Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 4 Chapter 18

Pṛthu Mahārāja Milks the Earth Planet

VERSE 4.18.1

maitreya uvāca

itthaṁ pṛthum abhiṣṭūya
ruṣā prasphuritādharam
punar āhāvanir bhītā
saṁstabhyātmānam ātmanā

SYNONYMS

maitreyaḥ uvāca — the great saint Maitreya continued to speak; ittham — thus; pṛthum — unto King Pṛthu; abhiṣṭūya — after offering prayers; ruṣā — in anger; prasphurita — trembling; adharam — his lips; punaḥ — again; āha — she said; avaniḥ — the planet earth; bhītā — in fear; saṁstabhya — after settling; ātmānam — the mind; ātmanā — by the intelligence.

TRANSLATION

The great saint Maitreya continued to address Vidura: My dear Vidura, at that time, after the planet earth finished her prayers, King Pṛthu was still not pacified, and his lips trembled in great anger. Although the planet earth was frightened, she made up her mind and began to speak as follows in order to convince the King.

VERSE 4.18.2

sanniyacchābhibho manyuṁ
nibodha śrāvitaṁ ca me
sarvataḥ sāram ādatte
yathā madhu-karo budhaḥ

SYNONYMS

sanniyaccha — please pacify; abhibho — O King; manyum — anger; nibodha — try to understand; śrāvitam — what is said; ca — also; me — by me; sarvataḥ — from everywhere; sāram — the essence; ādatte — takes; yathā — as; madhu-karaḥ — the bumblebee; budhaḥ — an intelligent person.

TRANSLATION

My dear Lord, please pacify your anger completely and hear patiently whatever I submit before you. Please turn your kind attention to this. I may be very poor, but a learned man takes the essence of knowledge from all places, just as a bumblebee collects honey from each and every flower.

VERSE 4.18.3

asmil loke ’thavāmuṣmin
munibhis tattva-darśibhiḥ
dṛṣṭā yogāḥ prayuktāś ca
puṁsāṁ śreyaḥ-prasiddhaye

SYNONYMS

asmin — in this; loke — duration of life; atha — or; amuṣmin — in the next life; munibhiḥ — by the great sages; tattva — the truth; darśibhiḥ — by those who have seen it; dṛṣṭāḥ — prescribed; yogāḥ — methods; prayuktāḥ — applied; ca — also; puṁsām — of the people in general; śreyaḥ — benefit; prasiddhaye — in the matter of obtaining.

TRANSLATION

To benefit all human society, not only in this life but in the next, the great seers and sages have prescribed various methods conducive to the prosperity of the people in general.

VERSE 4.18.4

tān ātiṣṭhati yaḥ samyag
upāyān pūrva-darśitān
avaraḥ śraddhayopeta
upeyān vindate ’ñjasā

SYNONYMS

tān — those; ātiṣṭhati — follows; yaḥ — anyone who; samyak — completely; upāyān — principles; pūrva — formerly; darśitān — instructed; avaraḥ — inexperienced; śraddhayā — with faith; upetaḥ — being situated; upeyān — the fruits of activities; vindate — enjoys; añjasā — very easily.

TRANSLATION

One who follows the principles and instructions enjoined by the great sages of the past can utilize these instructions for practical purposes. Such a person can very easily enjoy life and pleasures.

VERSE 4.18.5

tān anādṛtya yo ’vidvān
arthān ārabhate svayam
tasya vyabhicaranty arthā
ārabdhāś ca punaḥ punaḥ

SYNONYMS

tān — those; anādṛtya — neglecting; yaḥ — anyone who; avidvān — rascal; arthān — schemes; ārabhate — begins; svayam — personally; tasya — his; vyabhicaranti — do not become successful; arthāḥ — purposes; ārabdhāḥ — attempted; ca — and; punaḥ punaḥ — again and again.

TRANSLATION

A foolish person who manufactures his own ways and means through mental speculation and does not recognize the authority of the sages who lay down unimpeachable directions is simply unsuccessful again and again in his attempts.

VERSE 4.18.6

purā sṛṣṭā hy oṣadhayo
brahmaṇā yā viśāmpate
bhujyamānā mayā dṛṣṭā
asadbhir adhṛta-vrataiḥ

SYNONYMS

purā — in the past; sṛṣṭāḥ — created; hi — certainly; oṣadhayaḥ — herbs and food grains; brahmaṇā — by Lord Brahmā; yāḥ — all those which; viśām-pate — O King; bhujyamānāḥ — being enjoyed; mayā — by me; dṛṣṭāḥ — seen; asadbhiḥ — by nondevotees; adhṛta-vrataiḥ — devoid of all spiritual activities.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, the seeds, roots, herbs and grains, which were created by Lord Brahmā in the past, are now being used by nondevotees, who are devoid of all spiritual understanding.

VERSE 4.18.7

apālitānādṛtā ca
bhavadbhir loka-pālakaiḥ
corī-bhūte ’tha loke ’haṁ
yajñārthe ’grasam oṣadhīḥ

SYNONYMS

apālitā — without being taken care of; anādṛtā — being neglected; ca — also; bhavadbhiḥ — like your good self; loka-pālakaiḥ — by the governors or kings; corī-bhūte — being beset by thieves; atha — therefore; loke — this world; aham — I; yajña-arthe — for the purpose of performing sacrifices; agrasam — have hidden; oṣadhīḥ — all the herbs and grains.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, not only are grains and herbs being used by nondevotees, but, as far as I am concerned, I am not being properly maintained. Indeed, I am being neglected by kings who are not punishing these rascals who have turned into thieves by using grains for sense gratification. Consequently I have hidden all these seeds, which were meant for the performance of sacrifice.

VERSE 4.18.8

nūnaṁ tā vīrudhaḥ kṣīṇā
mayi kālena bhūyasā
tatra yogena dṛṣṭena
bhavān ādātum arhati

SYNONYMS

nūnam — therefore; tāḥ — those; vīrudhaḥ — herbs and grains; kṣīṇāḥ — deteriorated; mayi — within me; kālena — in course of time; bhūyasā — very much; tatra — therefore; yogena — by proper means; dṛṣṭena — acknowledged; bhavān — Your Majesty; ādātum — to take; arhati — ought.

TRANSLATION

Due to being stocked for a very long time, all the grain seeds within me have certainly deteriorated. Therefore you should immediately arrange to take these seeds out by the standard process, which is recommended by the ācāryas or śāstras.

VERSE 4.18.9-10

vatsaṁ kalpaya me vīra
yenāhaṁ vatsalā tava
dhokṣye kṣīramayān kāmān
anurūpaṁ ca dohanam

dogdhāraṁ ca mahā-bāho
bhūtānāṁ bhūta-bhāvana
annam īpsitam ūrjasvad
bhagavān vāñchate yadi

SYNONYMS

vatsam — a calf; kalpaya — arrange; me — for me; vīra — O hero; yena — by which; aham — I; vatsalā — affectionate; tava — your; dhokṣye — shall fulfill; kṣīra-mayān — in the form of milk; kāmān — desired necessities; anurūpam — according to different living entities; ca — also; dohanam — milking pot; dogdhāram — milkman; ca — also; mahā-bāho — O mighty-armed one; bhūtānām — of all living entities; bhūta-bhāvana — O protector of the living entities; annam — food grains; īpsitam — desired; ūrjaḥ-vat — nourishing; bhagavān — your worshipable self; vāñchate — desires; yadi — if.

TRANSLATION

O great hero, protector of living entities, if you desire to relieve the living entities by supplying them sufficient grain, and if you desire to nourish them by taking milk from me, you should make arrangements to bring a calf suitable for this purpose and a pot in which the milk can be kept, as well as a milkman to do the work. Since I will be very much affectionate towards my calf, your desire to take milk from me will be fulfilled.

VERSE 4.18.11

samāṁ ca kuru māṁ rājan
deva-vṛṣṭaṁ yathā payaḥ
apartāv api bhadraṁ te
upāvarteta me vibho

SYNONYMS

samām — equally level; ca — also; kuru — make; mām — me; rājan — O King; deva-vṛṣṭam — fallen as rain by the mercy of King Indra; yathā — so that; payaḥ — water; apa-ṛtau — when the rainy season has ceased; api — even; bhadram — auspiciousness; te — unto you; upāvarteta — it can remain; me — on me; vibho — O Lord.

TRANSLATION

My dear King, may I inform you that you have to make the entire surface of the globe level. This will help me, even when the rainy season has ceased. Rainfall comes by the mercy of King Indra. Rainfall will remain on the surface of the globe, always keeping the earth moistened, and thus it will be auspicious for all kinds of production.

VERSE 4.18.12

iti priyaṁ hitaṁ vākyaṁ
bhuva ādāya bhūpatiḥ
vatsaṁ kṛtvā manuṁ pāṇāv
aduhat sakalauṣadhīḥ

SYNONYMS

iti — thus; priyam — pleasing; hitam — beneficial; vākyam — words; bhuvaḥ — of the earth; ādāya — taking into consideration; bhū-patiḥ — the King; vatsam — calf; kṛtvā — making; manum — Svāyambhuva Manu; pāṇau — in his hands; aduhat — milked; sakala — all; oṣadhīḥ — herbs and grains.

TRANSLATION

After hearing the auspicious and pleasing words of the planet earth, the King accepted them. He then transformed Svāyambhuva Manu into a calf and milked all the herbs and grains from the earth in the form of a cow, keeping them in his cupped hands.

VERSE 4.18.13

tathāpare ca sarvatra
sāram ādadate budhāḥ
tato ’nye ca yathā-kāmaṁ
duduhuḥ pṛthu-bhāvitām

SYNONYMS

tathā — so; apare — others; ca — also; sarvatra — everywhere; sāram — the essence; ādadate — took; budhāḥ — the intelligent class of men; tataḥ — thereafter; anye — others; ca — also; yathā-kāmam — as much as they desired; duduhuḥ — milked; pṛthu-bhāvitām — the planet earth, controlled by Pṛthu Mahārāja.

TRANSLATION

Others, who were as intelligent as King Pṛthu, also took the essence out of the earthly planet. Indeed, everyone took this opportunity to follow in the footsteps of King Pṛthu and get whatever he desired from the planet earth.

VERSE 4.18.14

ṛṣayo duduhur devīm
indriyeṣv atha sattama
vatsaṁ bṛhaspatiṁ kṛtvā
payaś chandomayaṁ śuci

SYNONYMS

ṛṣayaḥ — the great sages; duduhuḥ — milked; devīm — the earth; indriyeṣu — in the senses; atha — then; sattama — O Vidura; vatsam — the calf; bṛhaspatim — the sage Bṛhaspati; kṛtvā — making; payaḥ — milk; chandaḥ-mayam — in the form of the Vedic hymns; śuci — pure.

TRANSLATION

All the great sages transformed Bṛhaspati into a calf, and making the senses into a pot, they milked all kinds of Vedic knowledge to purify words, mind and hearing.

VERSE 4.18.15

kṛtvā vatsaṁ sura-gaṇā
indraṁ somam adūduhan
hiraṇmayena pātreṇa
vīryam ojo balaṁ payaḥ

SYNONYMS

kṛtvā — making; vatsam — calf; sura-gaṇāḥ — the demigods; indram — Indra, King of heaven; somam — nectar; adūduhan — they milked out; hiraṇmayena — golden; pātreṇa — with a pot; vīryam — mental power; ojaḥ — strength of the senses; balam — strength of the body; payaḥ — milk.

TRANSLATION

All the demigods made Indra, the King of heaven, into a calf, and from the earth they milked the beverage soma, which is nectar. Thus they became very powerful in mental speculation and bodily and sensual strength.

VERSE 4.18.16

daiteyā dānavā vatsaṁ
prahlādam asurarṣabham
vidhāyādūduhan kṣīram
ayaḥ-pātre surāsavam

SYNONYMS

daiteyāḥ — the sons of Diti; dānavāḥ — demons; vatsam — the calf; prahlādam — Prahlāda Mahārāja; asura — demon; ṛṣabham — the chief; vidhāya — making; adūduhan — they milked out; kṣīram — milk; ayaḥ — iron; pātre — in a pot; surā — liquor; āsavam — fermented liquids like beer.

TRANSLATION

The sons of Diti and the demons transformed Prahlāda Mahārāja, who was born in an asura family, into a calf, and they extracted various kinds of liquor and beer, which they put into a pot made of iron.

VERSE 4.18.17

gandharvāpsaraso ’dhukṣan
pātre padmamaye payaḥ
vatsaṁ viśvāvasuṁ kṛtvā
gāndharvaṁ madhu saubhagam

SYNONYMS

gandharva — inhabitants of the Gandharva planet; apsarasaḥ — the inhabitants of the Apsarā planet; adhukṣan — milked out; pātre — in a pot; padma-maye — made of a lotus; payaḥ — milk; vatsam — calf; viśvāvasum — of the name Viśvāvasu; kṛtvā — making; gāndharvam — songs; madhu — sweet; saubhagam — beauty.

TRANSLATION

The inhabitants of Gandharvaloka and Apsaroloka made Viśvāvasu into a calf, and they drew the milk into a lotus-flower pot. The milk took the shape of sweet musical art and beauty.

VERSE 4.18.18

vatsena pitaro ’ryamṇā
kavyaṁ kṣīram adhukṣata
āma-pātre mahā-bhāgāḥ
śraddhayā śrāddha-devatāḥ

SYNONYMS

vatsena — by the calf; pitaraḥ — the inhabitants of Pitṛloka; aryamṇā — by the god of Pitṛloka, Aryamā; kavyam — offerings of food to ancestors; kṣīram — milk; adhukṣata — took out; āma-pātre — into an unbaked earthen pot; mahā-bhāgāḥ — the greatly fortunate; śraddhayā — with great faith; śrāddha-devatāḥ — the demigods presiding over śrāddha ceremonies in honor of deceased relatives.

TRANSLATION

The fortunate inhabitants of Pitṛloka, who preside over the funeral ceremonies, made Aryamā into a calf. With great faith they milked kavya, food offered to the ancestors, into an unbaked earthen pot.

VERSE 4.18.19

prakalpya vatsaṁ kapilaṁ
siddhāḥ saṅkalpanāmayīm
siddhiṁ nabhasi vidyāṁ ca
ye ca vidyādharādayaḥ

SYNONYMS

prakalpya — appointing; vatsam — calf; kapilam — the great sage Kapila; siddhāḥ — the inhabitants of Siddhaloka; saṅkalpanā-mayīm — proceeding from will; siddhim — yogic perfection; nabhasi — in the sky; vidyām — knowledge; ca — also; ye — those who; ca — also; vidyādhara-ādayaḥ — the inhabitants of Vidyādhara-loka, and so on.

TRANSLATION

After this, the inhabitants of Siddhaloka, as well as the inhabitants of Vidyādhara-loka, transformed the great sage Kapila into a calf, and making the whole sky into a pot, they milked out specific yogic mystic powers, beginning with aṇimā. Indeed, the inhabitants of Vidyādhara-loka acquired the art of flying in the sky.

VERSE 4.18.20

anye ca māyino māyām
antardhānādbhutātmanām
mayaṁ prakalpya vatsaṁ te
duduhur dhāraṇāmayīm

SYNONYMS

anye — others; ca — also; māyinaḥ — mystic magicians; māyām — mystic powers; antardhāna — disappearing; adbhuta — wonderful; ātmanām — of the body; mayam — the demon named Maya; prakalpya — making; vatsam — the calf; te — they; duduhuḥ — milked out; dhāraṇāmayīm — proceeding from will.

TRANSLATION

Others also, the inhabitants of planets known as Kimpuruṣa-loka, made the demon Maya into a calf, and they milked out mystic powers by which one can disappear immediately from another’s vision and appear again in a different form.

VERSE 4.18.21

yakṣa-rakṣāṁsi bhūtāni
piśācāḥ piśitāśanāḥ
bhūteśa-vatsā duduhuḥ
kapāle kṣatajāsavam

SYNONYMS

yakṣa — the Yakṣas (the descendants of Kuvera); rakṣāṁsi — the Rākṣasas (meat-eaters); bhūtāni — ghosts; piśācāḥ — witches; piśita-aśanāḥ — who are all habituated to eating flesh; bhūteśa — Lord Śiva’s incarnation Rudra; vatsāḥ — whose calf; duduhuḥ — milked out; kapāle — in a pot of skulls; kṣata-ja — blood; āsavam — a fermented beverage.

TRANSLATION

Then the Yakṣas, Rākṣasas, ghosts and witches, who are habituated to eating flesh, transformed Lord Śiva’s incarnation Rudra [Bhūtanātha] into a calf and milked out beverages made of blood and put them in a pot made of skulls.

VERSE 4.18.22

tathāhayo dandaśūkāḥ
sarpā nāgāś ca takṣakam
vidhāya vatsaṁ duduhur
bila-pātre viṣaṁ payaḥ

SYNONYMS

tathā — similarly; ahayaḥ — snakes without hoods; dandaśūkāḥ — scorpions; sarpāḥ — cobras; nāgāḥ — big snakes; ca — and; takṣakam — Takṣaka, chief of the snakes; vidhāya — making; vatsam — calf; duduhuḥ — milked out; bila-pātre — in the pot of snake holes; viṣam — poison; payaḥ — as milk.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter cobras and snakes without hoods, large snakes, scorpions and many other poisonous animals took poison out of the planet earth as their milk and kept this poison in snake holes. They made a calf out of Takṣaka.

VERSE 4.18.23-24

paśavo yavasaṁ kṣīraṁ
vatsaṁ kṛtvā ca go-vṛṣam
araṇya-pātre cādhukṣan
mṛgendreṇa ca daṁṣṭriṇaḥ

kravyādāḥ prāṇinaḥ kravyaṁ
duduhuḥ sve kalevare
suparṇa-vatsā vihagāś
caraṁ cācaram eva ca

SYNONYMS

paśavaḥ — cattle; yavasam — green grasses; kṣīram — milk; vatsam — the calf; kṛtvā — making; ca — also; go-vṛṣam — the bull carrier of Lord Śiva; araṇya-pātre — in the pot of the forest; ca — also; adhukṣan — milked out; mṛga-indreṇa — by the lion; ca — and; daṁṣṭriṇaḥ — animals with sharp teeth; kravya-adāḥ — animals who eat raw flesh; prāṇinaḥ — living entities; kravyam — flesh; duduhuḥ — took out; sve — own; kalevare — in the pot of their body; suparṇa — Garuḍa; vatsāḥ — whose calf; vihagāḥ — the birds; caram — moving living entities; ca — also; acaram — nonmoving living entities; eva — certainly; ca — also.

TRANSLATION

The four-legged animals like the cows made a calf out of the bull who carries Lord Śiva and made a milking pot out of the forest. Thus they got fresh green grasses to eat. Ferocious animals like tigers transformed a lion into a calf, and thus they were able to get flesh for milk. The birds made a calf out of Garuḍa and took milk from the planet earth in the form of moving insects and nonmoving plants and grasses.

VERSE 4.18.25

vaṭa-vatsā vanaspatayaḥ
pṛthag rasamayaṁ payaḥ
girayo himavad-vatsā
nānā-dhātūn sva-sānuṣu

SYNONYMS

vaṭa-vatsāḥ — making the banyan tree a calf; vanaḥ-patayaḥ — the trees; pṛthak — different; rasa-mayam — in the form of juices; payaḥ — milk; girayaḥ — the hills and mountains; himavat-vatsāḥ — making the Himālayas the calf; nānā — various; dhātūn — minerals; sva — own; sānuṣu — on their peaks.

TRANSLATION

The trees made a calf out of the banyan tree, and thus they derived milk in the form of many delicious juices. The mountains transformed the Himālayas into a calf, and they milked a variety of minerals into a pot made of the peaks of hills.

VERSE 4.18.26

sarve sva-mukhya-vatsena
sve sve pātre pṛthak payaḥ
sarva-kāma-dughāṁ pṛthvīṁ
duduhuḥ pṛthu-bhāvitām

SYNONYMS

sarve — all; sva-mukhya — by their own chiefs; vatsena — as the calf; sve sve — in their own; pātre — pots; pṛthak — different; payaḥ — milk; sarva-kāma — all desirables; dughām — supplying as milk; pṛthvīm — the planet earth; duduhuḥ — milked out; pṛthu-bhāvitām — controlled by King Pṛthu.

TRANSLATION

The planet earth supplied everyone his respective food. During the time of King Pṛthu, the earth was fully under the control of the King. Thus all the inhabitants of the earth could get their food supply by creating various types of calves and putting their particular types of milk in various pots.

VERSE 4.18.27

evaṁ pṛthv-ādayaḥ pṛthvīm
annādāḥ svannam ātmanaḥ
doha-vatsādi-bhedena
kṣīra-bhedaṁ kurūdvaha

SYNONYMS

evam — thus; pṛthu-ādayaḥ — King Pṛthu and others; pṛthvīm — the earth; anna-adāḥ — all living entities desiring food; su-annam — their desired foodstuff; ātmanaḥ — for self-preservation; doha — for milking; vatsa-ādi — by calves, pots and milkers; bhedena — different; kṣīra — milk; bhedam — different; kuru-udvaha — O chief of the Kurus.

TRANSLATION

My dear Vidura, chief of the Kurus, in this way King Pṛthu and all the others who subsist on food created different types of calves and milked out their respective eatables. Thus they received their various foodstuffs, which were symbolized as milk.

VERSE 4.18.28

tato mahīpatiḥ prītaḥ
sarva-kāma-dughāṁ pṛthuḥ
duhitṛtve cakāremāṁ
premṇā duhitṛ-vatsalaḥ

SYNONYMS

tataḥ — thereafter; mahī-patiḥ — the King; prītaḥ — being pleased; sarva-kāma — all desirables; dughām — producing as milk; pṛthuḥ — King Pṛthu; duhitṛtve — treating as his daughter; cakāra — did; imām — unto the planet earth; premṇā — out of affection; duhitṛ-vatsalaḥ — affectionate to his daughter.

TRANSLATION

Thereafter King Pṛthu was very satisfied with the planet earth, for she sufficiently supplied all food to various living entities. Thus he developed an affection for the planet earth, just as if she were his own daughter.

VERSE 4.18.29

cūrṇayan sva-dhanuṣ-koṭyā
giri-kūṭāni rāja-rāṭ
bhū-maṇḍalam idaṁ vainyaḥ
prāyaś cakre samaṁ vibhuḥ

SYNONYMS

cūrṇayan — making into pieces; sva — his own; dhanuḥ-koṭyā — by the power of his bow; giri — of the hills; kūṭāni — the tops; rāja-rāṭ — the emperor; bhū-maṇḍalam — the whole earth; idam — this; vainyaḥ — the son of Vena; prāyaḥ — almost; cakre — made; samam — level; vibhuḥ — the powerful.

TRANSLATION

After this, the king of all kings, Mahārāja Pṛthu, leveled all rough places on the surface of the globe by breaking up the hills with the strength of his bow. By his grace the surface of the globe almost became flat.

VERSE 4.18.30

athāsmin bhagavān vainyaḥ
prajānāṁ vṛttidaḥ pitā
nivāsān kalpayāṁ cakre
tatra tatra yathārhataḥ

SYNONYMS

atha — thus; asmin — on this planet earth; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; vainyaḥ — son of Vena; prajānām — of the citizens; vṛttidaḥ — who supplies employment; pitā — a father; nivāsān — residences; kalpayām — suitable; cakre — make; tatra tatra — here and there; yathā — as; arhataḥ — desirable, suitable.

TRANSLATION

To all the citizens of the state, King Pṛthu was as good as a father. Thus he was visibly engaged in giving them proper subsistence and proper employment for subsistence. After leveling the surface of the globe, he earmarked different places for residential quarters, inasmuch as they were desirable.

VERSE 4.18.31

grāmān puraḥ pattanāni
durgāṇi vividhāni ca
ghoṣān vrajān sa-śibirān
ākarān kheṭa-kharvaṭān

SYNONYMS

grāmān — villages; puraḥ — cities; pattanāni — settlements; durgāṇi — forts; vividhāni — of different varieties; ca — also; ghoṣān — habitations for the milkmen; vrajān — pens for cattle; sa-śibirān — with camps; ākarān — mines; kheṭa — agricultural towns; kharvaṭān — mountain villages.

TRANSLATION

In this way the King founded many types of villages, settlements and towns and built forts, residences for cowherdsmen, stables for the animals, places for the royal camps, mining places, agricultural towns and mountain villages.

VERSE 4.18.32

prāk pṛthor iha naivaiṣā
pura-grāmādi-kalpanā
yathā-sukhaṁ vasanti sma
tatra tatrākutobhayāḥ

SYNONYMS

prāk — before; pṛthoḥ — King Pṛthu; iha — on this planet; na — never; eva — certainly; eṣā — this; pura — of towns; grāma-ādi — of villages, etc; kalpanā — planned arrangement; yathā — as; sukham — convenient; vasanti sma — lived; tatra tatra — here and there; akutaḥ-bhayāḥ — without hesitation.

TRANSLATION

Before the reign of King Pṛthu there was no planned arrangement for different cities, villages, pasturing grounds, etc. Everything was scattered, and everyone constructed his residential quarters according to his own convenience. However, from the time of King Pṛthu, plans were made for towns and villages.