Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 3 Chapter 5
Vidura’s Talks with Maitreya
dvāri dyu-nadyā ṛṣabhaḥ kurūṇāṁ
maitreyam āsīnam agādha-bodham
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; dvāri — at the source of; dyu-nadyāḥ — the celestial river Ganges; ṛṣabhaḥ — the best of the Kurus; kurūṇām — of the Kurus; maitreyam — unto Maitreya; āsīnam — sitting; agādha-bodham — of unfathomed knowledge; kṣattā — Vidura; upasṛtya — having approached nearer; acyuta — the infallible Lord; bhāva — character; siddhaḥ — perfect; papraccha — inquired; sauśīlya — gentleness; guṇa-abhitṛptaḥ — satisfied in transcendental qualities.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Vidura, the best amongst the Kuru dynasty, who was perfect in devotional service to the Lord, thus reached the source of the celestial Ganges river [Hardwar], where Maitreya, the great, fathomless learned sage of the world, was seated. Vidura, who was perfect in gentleness and satisfied in transcendence, inquired from him.
sukhāya karmāṇi karoti loko
na taiḥ sukhaṁ vānyad-upāramaṁ vā
vindeta bhūyas tata eva duḥkhaṁ
yad atra yuktaṁ bhagavān vaden naḥ
viduraḥ uvāca — Vidura said; sukhāya — for attaining happiness; karmāṇi — fruitive activities; karoti — everyone does so; lokaḥ — in this world; na — never; taiḥ — by those activities; sukham — any happiness; vā — or; anyat — differently; upāramam — satiation; vā — either; vindeta — achieves; bhūyaḥ — on the contrary; tataḥ — by such activities; eva — certainly; duḥkham — miseries; yat — that which; atra — under the circumstances; yuktam — right course; bhagavān — O great one; vadet — may kindly enlighten; naḥ — us.
Vidura said: O great sage, everyone in this world engages in fruitive activities to attain happiness, but one finds neither satiation nor the mitigation of distress. On the contrary, one is only aggravated by such activities. Please, therefore, give us directions on how one should live for real happiness.
janasya kṛṣṇād vimukhasya daivād
anugrahāyeha caranti nūnaṁ
bhūtāni bhavyāni janārdanasya
janasya — of the common man; kṛṣṇāt — from the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa; vimukhasya — of the one who has turned his face against the Lord; daivāt — by the influence of external energy; adharma-śīlasya — of one who is engaged in irreligion; su-duḥkhitasya — of one who is always unhappy; anugrahāya — due to being compassionate towards them; iha — in this world; caranti — wander; nūnam — certainly; bhūtāni — persons; bhavyāni — great philanthropic souls; janārdanasya — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
O my lord, great philanthropic souls travel on the earth on behalf of the Supreme Personality of Godhead to show compassion to the fallen souls who are averse to the sense of subordination to the Lord.
tat sādhu-varyādiśa vartma śaṁ naḥ
saṁrādhito bhagavān yena puṁsām
hṛdi sthito yacchati bhakti-pūte
jñānaṁ sa-tattvādhigamaṁ purāṇam
tat — therefore; sādhu-varya — O great one amongst the saints; ādiśa — please instruct; vartma — the path; śam — auspicious; naḥ — for us; saṁrādhitaḥ — being perfectly served; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; yena — by which; puṁsām — of the living entity; hṛdi sthitaḥ — residing in the heart; yacchati — awards; bhakti-pūte — unto the unalloyed devotee; jñānam — knowledge; sa — that; tattva — truth; adhigamam — by which one learns; purāṇam — authorized, old.
Therefore, O great sage, please give me instruction on the transcendental devotional service of the Lord, so that He who is situated in the heart of everyone can be pleased to impart, from within, knowledge of the Absolute Truth in terms of the ancient Vedic principles delivered only to those who are purified by the process of devotional service.
karoti karmāṇi kṛtāvatāro
yāny ātma-tantro bhagavāṁs tryadhīśaḥ
yathā sasarjāgra idaṁ nirīhaḥ
saṁsthāpya vṛttiṁ jagato vidhatte
karoti — does them; karmāṇi — transcendental activities; kṛta — by accepting; avatāraḥ — incarnations; yāni — all those; ātma-tantraḥ — Self-independent; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; tri-adhīśaḥ — the Lord of the three worlds; yathā — as much as; sasarja — created; agre — at first; idam — this cosmic manifestation; nirīhaḥ — although desireless; saṁsthāpya — by establishing; vṛttim — means of livelihood; jagataḥ — of the universes; vidhatte — as He regulates.
O great sage, kindly narrate how the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the independent, desireless Lord of the three worlds and the controller of all energies, accepts incarnations and creates the cosmic manifestation with perfectly arranged regulative principles for its maintenance.
yathā punaḥ sve kha idaṁ niveśya
śete guhāyāṁ sa nivṛtta-vṛttiḥ
yogeśvarādhīśvara eka etad
anupraviṣṭo bahudhā yathāsīt
yathā — as much as; punaḥ — again; sve — in His; khe — form of space (virāṭ-rūpa); idam — this; niveśya — entering into; śete — lies down; guhāyām — within the universe; saḥ — He (the Personality of Godhead); nivṛtta — without endeavor; vṛttiḥ — means of livelihood; yoga-īśvara — the master of all mystic powers; adhīśvaraḥ — proprietor of everything; ekaḥ — one without a second; etat — this; anupraviṣṭaḥ — entering afterwards; bahudhā — by innumerable; yathā — as much as; āsīt — exists.
He lies down on His own heart spread in the form of the sky, and thus placing the whole creation in that space, He expands Himself into many living entities, which are manifested as different species of life. He does not have to endeavor for His maintenance, because He is the master of all mystic powers and the proprietor of everything. Thus He is distinct from the living entities.
krīḍan vidhatte dvija-go-surāṇāṁ
kṣemāya karmāṇy avatāra-bhedaiḥ
mano na tṛpyaty api śṛṇvatāṁ naḥ
krīḍan — manifesting pastimes; vidhatte — He performs; dvija — twice-born; go — cows; surāṇām — of the demigods; kṣemāya — welfare; karmāṇi — transcendental activities; avatāra — incarnations; bhedaiḥ — differently; manaḥ — mind; na — never; tṛpyati — satisfies; api — in spite of; śṛṇvatām — continuously hearing; naḥ — our; su-śloka — auspicious; mauleḥ — of the Lord; carita — characteristics; amṛtāni — undying.
You may narrate also about the auspicious characteristics of the Lord in His different incarnations for the welfare of the twice-born, the cows and the demigods. Our minds are never satisfied completely, although we continuously hear of His transcendental activities.
yais tattva-bhedair adhiloka-nātho
lokān alokān saha lokapālān
acīkḷpad yatra hi sarva-sattva-
nikāya-bhedo ’dhikṛtaḥ pratītaḥ
yaiḥ — by whom; tattva — truth; bhedaiḥ — by differentiation; adhiloka-nāthaḥ — the King of the kings; lokān — planets; alokān — planets of the lower region; saha — along with; loka-pālān — respective kings; acīkḷpat — planned; yatra — wherein; hi — certainly; sarva — all; sattva — existence; nikāya — living entities; bhedaḥ — difference; adhikṛtaḥ — occupied; pratītaḥ — it so appears.
The Supreme King of all kings has created different planets and places of habitation where living entities are situated in terms of the modes of nature and work, and He has created their different kings and rulers.
yena prajānām uta ātma-karma-
rūpābhidhānāṁ ca bhidāṁ vyadhatta
nārāyaṇo viśvasṛg ātma-yonir
etac ca no varṇaya vipra-varya
yena — by which; prajānām — of those who are born; uta — as also; ātma-karma — destined engagement; rūpa — form and feature; abhidhānām — endeavors; ca — also; bhidām — differentiation; vyadhatta — dispersed; nārāyaṇaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; viśvasṛk — the creator of the universe; ātma-yoniḥ — self-sufficient; etat — all these; ca — also; naḥ — unto us; varṇaya — describe; vipra-varya — O chief amongst the brāhmaṇas.
O chief amongst the brāhmaṇas, please also describe how Nārāyaṇa, the creator of the universe and the self-sufficient Lord, has differently created the natures, activities, forms, features and names of the different living creatures.
parāvareṣāṁ bhagavan vratāni
śrutāni me vyāsa-mukhād abhīkṣṇam
teṣām ṛte kṛṣṇa-kathāmṛtaughāt
para — higher; avareṣām — of these lower; bhagavan — O my lord, O great one; vratāni — occupations; śrutāni — heard; me — by me; vyāsa — Vyāsa; mukhāt — from the mouth; abhīkṣṇam — repeatedly; atṛpnuma — I am satisfied; kṣulla — little; sukha-āvahānām — that which causes happiness; teṣām — out of that; ṛte — without; kṛṣṇa-kathā — talks about the Personality of Godhead, Lord Kṛṣṇa; amṛta-oghāt — from the nectar.
O my lord, I have repeatedly heard about these higher and lower statuses of human society from the mouth of Vyāsadeva, and I am quite satiated with all these lesser subject matters and their happiness. They have not satisfied me with the nectar of topics about Kṛṣṇa.
kas tṛpnuyāt tīrtha-pado ’bhidhānāt
satreṣu vaḥ sūribhir īḍyamānāt
yaḥ karṇa-nāḍīṁ puruṣasya yāto
bhava-pradāṁ geha-ratiṁ chinatti
kaḥ — who is that man; tṛpnuyāt — that can be satisfied; tīrtha-padaḥ — whose lotus feet are all the places of pilgrimage; abhidhānāt — from the talks of; satreṣu — in human society; vaḥ — one who is; sūribhiḥ — by great devotees; īḍyamānāt — one who is so worshiped; yaḥ — who; karṇa-nāḍīm — in the holes of the ears; puruṣasya — of a man; yātaḥ — entering; bhava-pradām — that which awards births and deaths; geha-ratim — family affection; chinatti — is cut off.
Who in human society can be satisfied without hearing sufficient talk of the Lord, whose lotus feet are the sum total of all places of pilgrimage and who is worshiped by great sages and devotees? Such topics can cut off one’s bondage to family affection simply by entering the holes of one’s ears.
munir vivakṣur bhagavad-guṇānāṁ
sakhāpi te bhāratam āha kṛṣṇaḥ
yasmin nṛṇāṁ grāmya-sukhānuvādair
matir gṛhītā nu hareḥ kathāyām
muniḥ — the sage; vivakṣuḥ — described; bhagavat — of the Personality of Godhead; guṇānām — transcendental qualities; sakhā — friend; api — also; te — your; bhāratam — the Mahābhārata; āha — has described; kṛṣṇaḥ — Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa; yasmin — in which; nṛṇām — of the people; grāmya — worldly; sukha-anuvādaiḥ — pleasure derived from mundane topics; matiḥ — attention; gṛhītā nu — just to draw towards; hareḥ — of the Lord; kathāyām — speeches of (Bhagavad-gītā).
Your friend the great sage Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana Vyāsa has already described the transcendental qualities of the Lord in his great work the Mahābhārata. But the whole idea is to draw the attention of the mass of people to kṛṣṇa-kathā [Bhagavad-gītā] through their strong affinity for hearing mundane topics.
sā śraddadhānasya vivardhamānā
viraktim anyatra karoti puṁsaḥ
samasta-duḥkhāpyayam āśu dhatte
sā — those topics of Kṛṣṇa, or kṛṣṇa-kathā; śraddadhānasya — of one who is anxious to hear; vivardhamānā — gradually increasing; viraktim — indifference; anyatra — in other things (than such topics); karoti — does; puṁsaḥ — of one who is so engaged; hareḥ — of the Lord; pada-anusmṛti — constant remembrance of the lotus feet of the Lord; nirvṛtasya — one who has achieved such transcendental bliss; samasta-duḥkha — all miseries; apyayam — vanquished; āśu — without delay; dhatte — executes.
For one who is anxious to engage constantly in hearing such topics, kṛṣṇa-kathā gradually increases his indifference towards all other things. Such constant remembrance of the lotus feet of Lord Kṛṣṇa by the devotee who has achieved transcendental bliss vanquishes all his miseries without delay.
tāñ chocya-śocyān avido ’nuśoce
hareḥ kathāyāṁ vimukhān aghena
kṣiṇoti devo ’nimiṣas tu yeṣām
tān — all those; śocya — pitiable; śocyān — of the pitiable; avidaḥ — ignorant; anuśoce — I pity; hareḥ — of the Lord; kathāyām — to the topics of; vimukhān — averse; aghena — because of sinful activities; kṣiṇoti — decaying; devaḥ — the Lord; animiṣaḥ — eternal time; tu — but; yeṣām — of whom; āyuḥ — duration of life; vṛthā — uselessly; vāda — philosophical speculations; gati — ultimate goal; smṛtīnām — of those following different rituals.
O sage, persons who because of their sinful activities are averse to the topics of Transcendence and thus ignorant of the purpose of the Mahābhārata [Bhagavad-gītā] are pitied by the pitiable. I also pity them because I see how their duration of life is spoiled by eternal time while they involve themselves in presentations of philosophical speculation, theoretical ultimate goals of life, and different modes of ritual.
tad asya kauṣārava śarma-dātur
hareḥ kathām eva kathāsu sāram
uddhṛtya puṣpebhya ivārta-bandho
śivāya naḥ kīrtaya tīrtha-kīrteḥ
tat — therefore; asya — His; kauṣārava — O Maitreya; śarma-dātuḥ — of one who awards good fortune; hareḥ — of the Lord; kathām — topics; eva — only; kathāsu — of all topics; sāram — the essence; uddhṛtya — by quoting; puṣpebhyaḥ — from the flowers; iva — like that; ārta-bandho — O friend of the distressed; śivāya — for welfare; naḥ — of us; kīrtaya — kindly describe; tīrtha — pilgrimage; kīrteḥ — of glorious.
O Maitreya, O friend of the distressed, the glories of the Supreme Lord can alone do good for people all over the world. Therefore, just as bees collect honey from flowers, kindly describe the essence of all topics — the topics of the Lord.
cakāra karmāṇy atipūruṣāṇi
yānīśvaraḥ kīrtaya tāni mahyam
saḥ — the Personality of Godhead; viśva — universe; janma — creation; sthiti — maintenance; saṁyama-arthe — with a view to perfect control; kṛta — accepted; avatāraḥ — incarnation; pragṛhīta — accomplished with; śaktiḥ — potency; cakāra — performed; karmāṇi — transcendental activities; ati-pūruṣāṇi — superhuman; yāni — all those; īśvaraḥ — the Lord; kīrtaya — please chant; tāni — all those; mahyam — unto me.
Kindly chant all those superhuman transcendental activities of the supreme controller, the Personality of Godhead, who accepted incarnations fully equipped with all potency for the full manifestation and maintenance of the cosmic creation.
sa evaṁ bhagavān pṛṣṭaḥ
kṣattrā kauṣāravo muniḥ
tam āha bahu-mānayan
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; saḥ — he; evam — thus; bhagavān — the great sage; pṛṣṭaḥ — being requested; kṣattrā — by Vidura; kauṣāravaḥ — Maitreya; muniḥ — the great sage; puṁsām — for all people; niḥśreyasa — for the greatest welfare; arthena — for that; tam — unto him; āha — narrated; bahu — greatly; mānayan — honoring.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: The great sage Maitreya Muni, after honoring Vidura very greatly, began to speak, at Vidura’s request, for the greatest welfare of all people.
sādhu pṛṣṭaṁ tvayā sādho
lokān sādhv anugṛhṇatā
kīrtiṁ vitanvatā loke
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Śrī Maitreya said; sādhu — all good; pṛṣṭam — I am asked; tvayā — by you; sādho — O good one; lokān — all the people; sādhu anugṛhṇatā — showing mercy in goodness; kīrtim — glories; vitanvatā — broadcasting; loke — in the world; ātmanaḥ — of the self; adhokṣaja — the Transcendence; ātmanaḥ — mind.
Śrī Maitreya said: O Vidura, all glory unto you. You have inquired from me of the greatest of all goodness, and thus you have shown your mercy both to the world and to me because your mind is always absorbed in thoughts of the Transcendence.
naitac citraṁ tvayi kṣattar
yat tvayā harir īśvaraḥ
na — never; etat — such inquiries; citram — very wonderful; tvayi — in you; kṣattaḥ — O Vidura; bādarāyaṇa — of Vyāsadeva; vīrya-je — born from the semen; gṛhītaḥ — accepted; ananya-bhāvena — without deviation from the thought; yat — because; tvayā — by you; hariḥ — the Personality of Godhead; īśvaraḥ — the Lord.
O Vidura, it is not at all wonderful that you have so accepted the Lord without deviation of thought, for you were born from the semen of Vyāsadeva.
bhrātuḥ kṣetre bhujiṣyāyāṁ
māṇḍavya — the great ṛṣi Māṇḍavya Muni; śāpāt — by his curse; bhagavān — the greatly powerful; prajā — one who is born; saṁyamanaḥ — controller of death; yamaḥ — known as Yamarāja; bhrātuḥ — of the brother; kṣetre — in the wife; bhujiṣyāyām — kept; jātaḥ — born; satyavatī — Satyavatī (the mother of both Vicitravīrya and Vyāsadeva); sutāt — by the son (Vyāsadeva).
I know that you are now Vidura due to the cursing of Māṇḍavya Muni and that formerly you were King Yamarāja, the great controller of living entities after their death. You were begotten by the son of Satyavatī, Vyāsadeva, in the kept wife of his brother.
bhavān bhagavato nityaṁ
sammataḥ sānugasya ha
mādiśad bhagavān vrajan
bhavān — your good self; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; nityam — eternal; sammataḥ — recognized; sa-anugasya — one of the associates; ha — have been; yasya — of whom; jñāna — knowledge; upadeśāya — for instructing; mā — unto me; ādiśat — so ordered; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; vrajan — while returning to His abode.
Your good self is one of the eternal associates of the Supreme Personality of Godhead for whose sake the Lord, while going back to His abode, left instructions with me.
atha te bhagaval-līlā
atha — therefore; te — unto you; bhagavat — pertaining to the Personality of Godhead; līlāḥ — pastimes; yoga-māyā — energy of the Lord; uru — greatly; bṛṁhitāḥ — extended by; viśva — of the cosmic world; sthiti — maintenance; udbhava — creation; anta — dissolution; arthāḥ — purpose; varṇayāmi — I shall describe; anupūrvaśaḥ — systematically.
I shall therefore describe to you the pastimes by which the Personality of Godhead extends His transcendental potency for the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic world as they occur one after another.
bhagavān eka āsedam
agra ātmātmanāṁ vibhuḥ
bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; ekaḥ — one without a second; āsa — was there; idam — this creation; agre — prior to the creation; ātmā — in His own form; ātmanām — of the living entities; vibhuḥ — master; ātmā — Self; icchā — desire; anugatau — being merged in; ātmā — Self; nānā-mati — different vision; upalakṣaṇaḥ — symptoms.
The Personality of Godhead, the master of all living entities, existed prior to the creation as one without a second. It is by His will only that creation is made possible and again everything merges in Him. This Supreme Self is symptomized by different names.
sa vā eṣa tadā draṣṭā
nāpaśyad dṛśyam ekarāṭ
mene ’santam ivātmānaṁ
saḥ — the Personality of Godhead; vā — either; eṣaḥ — all these; tadā — at that time; draṣṭā — the seer; na — did not; apaśyat — see; dṛśyam — the cosmic creation; eka-rāṭ — undisputed proprietor; mene — thought like this; asantam — nonexistent; iva — like that; ātmānam — plenary manifestations; supta — unmanifested; śaktiḥ — material energy; asupta — manifested; dṛk — internal potency.
The Lord, the undisputed proprietor of everything, was the only seer. The cosmic manifestation was not present at that time, and thus He felt imperfect without His plenary and separated parts and parcels. The material energy was dormant, whereas the internal potency was manifested.
sā vā etasya saṁdraṣṭuḥ
māyā nāma mahā-bhāga
yayedaṁ nirmame vibhuḥ
sā — that external energy; vā — is either; etasya — of the Lord; saṁdraṣṭuḥ — of the perfect seer; śaktiḥ — energy; sat-asat-ātmikā — as both the cause and the effect; māyā nāma — called by the name māyā; mahā-bhāga — O fortunate one; yayā — by which; idam — this material world; nirmame — constructed; vibhuḥ — the Almighty.
The Lord is the seer, and the external energy, which is seen, works as both cause and effect in the cosmic manifestation. O greatly fortunate Vidura, this external energy is known as māyā or illusion, and through her agency only is the entire material manifestation made possible.
kāla-vṛttyā tu māyāyāṁ
vīryam ādhatta vīryavān
kāla — the eternal time; vṛttyā — by the influence of; tu — but; māyāyām — in the external energy; guṇa-mayyām — in the qualitative modes of nature; adhokṣajaḥ — the Transcendence; puruṣeṇa — by the puruṣa incarnation; ātma-bhūtena — who is the plenary expansion of the Lord; vīryam — the seeds of the living entities; ādhatta — impregnated; vīryavān — the Supreme Living Being.
The Supreme Living Being in His feature as the transcendental puruṣa incarnation, who is the Lord’s plenary expansion, impregnates the material nature of three modes, and thus by the influence of eternal time the living entities appear.
tato ’bhavan mahat-tattvam
viśvaṁ vyañjaṁs tamo-nudaḥ
tataḥ — thereafter; abhavat — came into existence; mahat — supreme; tattvam — sum total; avyaktāt — from the unmanifested; kāla-coditāt — by the interaction of time; vijñāna-ātmā — unalloyed goodness; ātma-deha-stham — situated on the bodily self; viśvam — complete universes; vyañjan — manifesting; tamaḥ-nudaḥ — the supreme light.
Thereafter, influenced by the interactions of eternal time, the supreme sum total of matter, called the mahat-tattva, became manifested, and in this mahat-tattva the unalloyed goodness, the Supreme Lord, sowed the seeds of universal manifestation out of His own body.
so ’py aṁśa-guṇa-kālātmā
ātmānaṁ vyakarod ātmā
saḥ — mahat-tattva; api — also; aṁśa — puruṣa plenary expansion; guṇa — chiefly the quality of ignorance; kāla — the duration of time; ātmā — full consciousness; bhagavat — the Personality of Godhead; dṛṣṭi-gocaraḥ — range of sight; ātmānam — many different forms; vyakarot — differentiated; ātmā — reservoir; viśvasya — the would-be entities; asya — of this; sisṛkṣayā — generates the false ego.
Thereafter the mahat-tattva differentiated itself into many different forms as the reservoir of the would-be entities. The mahat-tattva is chiefly in the mode of ignorance, and it generates the false ego. It is a plenary expansion of the Personality of Godhead, with full consciousness of creative principles and time for fructification.
vaikārikas taijasaś ca
tāmasaś cety ahaṁ tridhā
mahat — the great; tattvāt — from the causal truth; vikurvāṇāt — being transformed; aham — false ego; tattvam — material truth; vyajāyata — became manifested; kārya — effects; kāraṇa — cause; kartṛ — doer; ātmā — soul or source; bhūta — material ingredients; indriya — senses; manaḥ-mayaḥ — hovering on the mental plane; vaikārikaḥ — the mode of goodness; taijasaḥ — the mode of passion; ca — and; tāmasaḥ — the mode of ignorance; ca — and; iti — thus; aham — false ego; tridhā — three kinds.
Mahat-tattva, or the great causal truth, transforms into false ego, which is manifested in three phases — cause, effect and the doer. All such activities are on the mental plane and are based on the material elements, gross senses and mental speculation. The false ego is represented in three different modes — goodness, passion and ignorance.
mano vaikārikād abhūt
vaikārikāś ca ye devā
aham-tattvāt — from the principle of false ego; vikurvāṇāt — by transformation; manaḥ — the mind; vaikārikāt — by interaction with the mode of goodness; abhūt — generated; vaikārikāḥ — by interaction with goodness; ca — also; ye — all these; devāḥ — demigods; artha — the phenomenon; abhivyañjanam — physical knowledge; yataḥ — the source.
The false ego is transformed into mind by interaction with the mode of goodness. All the demigods who control the phenomenal world are also products of the same principle, namely the interaction of false ego and the mode of goodness.
taijasāni — the mode of passion; indriyāṇi — the senses; eva — certainly; jñāna — knowledge, philosophical speculations; karma — fruitive activities; mayāni — predominating; ca — also.
The senses are certainly products of the mode of passion in false ego, and therefore philosophical speculative knowledge and fruitive activities are predominantly products of the mode of passion.
yataḥ khaṁ liṅgam ātmanaḥ
tāmasaḥ — from the mode of ignorance; bhūta-sūkṣma-ādiḥ — subtle sense objects; yataḥ — from which; kham — the sky; liṅgam — symbolic representation; ātmanaḥ — of the Supreme Soul.
The sky is a product of sound, and sound is the transformation of egoistic ignorance. In other words, the sky is the symbolic representation of the Supreme Soul.
nabhaso ’nusṛtaṁ sparśaṁ
vikurvan nirmame ’nilam
kāla — time; māyā — external energy; aṁśa-yogena — partly mixed; bhagavat — the Personality of Godhead; vīkṣitam — glanced over; nabhaḥ — the sky; nabhasaḥ — from the sky; anusṛtam — being so contacted; sparśam — touch; vikurvat — being transformed; nirmame — was created; anilam — the air.
Thereafter the Personality of Godhead glanced over the sky, partly mixed with eternal time and external energy, and thus developed the touch sensation, from which the air in the sky was produced.
anilo ’pi vikurvāṇo
jyotir lokasya locanam
anilaḥ — air; api — also; vikurvāṇaḥ — being transformed; nabhasā — sky; uru-bala-anvitaḥ — extremely powerful; sasarja — created; rūpa — form; tat-mātram — sense perception; jyotiḥ — electricity; lokasya — of the world; locanam — light to see.
Thereafter the extremely powerful air, interacting with the sky, generated the form of sense perception, and the perception of form transformed into electricity, the light to see the world.
anilena — by the air; anvitam — interacted; jyotiḥ — electricity; vikurvat — being transformed; paravīkṣitam — being glanced over by the Supreme; ādhatta — created; ambhaḥ rasa-mayam — water with taste; kāla — of eternal time; māyā-aṁśa — and external energy; yogataḥ — by a mixture.
When electricity was surcharged in the air and was glanced over by the Supreme, at that time, by a mixture of eternal time and external energy, there occurred the creation of water and taste.
mahīṁ gandha-guṇām ādhāt
jyotiṣā — electricity; ambhaḥ — water; anusaṁsṛṣṭam — thus created; vikurvat — due to transformation; brahma — the Supreme; vīkṣitam — so glanced over; mahīm — the earth; gandha — smell; guṇām — qualification; ādhāt — was created; kāla — eternal time; māyā — external energy; aṁśa — partially; yogataḥ — by intermixture.
Thereafter the water produced from electricity was glanced over by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and mixed with eternal time and external energy. Thus it was transformed into the earth, which is qualified primarily by smell.
yad yad bhavyāvarāvaram
yathā saṅkhyaṁ guṇān viduḥ
bhūtānām — of all the physical elements; nabhaḥ — the sky; ādīnām — beginning from; yat — as; yat — and as; bhavya — O gentle one; avara — inferior; varam — superior; teṣām — all of them; para — the Supreme; anusaṁsargāt — last touch; yathā — as many; saṅkhyam — number; guṇān — qualities; viduḥ — you may understand.
O gentle one, of all the physical elements, beginning from the sky down to the earth, all the inferior and superior qualities are due only to the final touch of the glance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
ete devāḥ kalā viṣṇoḥ
procuḥ prāñjalayo vibhum
ete — of all these physical elements; devāḥ — the controlling demigods; kalāḥ — parts and parcels; viṣṇoḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kāla — time; māyā — external energy; aṁśa — part and parcel; liṅginaḥ — so embodied; nānātvāt — because of various; sva-kriyā — personal duties; anīśāḥ — not being able to perform; procuḥ — uttered; prāñjalayaḥ — fascinating; vibhum — unto the Lord.
The controlling deities of all the above-mentioned physical elements are empowered expansions of Lord Viṣṇu. They are embodied by eternal time under the external energy, and they are His parts and parcels. Because they were entrusted with different functions of universal duties and were unable to perform them, they offered fascinating prayers to the Lord as follows.
namāma te deva padāravindaṁ
yan-mūla-ketā yatayo ’ñjasoru-
saṁsāra-duḥkhaṁ bahir utkṣipanti
devāḥ ūcuḥ — the demigods said; namāma — we offer our respectful obeisances; te — Your; deva — O Lord; pada-aravindam — lotus feet; prapanna — surrendered; tāpa — distress; upaśama — suppresses; ātapatram — umbrella; yat-mūla-ketāḥ — shelter of the lotus feet; yatayaḥ — great sages; añjasā — totally; uru — great; saṁsāra-duḥkham — miseries of material existence; bahiḥ — out; utkṣipanti — forcibly throw.
The demigods said: O Lord, Your lotus feet are like an umbrella for the surrendered souls, protecting them from all the miseries of material existence. All the sages under that shelter throw off all material miseries. We therefore offer our respectful obeisances unto Your lotus feet.
dhātar yad asmin bhava īśa jīvās
tāpa-trayeṇābhihatā na śarma
ātman labhante bhagavaṁs tavāṅghri-
cchāyāṁ sa-vidyām ata āśrayema
dhātaḥ — O father; yat — because; asmin — in this; bhave — material world; īśa — O Lord; jīvāḥ — the living entities; tāpa — miseries; trayeṇa — by the three; abhihatāḥ — always embarrassed; na — never; śarma — in happiness; ātman — self; labhante — do gain; bhagavan — O Personality of Godhead; tava — Your; aṅghri-chāyām — shade of Your feet; sa-vidyām — full of knowledge; ataḥ — obtain; āśrayema — shelter.
O Father, O Lord, O Personality of Godhead, the living entities in the material world can never have any happiness because they are overwhelmed by the three kinds of miseries. Therefore they take shelter of the shade of Your lotus feet, which are full of knowledge, and we also thus take shelter of them.
mārganti yat te mukha-padma-nīḍaiś
chandaḥ-suparṇair ṛṣayo vivikte
padaṁ padaṁ tīrtha-padaḥ prapannāḥ
mārganti — searching after; yat — as; te — Your; mukha-padma — lotuslike face; nīḍaiḥ — by those who have taken shelter of such a lotus flower; chandaḥ — Vedic hymns; suparṇaiḥ — by the wings; ṛṣayaḥ — the sages; vivikte — in clear mind; yasya — whose; agha-marṣa-uda — that which offers freedom from all reactions to sin; sarit — rivers; varāyāḥ — in the best; padam padam — in every step; tīrtha-padaḥ — one whose lotus feet are as good as a place of pilgrimage; prapannāḥ — taking shelter.
The lotus feet of the Lord are by themselves the shelter of all places of pilgrimage. The great clear-minded sages, carried by the wings of the Vedas, always search after the nest of Your lotuslike face. Some of them surrender to Your lotus feet at every step by taking shelter of the best of rivers [the Ganges], which can deliver one from all sinful reactions.
yac chraddhayā śrutavatyā ca bhaktyā
sammṛjyamāne hṛdaye ’vadhāya
jñānena vairāgya-balena dhīrā
vrajema tat te ’ṅghri-saroja-pīṭham
yat — that which; śraddhayā — by eagerness; śrutavatyā — simply by hearing; ca — also; bhaktyā — in devotion; sammṛjyamāne — being cleansed; hṛdaye — in the heart; avadhāya — meditation; jñānena — by knowledge; vairāgya — detachment; balena — by the strength of; dhīrāḥ — the pacified; vrajema — must go to; tat — that; te — Your; aṅghri — feet; saroja-pīṭham — lotus sanctuary.
Simply by hearing about Your lotus feet with eagerness and devotion and by meditating upon them within the heart, one at once becomes enlightened with knowledge, and on the strength of detachment one becomes pacified. We must therefore take shelter of the sanctuary of Your lotus feet.
kṛtāvatārasya padāmbujaṁ te
vrajema sarve śaraṇaṁ yad īśa
smṛtaṁ prayacchaty abhayaṁ sva-puṁsām
viśvasya — of the cosmic universe; janma — creation; sthiti — maintenance; saṁyama-arthe — for the dissolution also; kṛta — accepted or assumed; avatārasya — of the incarnations; pada-ambujam — lotus feet; te — Your; vrajema — let us take shelter of; sarve — all of us; śaraṇam — shelter; yat — that which; īśa — O Lord; smṛtam — remembrance; prayacchati — awarding; abhayam — courage; sva-puṁsām — of the devotees.
O Lord, You assume incarnations for the creation, maintenance and dissolution of the cosmic manifestation, and therefore we all take shelter of Your lotus feet because they always award remembrance and courage to Your devotees.
yat sānubandhe ’sati deha-gehe
mamāham ity ūḍha-durāgrahāṇām
puṁsāṁ sudūraṁ vasato ’pi puryāṁ
bhajema tat te bhagavan padābjam
yat — because; sa-anubandhe — due to becoming entangled; asati — thus being; deha — the gross material body; gehe — in the home; mama — mine; aham — I; iti — thus; ūḍha — great, deep; durāgrahāṇām — undesirable eagerness; puṁsām — of persons; su-dūram — far away; vasataḥ — dwelling; api — although; puryām — within the body; bhajema — let us worship; tat — therefore; te — Your; bhagavan — O Lord; pada-abjam — lotus feet.
O Lord, persons who are entangled by undesirable eagerness for the temporary body and kinsmen, and who are bound by thoughts of “mine” and “I,” are unable to see Your lotus feet, although Your lotus feet are situated within their own bodies. But let us take shelter of Your lotus feet.
tān vai hy asad-vṛttibhir akṣibhir ye
atho na paśyanty urugāya nūnaṁ
ye te padanyāsa-vilāsa-lakṣyāḥ
tān — the lotus feet of the Lord; vai — certainly; hi — for; asat — materialistic; vṛttibhiḥ — by those who are influenced by external energy; akṣibhiḥ — by the senses; ye — those; parāhṛta — missing at a distance; antaḥ-manasaḥ — of the internal mind; pareśa — O Supreme; atho — therefore; na — never; paśyanti — can see; urugāya — O great; nūnam — but; ye — those who; te — Your; padanyāsa — activities; vilāsa — transcendental enjoyment; lakṣyāḥ — those who see.
O great Supreme Lord, offensive persons whose internal vision has been too affected by external materialistic activities cannot see Your lotus feet, but they are seen by Your pure devotees, whose one and only aim is to transcendentally enjoy Your activities.
pānena te deva kathā-sudhāyāḥ
pravṛddha-bhaktyā viśadāśayā ye
vairāgya-sāraṁ pratilabhya bodhaṁ
pānena — by drinking; te — of You; deva — O Lord; kathā — topics; sudhāyāḥ — of the nectar; pravṛddha — highly enlightened; bhaktyā — by devotional service; viśada-āśayāḥ — with a greatly serious attitude; ye — those who; vairāgya-sāram — the entire purport of renunciation; pratilabhya — achieving; bodham — intelligence; yathā — as much as; añjasā — quickly; anvīyuḥ — achieve; akuṇṭha-dhiṣṇyam — Vaikuṇṭhaloka in the spiritual sky.
O Lord, persons who, because of their serious attitude, attain the stage of enlightened devotional service achieve the complete meaning of renunciation and knowledge and attain the Vaikuṇṭhaloka in the spiritual sky simply by drinking the nectar of Your topics.
balena jitvā prakṛtiṁ baliṣṭhām
tvām eva dhīrāḥ puruṣaṁ viśanti
teṣāṁ śramaḥ syān na tu sevayā te
tathā — as far as; apare — others; ca — also; ātma-samādhi — transcendental self-realization; yoga — means; balena — by the strength of; jitvā — conquering; prakṛtim — acquired nature or modes of nature; baliṣṭhām — very powerful; tvām — You; eva — only; dhīrāḥ — pacified; puruṣam — person; viśanti — enters into; teṣām — for them; śramaḥ — much labor; syāt — has to be taken; na — never; tu — but; sevayā — by serving; te — of You.
Others, who are pacified by means of transcendental self-realization and have conquered over the modes of nature by dint of strong power and knowledge, also enter into You, but for them there is much pain, whereas the devotee simply discharges devotional service and thus feels no such pain.
tat te vayaṁ loka-sisṛkṣayādya
tvayānusṛṣṭās tribhir ātmabhiḥ sma
sarve viyuktāḥ sva-vihāra-tantraṁ
na śaknumas tat pratihartave te
tat — therefore; te — Your; vayam — all of us; loka — world; sisṛkṣayā — for the sake of creation; ādya — O Original person; tvayā — by You; anusṛṣṭāḥ — being created one after another; tribhiḥ — by the three modes of nature; ātmabhiḥ — by one’s own; sma — in the past; sarve — all; viyuktāḥ — separated; sva-vihāra-tantram — the network of activities for one’s own pleasure; na — not; śaknumaḥ — could do it; tat — that; pratihartave — to award; te — unto Your.
O Original Person, we are therefore but Yours only. Although we are Your creatures, we are born one after another under the influence of the three modes of nature, and for this reason we are separated in action. Therefore, after the creation we could not act concertedly for Your transcendental pleasure.
yāvad baliṁ te ’ja harāma kāle
yathā vayaṁ cānnam adāma yatra
yathobhayeṣāṁ ta ime hi lokā
baliṁ haranto ’nnam adanty anūhāḥ
yāvat — as it may be; balim — offerings; te — Your; aja — O unborn one; harāma — shall offer; kāle — at the right time; yathā — as much as; vayam — we; ca — also; annam — food grains; adāma — shall partake; yatra — whereupon; yathā — as much as; ubhayeṣām — both for You and for us; te — all; ime — these; hi — certainly; lokāḥ — living entities; balim — offerings; harantaḥ — while offering; annam — grains; adanti — eat; anūhāḥ — without disturbance.
O unborn one, please enlighten us regarding the ways and means by which we can offer You all enjoyable grains and commodities so that both we and all other living entities in this world can maintain ourselves without disturbance and can easily accumulate the necessities of life both for You and for ourselves.
tvaṁ naḥ surāṇām asi sānvayānāṁ
kūṭa-stha ādyaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇaḥ
tvaṁ deva śaktyāṁ guṇa-karma-yonau
retas tv ajāyāṁ kavim ādadhe ’jaḥ
tvam — Your Lordship; naḥ — of us; surāṇām — of the demigods; asi — You are; sa-anvayānām — with different gradations; kūṭa-sthaḥ — one who is unchanged; ādyaḥ — without any superior; puruṣaḥ — the founder person; purāṇaḥ — the oldest, who has no other founder; tvam — You; deva — O Lord; śaktyām — unto the energy; guṇa-karma-yonau — unto the cause of the material modes and activities; retaḥ — semen of birth; tu — indeed; ajāyām — for begetting; kavim — the total living entities; ādadhe — initiated; ajaḥ — one who is unborn.
You are the original personal founder of all the demigods and the orders of different gradations, yet You are the oldest and are unchanged. O Lord, You have no source or superior. You have impregnated the external energy with the semen of the total living entities, yet You are unborn.
tato vayaṁ mat-pramukhā yad-arthe
babhūvimātman karavāma kiṁ te
tvaṁ naḥ sva-cakṣuḥ paridehi śaktyā
deva kriyārthe yad-anugrahāṇām
tataḥ — therefore; vayam — all of us; mat-pramukhāḥ — coming from the total cosmos, the mahat-tattva; yat-arthe — for the purpose of which; babhūvima — created; ātman — O Supreme Self; karavāma — shall do; kim — what; te — Your service; tvam — Yourself; naḥ — to us; sva-cakṣuḥ — personal plan; paridehi — specifically grant us; śaktyā — with potency to work; deva — O Lord; kriyā-arthe — for acting; yat — from which; anugrahāṇām — of those who are specifically favored.
O Supreme Self, please give us, who are created in the beginning from the mahat-tattva, the total cosmic energy, Your kind directions on how we shall act. Kindly award us Your perfect knowledge and potency so that we can render You service in the different departments of subsequent creation.