā bhayāya
sukhāya duḥkhāya ca deha-yogam
avyakta-diṣṭaṁ janatāṅga dhatte
bhavāya — for birth; nāśāya — for death; ca — also; karma — activity; kartum — to do; śokāya — for bereavement; mohāya — for illusion; sadā — always; bhayāya — for fear; sukhāya — for happiness; duḥkhāya — for distress; ca — also; deha-yogam — connection with a material body; avyakta — by the Supreme Personality of Godhead; diṣṭam — directed; janatā — the living entities; aṅga — O Priyavrata; dhatte — accept.
My dear Priyavrata, by the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, all living entities accept different types of bodies for birth and death, activity, lamentation, illusion, fear of future dangers, and happiness and distress.
yad-vāci tantyāṁ guṇa-karma-dāmabhiḥ
sudustarair vatsa vayaṁ suyojitāḥ
sarve vahāmo balim īśvarāya
protā nasīva dvi-pade catuṣ-padaḥ
yat — of whom; vāci — in the form of Vedic instruction; tantyām — to a long rope; guṇa — of quality; karma — and work; dāmabhiḥ — by the ropes; su-dustaraiḥ — very difficult to avoid; vatsa — my dear boy; vayam — we; su-yojitāḥ — are engaged; sarve — all; vahāmaḥ — carry out; balim — orders to please Him; īśvarāya — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; protāḥ — being bound; nasi — in the nose; iva — like; dvi-pade — to the two-legged (driver); catuḥ-padaḥ — the four-legged (bulls).
My dear boy, all of us are bound by the Vedic injunctions to the divisions of varṇāśrama according to our qualities and work. These divisions are difficult to avoid because they are scientifically arranged. We must therefore carry out our duties of varṇāśrama-dharma, like bulls obliged to move according to the direction of a driver pulling on ropes knotted to their noses.
īśābhisṛṣṭaṁ hy avarundhmahe ’ṅga
duḥkhaṁ sukhaṁ vā guṇa-karma-saṅgāt
āsthāya tat tad yad ayuṅkta nāthaś
cakṣuṣmatāndhā iva nīyamānāḥ
īśa-abhisṛṣṭam — created or given by the Lord; hi — certainly; avarundhmahe — we have to accept; aṅga — my dear Priyavrata; duḥkham — distress; sukham — happiness; vā — or; guṇa-karma — with quality and work; saṅgāt — by association; āsthāya — being situated in; tat tat — that condition; yat — which body; ayuṅkta — He gave; nāthaḥ — the Supreme Lord; cakṣuṣmatā — by a person having eyes; andhāḥ — blind men; iva — like; nīyamānāḥ — being conducted.
My dear Priyavrata, according to our association with different modes of material nature, the Supreme Personality of Godhead gives us our specific bodies and the happiness and distress we achieve. One must therefore remain situated as he is and be conducted by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, exactly as a blind man is led by a person who has eyes with which to see.
mukto ’pi tāvad bibhṛyāt sva-deham
ārabdham aśnann abhimāna-śūnyaḥ
kiṁ tv anya-dehāya guṇān na vṛṅkte
muktaḥ — a liberated person; api — even; tāvat — so long; bibhṛyāt — must maintain; sva-deham — his own body; ārabdham — obtained as a result of past activity; aśnan — accepting; abhimāna-śūnyaḥ — without erroneous conceptions; yathā — as; anubhūtam — what was perceived; pratiyāta-nidraḥ — one who has awakened from sleep; kim tu — but; anya-dehāya — for another material body; guṇān — the material qualities; na — never; vṛṅkte — enjoys.
Even if one is liberated, he nevertheless accepts the body he has received according to his past karma. Without misconceptions, however, he regards his enjoyment and suffering due to that karma the way an awakened person regards a dream he had while sleeping. He thus remains steadfast and never works to achieve another material body under the influence of the three modes of material nature.
bhayaṁ pramattasya vaneṣv api syād
yataḥ sa āste saha-ṣaṭ-sapatnaḥ
gṛhāśramaḥ kiṁ nu karoty avadyam
bhayam — fear; pramattasya — of one who is bewildered; vaneṣu — in forests; api — even; syāt — there must be; yataḥ — because; saḥ — he (one who is not self-controlled); āste — is existing; saha — with; ṣaṭ-sapatnaḥ — six co-wives; jita-indriyasya — for one who has already conquered the senses; ātma-rateḥ — self-satisfied; budhasya — for such a learned man; gṛha-āśramaḥ — household life; kim — what; nu — indeed; karoti — can do; avadyam — harm.
Even if he goes from forest to forest, one who is not self-controlled must always fear material bondage because he is living with six co-wives — the mind and knowledge-acquiring senses. Even householder life, however, cannot harm a self-satisfied, learned man who has conquered his senses.
yaḥ ṣaṭ sapatnān vijigīṣamāṇo
gṛheṣu nirviśya yateta pūrvam
atyeti durgāśrita ūrjitārīn
kṣīṇeṣu kāmaṁ vicared vipaścit
yaḥ — anyone who; ṣaṭ — six; sapatnān — adversaries; vijigīṣamāṇaḥ — desiring to conquer; gṛheṣu — in household life; nirviśya — having entered; yateta — must try; pūrvam — first; atyeti — conquers; durga-āśritaḥ — being in a fortified place; ūrjita-arīn — very strong enemies; kṣīṇeṣu — decreased; kāmam — lusty desires; vicaret — can go; vipaścit — the most experienced, learned.
One who is situated in household life and who systematically conquers his mind and five sense organs is like a king in his fortress who conquers his powerful enemies. After one has been trained in household life and his lusty desires have decreased, he can move anywhere without danger.
tvaṁ tv abja-nābhāṅghri-saroja-kośa-
bhuṅkṣveha bhogān puruṣātidiṣṭān
vimukta-saṅgaḥ prakṛtiṁ bhajasva
tvam — yourself; tu — then; abja-nābha — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose navel is like a lotus flower; aṅghri — feet; saroja — lotus; kośa — hole; durga — the stronghold; āśritaḥ — taken shelter of; nirjita — conquered; ṣaṭ-sapatnaḥ — the six enemies (the mind and five senses); bhuṅkṣva — enjoy; iha — in this material world; bhogān — enjoyable things; puruṣa — by the Supreme Person; atidiṣṭān — extraordinarily ordered; vimukta — liberated; saṅgaḥ — from material association; prakṛtim — constitutional position; bhajasva — enjoy.
Lord Brahmā continued: My dear Priyavrata, seek shelter inside the opening in the lotus of the feet of the Lord, whose navel is also like a lotus. Thus conquer the six sense organs [the mind and knowledge-acquiring senses]. Accept material enjoyment because the Lord, extraordinarily, has ordered you to do this. You will thus always be liberated from material association and be able to carry out the Lord’s orders in your constitutional position.
iti samabhihito mahā-bhāgavato bhagavatas tri-bhuvana-guror anuśāsanam ātmano laghutayāvanata-śirodharo bāḍham iti sabahu-mānam uvāha.
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; samabhihitaḥ — completely instructed; mahā-bhāgavataḥ — the great devotee; bhagavataḥ — of the most powerful Lord Brahmā; tri-bhuvana — of the three worlds; guroḥ — the spiritual master; anuśāsanam — the order; ātmanaḥ — of himself; laghutayā — because of inferiority; avanata — bowed down; śirodharaḥ — his head; bāḍham — yes, sir; iti — thus; sa-bahu-mānam — with great respect; uvāha — carried out.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: After thus being fully instructed by Lord Brahmā, who is the spiritual master of the three worlds, Priyavrata, his own position being inferior, offered obeisances, accepted the order and carried it out with great respect.
bhagavān api manunā yathāvad upakalpitāpacitiḥ priyavrata-nāradayor aviṣamam abhisamīkṣamāṇayor ātmasam avasthānam avāṅ-manasaṁ kṣayam avyavahṛtaṁ pravartayann agamat.
bhagavān — the most powerful Lord Brahmā; api — also; manunā — by Manu; yathāvat — as deserved; upakalpita-apacitiḥ — being worshiped; priyavrata-nāradayoḥ — in the presence of Priyavrata and Nārada; aviṣamam — without aversion; abhisamīkṣamāṇayoḥ — looking on; ātmasam — just suitable for his position; avasthānam — to his abode; avāk-manasam — beyond the description of mind and words; kṣayam — the planet; avyavahṛtam — extraordinarily situated; pravartayan — departing; agamat — returned.
Lord Brahmā was then worshiped by Manu, who respectfully satisfied him as well as he could. Priyavrata and Nārada also looked upon Brahmā with no tinges of resentment. Having engaged Priyavrata in accepting his father’s request, Lord Brahmā returned to his abode, Satyaloka, which is indescribable by the endeavor of mundane mind or words.
manur api pareṇaivaṁ pratisandhita-manorathaḥ surarṣi-varānumatenātmajam akhila-dharā-maṇḍala-sthiti-guptaya āsthāpya svayam ati-viṣama-viṣaya-viṣa-jalāśayāśāyā upararāma.
manuḥ — Svāyambhuva Manu; api — also; pareṇa — by Lord Brahmā; evam — thus; pratisandhita — executed; manaḥ-rathaḥ — his mental aspiration; sura-ṛṣi-vara — of the great sage Nārada; anumatena — by the permission; ātma-jam — his son; akhila — of the entire universe; dharā-maṇḍala — of planets; sthiti — maintenance; guptaye — for the protection; āsthāpya — establishing; svayam — personally; ati-viṣama — very dangerous; viṣaya — material affairs; viṣa — of poison; jala-āśaya — ocean; āśāyāḥ — from desires; upararāma — got relief.
Svāyambhuva Manu, with the assistance of Lord Brahmā, thus fulfilled his desires. With the permission of the great sage Nārada, he delivered to his son the governmental responsibility for maintaining and protecting all the planets of the universe. He thus achieved relief from the most dangerous, poisonous ocean of material desires.
iti ha vāva sa jagatī-patir īśvarecchayādhiniveśita-karmādhikāro ’khila-jagad-bandha-dhvaṁsana-parānubhāvasya bhagavata ādi-puruṣasyāṅghri-yugalānavarata-dhyānānubhāvena parirandhita-kaṣāyāśayo ’vadāto ’pi māna-vardhano mahatāṁ mahītalam anuśaśāsa.
iti — thus; ha vāva — indeed; saḥ — he; jagatī-patiḥ — the emperor of the whole universe; īśvara-icchayā — by the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhiniveśita — completely engaged; karma-adhikāraḥ — in material affairs; akhila-jagat — of the entire universe; bandha — bondage; dhvaṁsana — destroying; para — transcendental; anubhāvasya — whose influence; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ādi-puruṣasya — the original person; aṅghri — on the lotus feet; yugala — two; anavarata — constant; dhyāna-anubhāvena — by meditation; parirandhita — destroyed; kaṣāya — all the dirty things; āśayaḥ — in his heart; avadātaḥ — completely pure; api — although; māna-vardhanaḥ — just to give honor; mahatām — to superiors; mahītalam — the material world; anuśaśāsa — ruled.
Following the order of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Mahārāja Priyavrata fully engaged in worldly affairs, yet he always thought of the lotus feet of the Lord, which are the cause of liberation from all material attachment. Although Priyavrata Mahārāja was completely freed from all material contamination, he ruled the material world just to honor the orders of his superiors.
atha ca duhitaraṁ prajāpater viśvakarmaṇa upayeme barhiṣmatīṁ nāma tasyām u ha vāva ātmajān ātma-samāna-śīla-guṇa-karma-rūpa-vīryodārān daśa bhāvayām babhūva kanyāṁ ca yavīyasīm ūrjasvatīṁ nāma.
atha — thereafter; ca — also; duhitaram — the daughter; prajāpateḥ — of one of the prajāpatis entrusted with increasing population; viśvakarmaṇaḥ — named Viśvakarmā; upayeme — married; barhiṣmatīm — Barhiṣmatī; nāma — named; tasyām — in her; u ha — as it is celebrated; vāva — wonderful; ātma-jān — sons; ātma-samāna — exactly equal to him; śīla — character; guṇa — quality; karma — activities; rūpa — beauty; vīrya — prowess; udārān — whose magnanimity; daśa — ten; bhāvayām babhūva — he begot; kanyām — daughter; ca — also; yavīyasīm — the youngest of all; ūrjasvatīm — Ūrjasvatī; nāma — named.
Thereafter, Mahārāja Priyavrata married Barhiṣmatī, the daughter of the prajāpati named Viśvakarmā. In her he begot ten sons equal to him in beauty, character, magnanimity and other qualities. He also begot a daughter, the youngest of all, named Ūrjasvatī.
āgnīdhredhmajihva-yajñabāhu-mahāvīra-hiraṇyareto-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-savana-medhātithi-vītihotra-kavaya iti sarva evāgni-nāmānaḥ.
āgnīdhra — Āgnīdhra; idhma-jihva — Idhmajihva; yajña-bāhu — Yajñabāhu; mahā-vīra — Mahāvīra; hiraṇya-retaḥ — Hiraṇyaretā; ghṛtapṛṣṭha — Ghṛtapṛṣṭha; savana — Savana; medhā-tithi — Medhātithi; vītihotra — Vītihotra; kavayaḥ — and Kavi; iti — thus; sarve — all these; eva — certainly; agni — of the demigod controlling fire; nāmānaḥ — names.
The ten sons of Mahārāja Priyavrata were named Āgnīdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Mahāvīra, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Savana, Medhātithi, Vītihotra and Kavi. These are also names of Agni, the fire-god.
eteṣāṁ kavir mahāvīraḥ savana iti traya āsann ūrdhva-retasas ta ātma-vidyāyām arbha-bhāvād ārabhya kṛta-paricayāḥ pāramahaṁsyam evāśramam abhajan.
eteṣām — of these; kaviḥ — Kavi; mahāvīraḥ — Mahāvīra; savanaḥ — Savana; iti — thus; trayaḥ — three; āsan — were; ūrdhva-retasaḥ — completely celibate; te — they; ātma-vidyāyām — in transcendental knowledge; arbha-bhāvāt — from childhood; ārabhya — beginning; kṛta-paricayāḥ — very well versed; pāramahaṁsyam — of the highest spiritual perfection of human life; eva — certainly; āśramam — the order; abhajan — executed.
Three among these ten — namely Kavi, Mahāvīra and Savana — lived in complete celibacy. Thus trained in brahmacārī life from the beginning of childhood, they were very conversant with the highest perfection, known as the paramahaṁsa-āśrama.
tasminn u ha vā upaśama-śīlāḥ paramarṣayaḥ sakala-jīva-nikāyāvāsasya bhagavato vāsudevasya bhītānāṁ śaraṇa-bhūtasya śrīmac-caraṇāravindāvirata-smaraṇāvigalita-parama-bhakti-yogānu-bhāvena paribhāvitāntar-hṛdayādhigate bhagavati sarveṣāṁ bhūtānām ātma-bhūte pratyag-ātmany evātmanas tādātmyam aviśeṣeṇa samīyuḥ.
tasmin — in that paramahaṁsa-āśrama; u — certainly; ha — so celebrated; vā — indeed; upaśama-śīlāḥ — in the renounced order of life; parama-ṛṣayaḥ — the great sages; sakala — all; jīva — of living entities; nikāya — in total; āvāsasya — the residence; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vāsudevasya — Lord Vāsudeva; bhītānām — of those afraid of material existence; śaraṇa-bhūtasya — the one who is the only shelter; śrīmat — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; caraṇa-aravinda — the lotus feet; avirata — constantly; smaraṇa — remembering; avigalita — completely uncontaminated; parama — supreme; bhakti-yoga — of mystic devotional service; anubhāvena — by the prowess; paribhāvita — purified; antaḥ — within; hṛdaya — the heart; adhigate — perceived; bhagavati — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sarveṣām — of all; bhūtānām — living entities; ātma-bhūte — situated within the body; pratyak — directly; ātmani — with the Supreme Supersoul; eva — certainly; ātmanaḥ — of the self; tādātmyam — qualitative equality; aviśeṣeṇa — without differences; samīyuḥ — realized.
Thus situated in the renounced order from the beginning of their lives, all three of them completely controlled the activities of their senses and thus became great saints. They concentrated their minds always upon the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the resting place of the totality of living entities and who is therefore celebrated as Vāsudeva. Lord Vāsudeva is the only shelter of those who are actually afraid of material existence. By constantly thinking of His lotus feet, these three sons of Mahārāja Priyavrata became advanced in pure devotional service. By the prowess of their devotional service, they could directly perceive the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is situated in everyone’s heart as the Supersoul, and realize that there was qualitatively no difference between themselves and Him.
anyasyām api jāyāyāṁ trayaḥ putrā āsann uttamas tāmaso raivata iti manvantarādhipatayaḥ.
anyasyām — other; api — also; jāyāyām — in the wife; trayaḥ — three; putrāḥ — sons; āsan — there were; uttamaḥ tāmasaḥ raivataḥ — Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata; iti — thus; manu-antara — of the manvantara millennium; adhipatayaḥ — rulers.
In his other wife, Mahārāja Priyavrata begot three sons, named Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata. All of them later took charge of manvantara millenniums.
evam upaśamāyaneṣu sva-tanayeṣv atha jagatī-patir jagatīm arbudāny ekādaśa parivatsarāṇām avyāhatākhila-puruṣa-kāra-sāra-sambhṛta-dor-daṇḍa-yugalāpīḍita-maurvī-guṇa-stanita-viramita-dharma-pratipakṣo barhiṣmatyāś cānudinam edhamāna-pramoda-prasaraṇa-yauṣiṇya-vrīḍā-pramuṣita-hāsāvaloka-rucira-kṣvely-ādibhiḥ parābhūyamāna-viveka ivānavabudhyamāna iva mahāmanā bubhuje.
evam — thus; upaśama-ayaneṣu — all well qualified; sva-tanayeṣu — his own sons; atha — thereafter; jagatī-patiḥ — the master of the universe; jagatīm — the universe; arbudāni — arbudas (one arbuda equals 100,000,000); ekādaśa — eleven; parivatsarāṇām — of years; avyāhata — without being interrupted; akhila — universal; puruṣa-kāra — prowess; sāra — strength; sambhṛta — endowed with; doḥ-daṇḍaḥ — of powerful arms; yugala — by the pair; āpīḍita — being drawn; maurvī-guṇa — of the bowstring; stanita — by the loud sound; viramita — defeated; dharma — religious principles; pratipakṣaḥ — those who are against; barhiṣmatyāḥ — of his wife Barhiṣmatī; ca — and; anudinam — daily; edhamāna — increasing; pramoda — pleasing intercourse; prasaraṇa — amiability; yauṣiṇya — feminine behavior; vrīḍā — by shyness; pramuṣita — held back; hāsa — laughing; avaloka — glancing; rucira — pleasing; kṣveli-ādibhiḥ — by exchanges of loving propensities; parābhūyamāna — being defeated; vivekaḥ — his true knowledge; iva — like; anavabudhyamānaḥ — a less intelligent person; iva — like; mahā-manāḥ — the great soul; bubhuje — ruled.
After Kavi, Mahāvīra and Savana were completely trained in the paramahaṁsa stage of life, Mahārāja Priyavrata ruled the universe for eleven arbudas of years. Whenever he was determined to fix his arrow upon his bowstring with his two powerful arms, all opponents of the regulative principles of religious life would flee from his presence in fear of the unparalleled prowess he displayed in ruling the universe. He greatly loved his wife Barhiṣmatī, and with the increase of days, their exchange of nuptial love also increased. By her feminine behavior as she dressed herself, walked, got up, smiled, laughed, and glanced about, Queen Barhiṣmatī increased his energy. Thus although he was a great soul, he appeared lost in the feminine conduct of his wife. He behaved with her just like an ordinary man, but actually he was a great soul.
yāvad avabhāsayati sura-girim anuparikrāman bhagavān ādityo vasudhā-talam ardhenaiva pratapaty ardhenāvacchādayati tadā hi bhagavad-upāsanopacitāti-puruṣa-prabhāvas tad anabhinandan samajavena rathena jyotirmayena rajanīm api dinaṁ kariṣyāmīti sapta-kṛt vastaraṇim anuparyakrāmad dvitīya iva pataṅgaḥ.
yāvat — so long; avabhāsayati — illuminates; sura-girim — the Sumeru Hill; anuparikrāman — by circumambulating; bhagavān — the most powerful; ādityaḥ — sun-god; vasudhā-talam — the lower planetary system; ardhena — by half; eva — certainly; pratapati — makes dazzling; ardhena — by half; avacchādayati — covers with darkness; tadā — at that time; hi — certainly; bhagavat-upāsanā — by worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead; upacita — by satisfying Him perfectly; ati-puruṣa — superhuman; prabhāvaḥ — influence; tat — that; anabhinandan — without appreciating; samajavena — by equally powerful; rathena — on a chariot; jyotiḥ-mayena — dazzling; rajanīm — night; api — also; dinam — day; kariṣyāmi — I shall make it; iti — thus; sapta-kṛt — seven times; vastaraṇim — exactly following the orbit of the sun; anuparyakrāmat — circumambulated; dvitīyaḥ — second; iva — like; pataṅgaḥ — sun.
While so excellently ruling the universe, King Priyavrata once became dissatisfied with the circumambulation of the most powerful sun-god. Encircling Sumeru Hill on his chariot, the sun-god illuminates all the surrounding planetary systems. However, when the sun is on the northern side of the hill, the south receives less light, and when the sun is in the south, the north receives less. King Priyavrata disliked this situation and therefore decided to make daylight in the part of the universe where there was night. He followed the orbit of the sun-god on a brilliant chariot and thus fulfilled his desire. He could perform such wonderful activities because of the power he had achieved by worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ye vā u ha tad-ratha-caraṇa-nemi-kṛta-parikhātās te sapta sindhava āsan yata eva kṛtāḥ sapta bhuvo dvīpāḥ.
ye — that; vā u ha — certainly; tat-ratha — of his chariot; caraṇa — of the wheels; nemi — by the rims; kṛta — made; parikhātāḥ — trenches; te — those; sapta — seven; sindhavaḥ — oceans; āsan — became; yataḥ — because of which; eva — certainly; kṛtāḥ — were made; sapta — seven; bhuvaḥ — of the Bhū-maṇḍala; dvīpāḥ — islands.
When Priyavrata drove his chariot behind the sun, the rims of his chariot wheels created impressions that later became seven oceans, dividing the planetary system known as Bhū-maṇḍala into seven islands.
jambū-plakṣa-śālmali-kuśa-krauñca-śāka-puṣkara-saṁjñās teṣāṁ parimāṇaṁ pūrvasmāt pūrvasmād uttara uttaro yathā-saṅkhyaṁ dvi-guṇa-mānena bahiḥ samantata upakḷptāḥ.
jambū — Jambū; plakṣa — Plakṣa; śālmali — Śālmali; kuśa — Kuśa; krauñca — Krauñca; śāka — Śāka; puṣkara — Puṣkara; saṁjñāḥ — known as; teṣām — of them; parimāṇam — measurement; pūrvasmāt pūrvasmāt — from the former; uttaraḥ uttaraḥ — the following; yathā — according to; saṅkhyam — number; dvi-guṇa — twice as much; mānena — with a measure; bahiḥ — outside; samantataḥ — all around; upakḷptāḥ — produced.
The names of the islands are Jambū, Plakṣa, Śālmali, Kuśa, Krauñca, Śāka and Puṣkara. Each island is twice as large as the one preceding it, and each is surrounded by a liquid substance, beyond which is the next island.
kṣārodekṣu-rasoda-suroda-ghṛtoda-kṣīroda-dadhi-maṇḍoda-śuddhodāḥ sapta jaladhayaḥ sapta dvīpa-parikhā ivābhyantara-dvīpa-samānā ekaikaśyena yathānupūrvaṁ saptasv api bahir dvīpeṣu pṛthak parita upakalpitās teṣu jambv-ādiṣu barhiṣmatī-patir anuvratānātmajān āgnīdhredhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyareto-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṁjñān yathā-saṅkhyenaikaikasminn ekam evādhi-patiṁ vidadhe.
kṣāra — salt; uda — water; ikṣu-rasa — the liquid extract from sugarcane; uda — water; surā — liquor; uda — water; ghṛta — clarified butter; uda — water; kṣīra — milk; uda — water; dadhi-maṇḍa — emulsified yogurt; uda — water; śuddha-udāḥ — and drinking water; sapta — seven; jala-dhayaḥ — oceans; sapta — seven; dvīpa — islands; parikhāḥ — trenches; iva — like; abhyantara — internal; dvīpa — islands; samānāḥ — equal to; eka-ekaśyena — one after another; yathā-anupūrvam — in chronological order; saptasu — seven; api — although; bahiḥ — outside; dvīpeṣu — in islands; pṛthak — separate; paritaḥ — all around; upakalpitāḥ — situated; teṣu — within them; jambū-ādiṣu — beginning with Jambū; barhiṣmatī — of Barhiṣmatī; patiḥ — the husband; anuvratān — who were actually followers of the father’s principles; ātma-jān — sons; āgnīdhra-idhmajihva-yajñabāhu-hiraṇyaretaḥ-ghṛtapṛṣṭha-medhātithi-vītihotra-saṁjñān — named Āgnīḍhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and Vītihotra; yathā-saṅkhyena — by the same number; eka-ekasmin — in each island; ekam — one; eva — certainly; adhi-patim — king; vidadhe — he made.
The seven oceans respectively contain salt water, sugarcane juice, liquor, clarified butter, milk, emulsified yogurt, and sweet drinking water. All the islands are completely surrounded by these oceans, and each ocean is equal in breadth to the island it surrounds. Mahārāja Priyavrata, the husband of Queen Barhiṣmatī, gave sovereignty over these islands to his respective sons, namely Āgnīdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Hiraṇyaretā, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Medhātithi and Vītihotra. Thus they all became kings by the order of their father.
duhitaraṁ corjasvatīṁ nāmośanase prāyacchad yasyām āsīd devayānī nāma kāvya-sutā.
duhitaram — the daughter; ca — also; ūrjasvatīm — Ūrjasvatī; nāma — named; uśanase — unto the great sage Uśanā (Śukrācārya); prāyacchat — he gave; yasyām — unto whom; āsīt — there was; devayānī — Devayānī; nāma — named; kāvya-sutā — the daughter of Śukrācārya.
King Priyavrata then gave his daughter, Ūrjasvatī, in marriage to Śukrācārya, who begot in her a daughter named Devayānī.
naivaṁ-vidhaḥ puruṣa-kāra urukramasya
puṁsāṁ tad-aṅghri-rajasā jita-ṣaḍ-guṇānām
citraṁ vidūra-vigataḥ sakṛd ādadīta
yan-nāmadheyam adhunā sa jahāti bandham
na — not; evam-vidhaḥ — like that; puruṣa-kāraḥ — personal influence; uru-kramasya — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; puṁsām — of the devotees; tat-aṅghri — of His lotus feet; rajasā — by the dust; jita-ṣaṭ-guṇānām — who have conquered the influence of the six kinds of material waves; citram — wonderful; vidūra-vigataḥ — the fifth-grade person, or the untouchable; sakṛt — only once; ādadīta — if he utters; yat — whose; nāmadheyam — holy name; adhunā — immediately; saḥ — he; jahāti — gives up; bandham — material bondage.
My dear King, a devotee who has taken shelter of the dust from the lotus feet of the Lord can transcend the influence of the six material waves — namely hunger, thirst, lamentation, illusion, old age and death — and he can conquer the mind and five senses. However, this is not very wonderful for a pure devotee of the Lord because even a person beyond the jurisdiction of the four castes — in other words, an untouchable — is immediately relieved of bondage to material existence if he utters the holy name of the Lord even once.
sa evam aparimita-bala-parākrama ekadā tu devarṣi-caraṇānuśayanānu-patita-guṇa-visarga-saṁsargeṇānirvṛtam ivātmānaṁ manyamāna ātma-nirveda idam āha.
saḥ — he (Mahārāja Priyavrata); evam — thus; aparimita — unparalleled; bala — strength; parākramaḥ — whose influence; ekadā — once upon a time; tu — then; deva-ṛṣi — of the great saint Nārada; caraṇa-anuśayana — surrendering unto the lotus feet; anu — thereafter; patita — fallen down; guṇa-visarga — with material affairs (created by the three material modes of nature); saṁsargeṇa — by connection; anirvṛtam — not satisfied; iva — like; ātmānam — himself; manyamānaḥ — thinking like that; ātma — self; nirvedaḥ — possessing renunciation; idam — this; āha — said.
While enjoying his material opulences with full strength and influence, Mahārāja Priyavrata once began to consider that although he had fully surrendered to the great saint Nārada and was actually on the path of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he had somehow become again entangled in material activities. Thus his mind now became restless, and he began to speak in a spirit of renunciation.
aho asādhv anuṣṭhitaṁ yad abhiniveśito ’ham indriyair avidyā-racita-viṣama-viṣayāndha-kūpe tad alam alam amuṣyā vanitāyā vinoda-mṛgaṁ māṁ dhig dhig iti garhayāṁ cakāra.
aho — alas; asādhu — not good; anuṣṭhitam — executed; yat — because; abhiniveśitaḥ — being completely absorbed; aham — I; indriyaiḥ — for sense gratification; avidyā — by nescience; racita — made; viṣama — causing distress; viṣaya — sense gratification; andha-kūpe — in the dark well; tat — that; alam — insignificant; alam — of no importance; amuṣyāḥ — of that; vanitāyāḥ — wife; vinoda-mṛgam — just like a dancing monkey; mām — unto me; dhik — all condemnation; dhik — all condemnation; iti — thus; garhayām — criticism; cakāra — he did.
The King thus began criticizing himself: Alas, how condemned I have become because of my sense gratification! I have now fallen into material enjoyment, which is exactly like a covered well. I have had enough! I am not going to enjoy any more. Just see how I have become like a dancing monkey in the hands of my wife. Because of this, I am condemned.
para-devatā-prasādādhigatātma-pratyavamarśenānupravṛttebhyaḥ putrebhya imāṁ yathā-dāyaṁ vibhajya bhukta-bhogāṁ ca mahiṣīṁ mṛtakam iva saha mahā-vibhūtim apahāya svayaṁ nihita-nirvedo hṛdi gṛhīta-hari-vihārānubhāvo bhagavato nāradasya padavīṁ punar evānusasāra.
para-devatā — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prasāda — by the mercy; adhigata — obtained; ātma-pratyavamarśena — by self-realization; anupravṛttebhyaḥ — who exactly follow his path; putrebhyaḥ — unto his sons; imām — this earth; yathā-dāyam — exactly according to the inheritance; vibhajya — dividing; bhukta-bhogām — whom he enjoyed in so many ways; ca — also; mahiṣīm — the Queen; mṛtakam iva — exactly like a dead body; saha — with; mahā-vibhūtim — great opulence; apahāya — giving up; svayam — himself; nihita — perfectly taken to; nirvedaḥ — renunciation; hṛdi — in the heart; gṛhīta — accepted; hari — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vihāra — pastimes; anubhāvaḥ — in such an attitude; bhagavataḥ — of the great saintly person; nāradasya — of Saint Nārada; padavīm — position; punaḥ — again; eva — certainly; anusasāra — began to follow.
By the grace of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Mahārāja Priyavrata reawakened to his senses. He divided all his earthly possessions among his obedient sons. He gave up everything, including his wife, with whom he had enjoyed so much sense gratification, and his great and opulent kingdom, and he completely renounced all attachment. His heart, having been cleansed, became a place of pastimes for the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Thus he was able to return to the path of Kṛṣṇa consciousness, spiritual life, and resume the position he had attained by the grace of the great saint Nārada.
tasya ha vā ete ślokāḥ —
ko nu kuryād vineśvaram
yo nemi-nimnair akaroc
chāyāṁ ghnan sapta vāridhīn
tasya — his; ha vā — certainly; ete — all these; ślokāḥ — verses; priyavrata — by King Priyavrata; kṛtam — done; karma — activities; kaḥ — who; nu — then; kuryāt — can execute; vinā — without; īśvaram — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yaḥ — one who; nemi — of the rim of the wheels of his chariot; nimnaiḥ — by the depressions; akarot — made; chāyām — darkness; ghnan — dissipating; sapta — seven; vāridhīn — oceans.
There are many famous verses regarding Mahārāja Priyavrata’s activities:
bhū-saṁsthānaṁ kṛtaṁ yena
sīmā ca bhūta-nirvṛtyai
dvīpe dvīpe vibhāgaśaḥ
bhū-saṁsthānam — the situation of the earth; kṛtam — done; yena — by whom; sarit — by rivers; giri — by hills and mountains; vana-ādibhiḥ — by forests and so on; sīmā — boundaries; ca — also; bhūta — of different nations; nirvṛtyai — to stop fighting; dvīpe dvīpe — on the various islands; vibhāgaśaḥ — separately.
“To stop the quarreling among different peoples, Mahārāja Priyavrata marked boundaries at rivers and at the edges of mountains and forests so that no one would trespass upon another’s property.”
bhaumaṁ divyaṁ mānuṣaṁ ca
yaś cakre nirayaupamyaṁ
bhaumam — of the lower planets; divyam — heavenly; mānuṣam — of human beings; ca — also; mahitvam — all opulences; karma — by fruitive activities; yoga — by mystic power; jam — born; yaḥ — one who; cakre — did; niraya — with hell; aupamyam — comparison or equality; puruṣa — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anujana — to the devotee; priyaḥ — most dear.
“As a great follower and devotee of the sage Nārada, Mahārāja Priyavrata considered hellish the opulences he had achieved by dint of fruitive activities and mystic power, whether in the lower or heavenly planetary systems or in human society.”