Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 4 Chapter 13
Description of the Descendants of Dhruva Mahārāja
prarūḍha-bhāvo bhagavaty adhokṣaje
praṣṭuṁ punas taṁ viduraḥ pracakrame
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; niśamya — after hearing; kauṣāraviṇā — by the sage Maitreya; upavarṇitam — described; dhruvasya — of Mahārāja Dhruva; vaikuṇṭha-pada — to the abode of Viṣṇu; adhirohaṇam — ascent; prarūḍha — increased; bhāvaḥ — devotional emotion; bhagavati — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; adhokṣaje — who is beyond the reach of direct perception; praṣṭum — to inquire; punaḥ — again; tam — unto Maitreya; viduraḥ — Vidura; pracakrame — attempted.
Sūta Gosvāmī, continuing to speak to all the ṛṣis, headed by Śaunaka, said: After hearing Maitreya Ṛṣi describe Dhruva Mahārāja’s ascent to Lord Viṣṇu’s abode, Vidura became very much enlightened in devotional emotion, and he inquired from Maitreya as follows.
ke te pracetaso nāma
kutra vā satram āsata
viduraḥ uvāca — Vidura inquired; ke — who were; te — they; pracetasaḥ — the Pracetās; nāma — of the name; kasya — whose; apatyāni — sons; su-vrata — O Maitreya, who have taken an auspicious vow; kasya — whose; anvavāye — in the family; prakhyātāḥ — famous; kutra — where; vā — also; satram — the sacrifice; āsata — was performed.
Vidura inquired from Maitreya: O greatly advanced devotee, who were the Pracetās? To which family did they belong? Whose sons were they, and where did they perform the great sacrifices?
yena proktaḥ kriyā-yogaḥ
manye — I think; mahā-bhāgavatam — the greatest of all devotees; nāradam — the sage Nārada; deva — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; darśanam — who met; yena — by whom; proktaḥ — spoken; kriyā-yogaḥ — devotional service; paricaryā — for rendering service; vidhiḥ — the procedure; hareḥ — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Vidura continued: I know that the great sage Nārada is the greatest of all devotees. He has compiled the pāñcarātrika procedure of devotional service and has directly met the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
sva-dharma-śīlaiḥ — executing sacrificial duties; puruṣaiḥ — by the men; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; yajña-pūruṣaḥ — the enjoyer of all sacrifices; ijyamānaḥ — being worshiped; bhaktimatā — by the devotee; nāradena — by Nārada; īritaḥ — described; kila — indeed.
While all the Pracetās were executing religious rituals and sacrificial ceremonies and thus worshiping the Supreme Personality of Godhead for His satisfaction, the great sage Nārada described the transcendental qualities of Dhruva Mahārāja.
yās tā devarṣiṇā tatra
mahyaṁ śuśrūṣave brahman
yāḥ — which; tāḥ — all those; devarṣiṇā — by the great sage Nārada; tatra — there; varṇitāḥ — narrated; bhagavat-kathāḥ — preachings pertaining to the activities of the Lord; mahyam — unto me; śuśrūṣave — very eager to hear; brahman — my dear brāhmaṇa; kārtsnyena — fully; ācaṣṭum arhasi — kindly explain.
My dear brāhmaṇa, how did Nārada Muni glorify the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and what pastimes were described in that meeting? I am very eager to hear of them. Kindly explain fully about that glorification of the Lord.
dhruvasya cotkalaḥ putraḥ
pitari prasthite vanam
maitreyaḥ uvāca — the great sage Maitreya said; dhruvasya — of Dhruva Mahārāja; ca — also; utkalaḥ — Utkala; putraḥ — son; pitari — after the father; prasthite — departed; vanam — for the forest; sārva-bhauma — including all lands; śriyam — opulence; na aicchat — did not desire; adhirāja — royal; āsanam — throne; pituḥ — of the father.
The great sage Maitreya replied: My dear Vidura, when Mahārāja Dhruva departed for the forest, his son, Utkala, did not desire to accept the opulent throne of his father, which was meant for the ruler of all the lands of this planet.
dadarśa loke vitatam
ātmānaṁ lokam ātmani
saḥ — his son Utkala; janmanā — from the very beginning of his birth; upaśānta — very well satisfied; ātmā — soul; niḥsaṅgaḥ — without attachment; sama-darśanaḥ — equipoised; dadarśa — saw; loke — in the world; vitatam — spread; ātmānam — the Supersoul; lokam — all the world; ātmani — in the Supersoul.
From his very birth, Utkala was fully satisfied and unattached to the world. He was equipoised, for he could see everything resting in the Supersoul and the Supersoul present in everyone’s heart.
nātmano ’nyaṁ tadaikṣata
ātmānam — self; brahma — spirit; nirvāṇam — extinction of material existence; pratyastamita — ceased; vigraham — separation; avabodha-rasa — by the mellow of knowledge; eka-ātmyam — oneness; ānandam — bliss; anusantatam — expanded; avyavacchinna — continuous; yoga — by practice of yoga; agni — by the fire; dagdha — burned; karma — fruitive desires; mala — dirty; āśayaḥ — in his mind; svarūpam — constitutional position; avarundhānaḥ — realizing; na — not; ātmanaḥ — than the Supreme Soul; anyam — anything else; tadā — then; aikṣata — saw.
By expansion of his knowledge of the Supreme Brahman, he had already attained liberation from the bondage of the body. This liberation is known as nirvāṇa. He was situated in transcendental bliss, and he continued always in that blissful existence, which expanded more and more. This was possible for him by continual practice of bhakti-yoga, which is compared to fire because it burns away all dirty, material things. He was always situated in his constitutional position of self-realization, and he could not see anything else but the Supreme Lord and himself engaged in discharging devotional service.
lakṣitaḥ pathi bālānāṁ
jaḍa — foolish; andha — blind; badhira — deaf; unmatta — mad; mūka — dumb; ākṛtiḥ — appearance; a-tat — not like that; matiḥ — his intelligence; lakṣitaḥ — he was seen; pathi — on the road; bālānām — by the less intelligent; praśānta — calmed; arciḥ — with flames; iva — like; analaḥ — fire.
Utkala appeared to the less intelligent persons on the road to be foolish, blind, dumb, deaf and mad, although actually he was not so. He remained like fire covered with ashes, without blazing flames.
matvā taṁ jaḍam unmattaṁ
vatsaraṁ bhūpatiṁ cakrur
yavīyāṁsaṁ bhrameḥ sutam
matvā — thinking; tam — Utkala; jaḍam — without intelligence; unmattam — mad; kula-vṛddhāḥ — the elderly members of the family; samantriṇaḥ — with the ministers; vatsaram — Vatsara; bhū-patim — ruler of the world; cakruḥ — they made; yavīyāṁsam — younger; bhrameḥ — of Bhrami; sutam — son.
For this reason the ministers and all the elderly members of the family thought Utkala to be without intelligence and, in fact, mad. Thus his younger brother, named Vatsara, the son of Bhrami, was elevated to the royal throne, and he became king of the world.
puṣpārṇaṁ tigmaketuṁ ca
iṣam ūrjaṁ vasuṁ jayam
svarvīthiḥ — Svarvīthi; vatsarasya — of King Vatsara; iṣṭā — very dear; bhāryā — wife; asūta — gave birth to; ṣaṭ — six; ātmajān — sons; puṣpārṇam — Puṣpārṇa; tigmaketum — Tigmaketu; ca — also; iṣam — Iṣa; ūrjam — Ūrja; vasum — Vasu; jayam — Jaya.
King Vatsara had a very dear wife whose name was Svarvīthi, and she gave birth to six sons, named Puṣpārṇa, Tigmaketu, Iṣa, Ūrja, Vasu and Jaya.
puṣpārṇasya prabhā bhāryā
doṣā ca dve babhūvatuḥ
prātar madhyandinaṁ sāyam
iti hy āsan prabhā-sutāḥ
puṣpārṇasya — of Puṣpārṇa; prabhā — Prabhā; bhāryā — wife; doṣā — Doṣā; ca — also; dve — two; babhūvatuḥ — were; prātaḥ — Prātar; madhyandinam — Madhyandinam; sāyam — Sāyam; iti — thus; hi — certainly; āsan — were; prabhā-sutāḥ — sons of Prabhā.
Puṣpārṇa had two wives, named Prabhā and Doṣā. Prabhā had three sons, named Prātar, Madhyandinam and Sāyam.
pradoṣo niśitho vyuṣṭa
iti doṣā-sutās trayaḥ
vyuṣṭaḥ sutaṁ puṣkariṇyāṁ
pradoṣaḥ — Pradoṣa; niśithaḥ — Niśitha; vyuṣṭaḥ — Vyuṣṭa; iti — thus; doṣā — of Doṣā; sutāḥ — sons; trayaḥ — three; vyuṣṭaḥ — Vyuṣṭa; sutam — son; puṣkariṇyām — in Puṣkariṇī; sarva-tejasam — named Sarvatejā (all-powerful); ādadhe — begot.
Doṣā had three sons — Pradoṣa, Niśitha and Vyuṣṭa. Vyuṣṭa’s wife was named Puṣkariṇī, and she gave birth to a very powerful son named Sarvatejā.
sa cakṣuḥ sutam ākūtyāṁ
patnyāṁ manum avāpa ha
manor asūta mahiṣī
virajān naḍvalā sutān
puruṁ kutsaṁ tritaṁ dyumnaṁ
satyavantam ṛtaṁ vratam
pradyumnaṁ śibim ulmukam
saḥ — he (Sarvatejā); cakṣuḥ — named Cakṣuḥ; sutam — son; ākūtyām — in Ākūti; patnyām — wife; manum — Cākṣuṣa Manu; avāpa — obtained; ha — indeed; manoḥ — of Manu; asūta — gave birth to; mahiṣī — queen; virajān — without passion; naḍvalā — Naḍvalā; sutān — sons; purum — Puru; kutsam — Kutsa; tritam — Trita; dyumnam — Dyumna; satyavantam — Satyavān; ṛtam — Ṛta; vratam — Vrata; agniṣṭomam — Agniṣṭoma; atīrātram — Atīrātra; pradyumnam — Pradyumna; śibim — Śibi; ulmukam — Ulmuka.
Sarvatejā’s wife, Ākūti, gave birth to a son named Cākṣuṣa, who became the sixth Manu at the end of the Manu millennium. Naḍvalā, the wife of Cākṣuṣa Manu, gave birth to the following faultless sons: Puru, Kutsa, Trita, Dyumna, Satyavān, Ṛta, Vrata, Agniṣṭoma, Atīrātra, Pradyumna, Śibi and Ulmuka.
ulmuko ’janayat putrān
puṣkariṇyāṁ ṣaḍ uttamān
aṅgaṁ sumanasaṁ khyātiṁ
kratum aṅgirasaṁ gayam
ulmukaḥ — Ulmuka; ajanayat — begot; putrān — sons; puṣkariṇyām — in Puṣkariṇī, his wife; ṣaṭ — six; uttamān — very good; aṅgam — Aṅga; sumanasam — Sumanā; khyātim — Khyāti; kratum — Kratu; aṅgirasam — Aṅgirā; gayam — Gaya.
Of the twelve sons, Ulmuka begot six sons in his wife Puṣkariṇī. They were all very good sons, and their names were Aṅga, Sumanā, Khyāti, Kratu, Aṅgirā and Gaya.
sunīthāṅgasya yā patnī
suṣuve venam ulbaṇam
yad-dauḥśīlyāt sa rājarṣir
nirviṇṇo niragāt purāt
sunīthā — Sunīthā; aṅgasya — of Aṅga; yā — she who; patnī — the wife; suṣuve — gave birth to; venam — Vena; ulbaṇam — very crooked; yat — whose; dauḥśīlyāt — on account of bad character; saḥ — he; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the saintly King Aṅga; nirviṇṇaḥ — very disappointed; niragāt — went out; purāt — from home.
The wife of Aṅga, Sunīthā, gave birth to a son named Vena, who was very crooked. The saintly King Aṅga was very disappointed with Vena’s bad character, and he left home and kingdom and went out to the forest.
yam aṅga śepuḥ kupitā
vāg-vajrā munayaḥ kila
gatāsos tasya bhūyas te
mamanthur dakṣiṇaṁ karam
arājake tadā loke
dasyubhiḥ pīḍitāḥ prajāḥ
pṛthur ādyaḥ kṣitīśvaraḥ
yam — him (Vena) whom; aṅga — my dear Vidura; śepuḥ — they cursed; kupitāḥ — being angry; vāk-vajrāḥ — whose words are as strong as a thunderbolt; munayaḥ — great sages; kila — indeed; gata-asoḥ tasya — after he died; bhūyaḥ — moreover; te — they; mamanthuḥ — churned; dakṣiṇam — right; karam — hand; arājake — being without a king; tadā — then; loke — the world; dasyubhiḥ — by rogues and thieves; pīḍitāḥ — suffering; prajāḥ — all the citizens; jātaḥ — advented; nārāyaṇa — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; aṁśena — by a partial representation; pṛthuḥ — Pṛthu; ādyaḥ — original; kṣiti-īśvaraḥ — ruler of the world.
My dear Vidura, when great sages curse, their words are as invincible as a thunderbolt. Thus when they cursed King Vena out of anger, he died. After his death, since there was no king, all the rogues and thieves flourished, the kingdom became unregulated, and all the citizens suffered greatly. On seeing this, the great sages took the right hand of Vena as a churning rod, and as a result of their churning, Lord Viṣṇu in His partial representation made His advent as King Pṛthu, the original emperor of the world.
tasya śīla-nidheḥ sādhor
rājñaḥ katham abhūd duṣṭā
prajā yad vimanā yayau
viduraḥ uvāca — Vidura said; tasya — of him (Aṅga); śīla-nidheḥ — reservoir of good characteristics; sādhoḥ — saintly person; brahmaṇyasya — lover of brahminical culture; mahātmanaḥ — great soul; rājñaḥ — of the king; katham — how; abhūt — it was; duṣṭā — bad; prajā — son; yat — by which; vimanāḥ — being indifferent; yayau — he left.
Vidura inquired from the sage Maitreya: My dear brāhmaṇa, King Aṅga was very gentle. He had high character and was a saintly personality and lover of brahminical culture. How is it that such a great soul got a bad son like Vena, because of whom he became indifferent to his kingdom and left it?
kiṁ vāṁho vena uddiśya
kim — why; vā — also; aṁhaḥ — sinful activities; vene — unto Vena; uddiśya — seeing; brahma-daṇḍam — the curse of a brāhmaṇa; ayūyujan — they desired to award; daṇḍa-vrata-dhare — who carries the rod of punishment; rājñi — unto the king; munayaḥ — the great sages; dharma-kovidāḥ — completely conversant with religious principles.
Vidura also inquired: How is it that the great sages, who were completely conversant with religious principles, desired to curse King Vena, who himself carried the rod of punishment, and thus awarded him the greatest punishment [brahma-śāpa]?
prajābhir aghavān api
yad asau loka-pālānāṁ
bibharty ojaḥ sva-tejasā
na — never; avadhyeyaḥ — to be insulted; prajā-pālaḥ — the king; prajābhiḥ — by the citizens; aghavān — ever sinful; api — even though; yat — because; asau — he; loka-pālānām — of many kings; bibharti — maintains; ojaḥ — prowess; sva-tejasā — by personal influence.
It is the duty of all citizens in a state never to insult the king, even though he sometimes appears to have done something very sinful. Because of his prowess, the king is always more influential than all other ruling chiefs.
etad ākhyāhi me brahman
etat — all these; ākhyāhi — please describe; me — unto me; brahman — O great brāhmaṇa; sunīthā-ātmaja — of the son of Sunīthā, Vena; ceṣṭitam — activities; śraddadhānāya — faithful; bhaktāya — unto your devotee; tvam — you; para-avara — with past and future; vit-tamaḥ — well conversant.
Vidura requested Maitreya: My dear brāhmaṇa, you are well conversant with all subjects, both past and future. Therefore I wish to hear from you all the activities of King Vena. I am your faithful devotee, so please explain this.
aṅgo ’śvamedhaṁ rājarṣir
nājagmur devatās tasminn
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Maitreya answered; aṅgaḥ — King Aṅga; aśvamedham — aśvamedha sacrifice; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the saintly king; ājahāra — executed; mahā-kratum — great sacrifice; na — not; ājagmuḥ — came; devatāḥ — the demigods; tasmin — in that sacrifice; āhūtāḥ — being invited; brahma-vādibhiḥ — by the brāhmaṇas expert in executing sacrifices.
Śrī Maitreya replied: My dear Vidura, once the great King Aṅga arranged to perform the great sacrifice known as aśvamedha. All the expert brāhmaṇas present knew how to invite the demigods, but in spite of their efforts, no demigods participated or appeared in that sacrifice.
tam ūcur vismitās tatra
na te gṛhṇanti devatāḥ
tam — unto King Aṅga; ūcuḥ — said; vismitāḥ — in wonder; tatra — there; yajamānam — to the institutor of the sacrifice; atha — then; ṛtvijaḥ — the priests; havīṁṣi — offerings of clarified butter; hūyamānāni — being offered; na — not; te — they; gṛhṇanti — accept; devatāḥ — the demigods.
The priests engaged in the sacrifice then informed King Aṅga: O King, we are properly offering the clarified butter in the sacrifice, but despite all our efforts the demigods do not accept it.
rājan havīṁṣy aduṣṭāni
rājan — O King; havīṁṣi — sacrificial offerings; aduṣṭāni — not polluted; śraddhayā — with great faith and care; āsāditāni — collected; te — your; chandāṁsi — the mantras; ayāta-yāmāni — not deficient; yojitāni — properly executed; dhṛta-vrataiḥ — by qualified brāhmaṇas.
O King, we know that the paraphernalia to perform the sacrifice is well collected by you with great faith and care and is not polluted. Our chanting of the Vedic hymns is also not deficient in any way, for all the brāhmaṇas and priests present here are expert and are executing the performances properly.
na vidāmeha devānāṁ
helanaṁ vayam aṇv api
yan na gṛhṇanti bhāgān svān
ye devāḥ karma-sākṣiṇaḥ
na — not; vidāma — can find; iha — in this connection; devānām — of the demigods; helanam — insult, neglect; vayam — we; aṇu — minute; api — even; yat — because of which; na — not; gṛhṇanti — accept; bhāgān — shares; svān — own; ye — who; devāḥ — the demigods; karma-sākṣiṇaḥ — witnesses for the sacrifice.
Dear King, we do not find any reason that the demigods should feel insulted or neglected in any way, but still the demigods who are witnesses for the sacrifice do not accept their shares. We do not know why this is so.
aṅgo dvija-vacaḥ śrutvā
tat praṣṭuṁ vyasṛjad vācaṁ
maitreyaḥ uvāca — the great sage Maitreya answered; aṅgaḥ — King Aṅga; dvija-vacaḥ — the brāhmaṇas’ words; śrutvā — after hearing; yajamānaḥ — the performer of the sacrifice; sudurmanāḥ — very much aggrieved in mind; tat — about that; praṣṭum — in order to inquire; vyasṛjat vācam — he spoke; sadasyān — to the priests; tat — their; anujñayā — taking permission.
Maitreya explained that King Aṅga, after hearing the statements of the priests, was greatly aggrieved. At that time he took permission from the priests to break his silence and inquired from all the priests who were present in the sacrificial arena.
nāgacchanty āhutā devā
na gṛhṇanti grahān iha
kim avadyaṁ mayā kṛtam
na — not; āgacchanti — are coming; āhutāḥ — being invited; devāḥ — the demigods; na — not; gṛhṇanti — are accepting; grahān — shares; iha — in the sacrifice; sadasaḥ-patayaḥ — my dear priests; brūta — kindly tell me; kim — what; avadyam — offense; mayā — by me; kṛtam — was committed.
King Aṅga addressed the priestly order: My dear priests, kindly tell me what offense I have committed. Although invited, the demigods are neither taking part in the sacrifice nor accepting their shares.
nāghaṁ tāvan manāk sthitam
asty ekaṁ prāktanam aghaṁ
yad ihedṛk tvam aprajaḥ
sadasaḥ-patayaḥ ūcuḥ — the head priests said; nara-deva — O King; iha — in this life; bhavataḥ — of you; na — not; agham — sinful activity; tāvat manāk — even very slight; sthitam — situated; asti — there is; ekam — one; prāktanam — in the previous birth; agham — sinful activity; yat — by which; iha — in this life; īdṛk — like this; tvam — you; aprajaḥ — without any son.
The head priests said: O King, in this life we do not find any sinful activity, even within your mind, so you are not in the least offensive. But we can see that in your previous life you performed sinful activities due to which, in spite of your having all qualifications, you have no son.
tathā sādhaya bhadraṁ te
ātmānaṁ suprajaṁ nṛpa
iṣṭas te putra-kāmasya
putraṁ dāsyati yajña-bhuk
tathā — therefore; sādhaya — execute the sacrifice to get; bhadram — good fortune; te — to you; ātmānam — your own; su-prajam — good son; nṛpa — O King; iṣṭaḥ — being worshiped; te — by you; putra-kāmasya — desiring to have a son; putram — a son; dāsyati — He will deliver; yajña-bhuk — the Lord, the enjoyer of the sacrifice.
O King, we wish all good fortune for you. You have no son, but if you pray at once to the Supreme Lord and ask for a son, and if you execute the sacrifice for that purpose, the enjoyer of the sacrifice, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, will fulfill your desire.
yad yajña-puruṣaḥ sākṣād
apatyāya harir vṛtaḥ
tathā — thereupon; sva-bhāga-dheyāni — their shares in the sacrifice; grahīṣyanti — will accept; diva-okasaḥ — all the demigods; yat — because; yajña-puruṣaḥ — the enjoyer of all sacrifices; sākṣāt — directly; apatyāya — for the purpose of a son; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; vṛtaḥ — is invited.
When Hari, the supreme enjoyer of all sacrifices, is invited to fulfill your desire for a son, all the demigods will come with Him and take their shares in the sacrifice.
tāṁs tān kāmān harir dadyād
yān yān kāmayate janaḥ
tathā puṁsāṁ phalodayaḥ
tān tān — those; kāmān — desired objects; hariḥ — the Lord; dadyāt — will award; yān yān — whatsoever; kāmayate — desires; janaḥ — the person; ārādhitaḥ — being worshiped; yathā — as; eva — certainly; eṣaḥ — the Lord; tathā — similarly; puṁsām — of men; phala-udayaḥ — the result.
The performer of the sacrifices [under karma-kāṇḍa activities] achieves the fulfillment of the desire for which he worships the Lord.
iti vyavasitā viprās
tasya rājñaḥ prajātaye
iti — thus; vyavasitāḥ — having decided; viprāḥ — the brāhmaṇas; tasya — his; rājñaḥ — of the king; prajātaye — for the purpose of getting a son; puroḍāśam — the paraphernalia of sacrifice; niravapan — offered; śipi-viṣṭāya — to the Lord, who is situated in the sacrificial fire; viṣṇave — to Lord Viṣṇu.
Thus for the sake of a son for King Aṅga, they decided to offer oblations to Lord Viṣṇu, who is situated in the hearts of all living entities.
tasmāt puruṣa uttasthau
siddham ādāya pāyasam
tasmāt — from that fire; puruṣaḥ — a person; uttasthau — appeared; hema-mālī — with a golden garland; amala-ambaraḥ — in white garments; hiraṇmayena — golden; pātreṇa — with a pot; siddham — cooked; ādāya — carrying; pāyasam — rice boiled in milk.
As soon as the oblation was offered in the fire, a person appeared from the fire altar wearing a golden garland and a white dress. He was carrying a golden pot filled with rice boiled in milk.
sa viprānumato rājā
avaghrāya mudā yuktaḥ
prādāt patnyā udāra-dhīḥ
saḥ — he; vipra — of the brāhmaṇas; anumataḥ — taking permission; rājā — the King; gṛhītvā — taking; añjalinā — in his joined palms; odanam — rice boiled in milk; avaghrāya — after smelling; mudā — with great delight; yuktaḥ — fixed; prādāt — offered; patnyai — to his wife; udāra-dhīḥ — liberal-minded.
The King was very liberal, and after taking permission from the priests, he took the preparation in his joined palms, and after smelling it he offered a portion to his wife.
sā tat puṁ-savanaṁ rājñī
prāśya vai patyur ādadhe
garbhaṁ kāla upāvṛtte
kumāraṁ suṣuve ’prajā
sā — she; tat — that food; pum-savanam — which produces a male child; rājñī — the Queen; prāśya — eating; vai — indeed; patyuḥ — from the husband; ādadhe — conceived; garbham — pregnancy; kāle — when the due time; upāvṛtte — appeared; kumāram — a son; suṣuve — gave birth to; aprajā — having no son.
Although the Queen had no son, after eating that food, which had the power to produce a male child, she became pregnant by her husband, and in due course of time she gave birth to a son.
sa bāla eva puruṣo
saḥ — that; bālaḥ — child; eva — certainly; puruṣaḥ — male; mātā-maham — maternal grandfather; anuvrataḥ — a follower of; adharma — of irreligion; aṁśa — from a portion; udbhavam — who appeared; mṛtyum — death; tena — by this; abhavat — he became; adhārmikaḥ — irreligious.
That boy was born partially in the dynasty of irreligion. His grandfather was death personified, and the boy grew up as his follower; he became a greatly irreligious person.
sa śarāsanam udyamya
hanty asādhur mṛgān dīnān
veno ’sāv ity arauj janaḥ
saḥ — that boy of the name Vena; śarāsanam — his bow; udyamya — taking up; mṛgayuḥ — the hunter; vana-gocaraḥ — going into the forest; hanti — used to kill; asādhuḥ — being very cruel; mṛgān — deer; dīnān — poor; venaḥ — Vena; asau — there he is; iti — thus; araut — would cry; janaḥ — all the people.
After fixing his bow and arrow, the cruel boy used to go to the forest and unnecessarily kill innocent deer, and as soon as he came all the people would cry, “Here comes cruel Vena! Here comes cruel Vena!”
ākrīḍe krīḍato bālān
ākrīḍe — in the playground; krīḍataḥ — while playing; bālān — boys; vayasyān — of his age; ati-dāruṇaḥ — very cruel; prasahya — by force; niranukrośaḥ — merciless; paśu-māram — as if slaughtering animals; amārayat — killed.
The boy was so cruel that while playing with young boys of his age he would kill them very mercilessly, as if they were animals meant for slaughter.
taṁ vicakṣya khalaṁ putraṁ
śāsanair vividhair nṛpaḥ
yadā na śāsituṁ kalpo
bhṛśam āsīt sudurmanāḥ
tam — him; vicakṣya — observing; khalam — cruel; putram — son; śāsanaiḥ — by punishments; vividhaiḥ — different kinds of; nṛpaḥ — the King; yadā — when; na — not; śāsitum — to bring under control; kalpaḥ — was able; bhṛśam — greatly; āsīt — became; su-durmanāḥ — aggrieved.
After seeing the cruel and merciless behavior of his son, Vena, King Aṅga punished him in different ways to reform him, but was unable to bring him to the path of gentleness. He thus became greatly aggrieved.
ye ’prajā gṛha-medhinaḥ
ye na vindanti durbharam
prāyeṇa — probably; abhyarcitaḥ — was worshiped; devaḥ — the Lord; ye — they who; aprajāḥ — without a son; gṛha-medhinaḥ — persons living at home; kad-apatya — by a bad son; bhṛtam — caused; duḥkham — unhappiness; ye — they who; na — not; vindanti — suffer; durbharam — unbearable.
The King thought to himself: Persons who have no son are certainly fortunate. They must have worshiped the Lord in their previous lives so that they would not have to suffer the unbearable unhappiness caused by a bad son.
yataḥ pāpīyasī kīrtir
adharmaś ca mahān nṛṇām
yato virodhaḥ sarveṣāṁ
yata ādhir anantakaḥ
yataḥ — on account of a bad son; pāpīyasī — sinful; kīrtiḥ — reputation; adharmaḥ — irreligion; ca — also; mahān — great; nṛṇām — of men; yataḥ — from which; virodhaḥ — quarrel; sarveṣām — of all people; yataḥ — from which; ādhiḥ — anxiety; anantakaḥ — endless.
A sinful son causes a person’s reputation to vanish. His irreligious activities at home cause irreligion and quarrel among everyone, and this creates only endless anxiety.
kas taṁ prajāpadeśaṁ vai
paṇḍito bahu manyeta
yad-arthāḥ kleśadā gṛhāḥ
kaḥ — who; tam — him; prajā-apadeśam — son in name only; vai — certainly; moha — of illusion; bandhanam — bondage; ātmanaḥ — for the soul; paṇḍitaḥ — intelligent man; bahu manyeta — would value; yat-arthāḥ — because of whom; kleśa-dāḥ — painful; gṛhāḥ — home.
Who, if he is considerate and intelligent, would desire such a worthless son? Such a son is nothing but a bond of illusion for the living entity, and he makes one’s home miserable.
kad-apatyaṁ varaṁ manye
sad-apatyāc chucāṁ padāt
nirvidyeta gṛhān martyo
kad-apatyam — bad son; varam — better; manye — I think; sat-apatyāt — than a good son; śucām — of grief; padāt — the source; nirvidyeta — becomes detached; gṛhāt — from home; martyaḥ — a mortal man; yat — because of whom; kleśa-nivahāḥ — hellish; gṛhāḥ — home.
Then the King thought: A bad son is better than a good son because a good son creates an attachment for home, whereas a bad son does not. A bad son creates a hellish home from which an intelligent man naturally becomes very easily detached.
evaṁ sa nirviṇṇa-manā nṛpo gṛhān
niśītha utthāya mahodayodayāt
alabdha-nidro ’nupalakṣito nṛbhir
hitvā gato vena-suvaṁ prasuptām
evam — thus; saḥ — he; nirviṇṇa-manāḥ — being indifferent in mind; nṛpaḥ — King Aṅga; gṛhāt — from home; niśīthe — in the dead of night; utthāya — getting up; mahā-udaya-udayāt — opulent by the blessings of great souls; alabdha-nidraḥ — being without sleep; anupalakṣitaḥ — without being seen; nṛbhiḥ — by people in general; hitvā — giving up; gataḥ — went off; vena-suvam — the mother of Vena; prasuptām — sleeping deeply.
Thinking like that, King Aṅga could not sleep at night. He became completely indifferent to household life. Once, therefore, in the dead of night, he got up from bed and left Vena’s mother [his wife], who was sleeping deeply. He gave up all attraction for his greatly opulent kingdom, and, unseen by anyone, he very silently gave up his home and opulence and proceeded towards the forest.
vijñāya nirvidya gataṁ patiṁ prajāḥ
vicikyur urvyām atiśoka-kātarā
yathā nigūḍhaṁ puruṣaṁ kuyoginaḥ
vijñāya — after understanding; nirvidya — being indifferent; gatam — had left; patim — the King; prajāḥ — all the citizens; purohita — priests; amātya — ministers; suhṛt — friends; gaṇa-ādayaḥ — and people in general; vicikyuḥ — searched; urvyām — on the earth; ati-śoka-kātarāḥ — being greatly aggrieved; yathā — just as; nigūḍham — concealed; puruṣam — the Supersoul; ku-yoginaḥ — inexperienced mystics.
When it was understood that the King had indifferently left home, all the citizens, priests, ministers, friends, and people in general were greatly aggrieved. They began to search for him all over the world, just as a less experienced mystic searches out the Supersoul within himself.
alakṣayantaḥ padavīṁ prajāpater
hatodyamāḥ pratyupasṛtya te purīm
ṛṣīn sametān abhivandya sāśravo
nyavedayan paurava bhartṛ-viplavam
alakṣayantaḥ — not finding; padavīm — any trace; prajāpateḥ — of King Aṅga; hata-udyamāḥ — having become disappointed; pratyupasṛtya — after returning; te — those citizens; purīm — to the city; ṛṣīn — the great sages; sametān — assembled; abhivandya — after making respectful obeisances; sa-aśravaḥ — with tears in their eyes; nyavedayan — informed; paurava — O Vidura; bhartṛ — of the King; viplavam — the absence.
When the citizens could not find any trace of the King after searching for him everywhere, they were very disappointed, and they returned to the city, where all the great sages of the country assembled because of the King’s absence. With tears in their eyes the citizens offered respectful obeisances and informed the sages in full detail that they were unable to find the King anywhere.