Śrī Bhāgavatam |Canto 3 Chapter 26
Fundamental Principles of Material Nature
atha te sampravakṣyāmi
tattvānāṁ lakṣaṇaṁ pṛthak
yad viditvā vimucyeta
puruṣaḥ prākṛtair guṇaiḥ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Personality of Godhead said; atha — now; te — to you; sampravakṣyāmi — I shall describe; tattvānām — of the categories of the Absolute Truth; lakṣaṇam — the distinctive features; pṛthak — one by one; yat — which; viditvā — knowing; vimucyeta — one can be released; puruṣaḥ — any person; prākṛtaiḥ — of the material nature; guṇaiḥ — from the modes.
The Personality of Godhead, Kapila, continued: My dear mother, now I shall describe unto you the different categories of the Absolute Truth, knowing which any person can be released from the influence of the modes of material nature.
yad āhur varṇaye tat te
jñānam — knowledge; niḥśreyasa-arthāya — for the ultimate perfection; puruṣasya — of a man; ātma-darśanam — self-realization; yat — which; āhuḥ — they said; varṇaye — I shall explain; tat — that; te — to you; hṛdaya — in the heart; granthi — the knots; bhedanam — cuts.
Knowledge is the ultimate perfection of self-realization. I shall explain that knowledge unto you by which the knots of attachment to the material world are cut.
anādir ātmā puruṣo
nirguṇaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ
viśvaṁ yena samanvitam
anādiḥ — without a beginning; ātmā — the Supreme Soul; puruṣaḥ — the Personality of Godhead; nirguṇaḥ — transcendental to the material modes of nature; prakṛteḥ paraḥ — beyond this material world; pratyak-dhāmā — perceivable everywhere; svayam-jyotiḥ — self-effulgent; viśvam — the entire creation; yena — by whom; samanvitam — is maintained.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead is the Supreme Soul, and He has no beginning. He is transcendental to the material modes of nature and beyond the existence of this material world. He is perceivable everywhere because He is self-effulgent, and by His self-effulgent luster the entire creation is maintained.
sa eṣa prakṛtiṁ sūkṣmāṁ
daivīṁ guṇa-mayīṁ vibhuḥ
saḥ eṣaḥ — that same Supreme Personality of Godhead; prakṛtim — material energy; sūkṣmām — subtle; daivīm — related to Viṣṇu; guṇa-mayīm — invested with the three modes of material nature; vibhuḥ — the greatest of the great; yadṛcchayā — of His own will; iva — quite; upagatām — obtained; abhyapadyata — He accepted; līlayā — as His pastime.
As His pastime, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the greatest of the great, accepted the subtle material energy, which is invested with three material modes of nature and which is related with Viṣṇu.
guṇair vicitrāḥ sṛjatīṁ
sa-rūpāḥ prakṛtiṁ prajāḥ
vilokya mumuhe sadyaḥ
sa iha jñāna-gūhayā
guṇaiḥ — by the threefold modes; vicitrāḥ — variegated; sṛjatīm — creating; sa-rūpāḥ — with forms; prakṛtim — material nature; prajāḥ — living entities; vilokya — having seen; mumuhe — was illusioned; sadyaḥ — at once; saḥ — the living entity; iha — in this world; jñāna-gūhayā — by the knowledge-covering feature.
Divided into varieties by her threefold modes, material nature creates the forms of the living entities, and the living entities, seeing this, are illusioned by the knowledge-covering feature of the illusory energy.
kartṛtvaṁ prakṛteḥ pumān
guṇair ātmani manyate
evam — in this way; para — other; abhidhyānena — by identification; kartṛtvam — the performance of activities; prakṛteḥ — of the material nature; pumān — the living entity; karmasu kriyamāṇeṣu — while the activities are being performed; guṇaiḥ — by the three modes; ātmani — to himself; manyate — he considers.
Because of his forgetfulness, the transcendental living entity accepts the influence of material energy as his field of activities, and thus actuated, he wrongly applies the activities to himself.
tad asya saṁsṛtir bandhaḥ
pāra-tantryaṁ ca tat-kṛtam
bhavaty akartur īśasya
tat — from the misconception; asya — of the conditioned soul; saṁsṛtiḥ — conditioned life; bandhaḥ — bondage; pāra-tantryam — dependence; ca — and; tat-kṛtam — made by that; bhavati — is; akartuḥ — of the nondoer; īśasya — independent; sākṣiṇaḥ — the witness; nirvṛta-ātmanaḥ — joyful by nature.
Material consciousness is the cause of one’s conditional life, in which conditions are enforced upon the living entity by the material energy. Although the spirit soul does not do anything and is transcendental to such activities, he is thus affected by conditional life.
kāraṇaṁ prakṛtiṁ viduḥ
puruṣaṁ prakṛteḥ param
kārya — the body; kāraṇa — the senses; kartṛtve — regarding the demigods; kāraṇam — the cause; prakṛtim — material nature; viduḥ — the learned understand; bhoktṛtve — regarding the perception; sukha — of happiness; duḥkhānām — and of distress; puruṣam — the spirit soul; prakṛteḥ — to material nature; param — transcendental.
The cause of the conditioned soul’s material body and senses, and the senses’ presiding deities, the demigods, is the material nature. This is understood by learned men. The feelings of happiness and distress of the soul, who is transcendental by nature, are caused by the spirit soul himself.
brūhi kāraṇayor asya
sad-asac ca yad-ātmakam
devahūtiḥ uvāca — Devahūti said; prakṛteḥ — of His energies; puruṣasya — of the Supreme Person; api — also; lakṣaṇam — characteristics; puruṣa-uttama — O Supreme Personality of Godhead; brūhi — kindly explain; kāraṇayoḥ — causes; asya — of this creation; sat-asat — manifest and unmanifest; ca — and; yat-ātmakam — consisting of which.
Devahūti said: O Supreme Personality of Godhead, kindly explain the characteristics of the Supreme Person and His energies, for both of these are the causes of this manifest and unmanifest creation.
yat tat tri-guṇam avyaktaṁ
pradhānaṁ prakṛtiṁ prāhur
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; yat — now further; tat — that; tri-guṇam — combination of the three modes; avyaktam — unmanifested; nityam — eternal; sat-asat-ātmakam — consisting of cause and effect; pradhānam — the pradhāna; prakṛtim — prakṛti; prāhuḥ — they call; aviśeṣam — undifferentiated; viśeṣa-vat — possessing differentiation.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: The unmanifested eternal combination of the three modes is the cause of the manifest state and is called pradhāna. It is called prakṛti when in the manifested stage of existence.
pañcabhiḥ pañcabhir brahma
caturbhir daśabhis tathā
gaṇaṁ prādhānikaṁ viduḥ
pañcabhiḥ — with the five (gross elements); pañcabhiḥ — the five (subtle elements); brahma — Brahman; caturbhiḥ — the four (internal senses); daśabhiḥ — the ten (five senses for gathering knowledge and five organs of action); tathā — in that way; etat — this; catuḥ-viṁśatikam — consisting of twenty-four elements; gaṇam — aggregate; prādhānikam — comprising the pradhāna; viduḥ — they know.
The aggregate elements, namely the five gross elements, the five subtle elements, the four internal senses, the five senses for gathering knowledge and the five outward organs of action, are known as the pradhāna.
bhūr āpo ’gnir marun nabhaḥ
tan-mātrāṇi ca tāvanti
gandhādīni matāni me
mahā-bhūtāni — the gross elements; pañca — five; eva — exactly; bhūḥ — earth; āpaḥ — water; agniḥ — fire; marut — air; nabhaḥ — ether; tat-mātrāṇi — the subtle elements; ca — also; tāvanti — so many; gandha-ādīni — smell and so on (taste, color, touch and sound); matāni — considered; me — by Me.
There are five gross elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and ether. There are also five subtle elements: smell, taste, color, touch and sound.
indriyāṇi daśa śrotraṁ
tvag dṛg rasana-nāsikāḥ
vāk karau caraṇau meḍhraṁ
pāyur daśama ucyate
indriyāṇi — the senses; daśa — ten; śrotram — the sense of hearing; tvak — the sense of touch; dṛk — the sense of sight; rasana — the sense of taste; nāsikāḥ — the sense of smell; vāk — the organ of speech; karau — two hands; caraṇau — the organs for traveling (legs); meḍhram — the generative organ; pāyuḥ — the evacuating organ; daśamaḥ — the tenth; ucyate — is called.
The senses for acquiring knowledge and the organs for action number ten, namely the auditory sense, the sense of taste, the tactile sense, the sense of sight, the sense of smell, and the active organs for speaking, working, traveling, generating and evacuating.
mano buddhir ahaṅkāraś
cittam ity antar-ātmakam
caturdhā lakṣyate bhedo
manaḥ — the mind; buddhiḥ — intelligence; ahaṅkāraḥ — ego; cittam — consciousness; iti — thus; antaḥ-ātmakam — the internal, subtle senses; catuḥ-dhā — having four aspects; lakṣyate — is observed; bhedaḥ — the distinction; vṛttyā — by their functions; lakṣaṇa-rūpayā — representing different characteristics.
The internal, subtle senses are experienced as having four aspects, in the shape of mind, intelligence, ego and contaminated consciousness. Distinctions between them can be made only by different functions, since they represent different characteristics.
etāvān eva saṅkhyāto
brahmaṇaḥ sa-guṇasya ha
sanniveśo mayā prokto
yaḥ kālaḥ pañca-viṁśakaḥ
etāvān — so much; eva — just; saṅkhyātaḥ — enumerated; brahmaṇaḥ — of Brahman; sa-guṇasya — with material qualities; ha — indeed; sanniveśaḥ — arrangement; mayā — by Me; proktaḥ — spoken; yaḥ — which; kālaḥ — time; pañca-viṁśakaḥ — the twenty-fifth.
All these are considered the qualified Brahman. The mixing element, which is known as time, is counted as the twenty-fifth element.
prabhāvaṁ pauruṣaṁ prāhuḥ
kālam eke yato bhayam
kartuḥ prakṛtim īyuṣaḥ
prabhāvam — the influence; pauruṣam — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; prāhuḥ — they have said; kālam — the time factor; eke — some; yataḥ — from which; bhayam — fear; ahaṅkāra-vimūḍhasya — deluded by false ego; kartuḥ — of the individual soul; prakṛtim — material nature; īyuṣaḥ — having contacted.
The influence of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is felt in the time factor, which causes fear of death due to the false ego of the deluded soul who has contacted material nature.
ceṣṭā yataḥ sa bhagavān
kāla ity upalakṣitaḥ
prakṛteḥ — of material nature; guṇa-sāmyasya — without interaction of the three modes; nirviśeṣasya — without specific qualities; mānavi — O daughter of Manu; ceṣṭā — movement; yataḥ — from whom; saḥ — He; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kālaḥ — time; iti — thus; upalakṣitaḥ — is designated.
My dear mother, O daughter of Svāyambhuva Manu, the time factor, as I have explained, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, from whom the creation begins as a result of the agitation of the neutral, unmanifested nature.
kāla-rūpeṇa yo bahiḥ
samanvety eṣa sattvānāṁ
antaḥ — within; puruṣa-rūpeṇa — in the form of Supersoul; kāla-rūpeṇa — in the form of time; yaḥ — He who; bahiḥ — without; samanveti — exists; eṣaḥ — He; sattvānām — of all living entities; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ātma-māyayā — by His potencies.
By exhibiting His potencies, the Supreme Personality of Godhead adjusts all these different elements, keeping Himself within as the Supersoul and without as time.
svasyāṁ yonau paraḥ pumān
ādhatta vīryaṁ sāsūta
daivāt — by the destiny of the conditioned souls; kṣubhita — agitated; dharmiṇyām — whose equilibrium of the modes; svasyām — His own; yonau — in the womb (material nature); paraḥ pumān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; ādhatta — impregnated; vīryam — semen (His internal potency); sā — she (material nature); asūta — delivered; mahat-tattvam — the sum total of cosmic intelligence; hiraṇmayam — known as Hiraṇmaya.
After the Supreme Personality of Godhead impregnates material nature with His internal potency, material nature delivers the sum total of the cosmic intelligence, which is known as Hiraṇmaya. This takes place in material nature when she is agitated by the destinations of the conditioned souls.
viśvam ātma-gataṁ vyañjan
viśvam — the universe; ātma-gatam — contained within itself; vyañjan — manifesting; kūṭa-sthaḥ — unchangeable; jagat-aṅkuraḥ — the root of all cosmic manifestations; sva-tejasā — by its own effulgence; apibat — swallowed; tīvram — dense; ātma-prasvāpanam — which had covered the mahat-tattva; tamaḥ — darkness.
Thus, after manifesting variegatedness, the effulgent mahat-tattva, which contains all the universes within itself, which is the root of all cosmic manifestations and which is not destroyed at the time of annihilation, swallows the darkness that covered the effulgence at the time of dissolution.
yat tat sattva-guṇaṁ svacchaṁ
śāntaṁ bhagavataḥ padam
yad āhur vāsudevākhyaṁ
cittaṁ tan mahad-ātmakam
yat — which; tat — that; sattva-guṇam — the mode of goodness; svaccham — clear; śāntam — sober; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; padam — the status of understanding; yat — which; āhuḥ — is called; vāsudeva-ākhyam — by the name vāsudeva; cittam — consciousness; tat — that; mahat-ātmakam — manifest in the mahat-tattva.
The mode of goodness, which is the clear, sober status of understanding the Personality of Godhead and which is generally called vāsudeva, or consciousness, becomes manifest in the mahat-tattva.
śāntatvam iti cetasaḥ
vṛttibhir lakṣaṇaṁ proktaṁ
yathāpāṁ prakṛtiḥ parā
svacchatvam — clarity; avikāritvam — freedom from all distraction; śāntatvam — serenity; iti — thus; cetasaḥ — of consciousness; vṛttibhiḥ — by characteristics; lakṣaṇam — traits; proktam — called; yathā — as; apām — of water; prakṛtiḥ — natural state; parā — pure.
After the manifestation of the mahat-tattva, these features appear simultaneously. As water in its natural state, before coming in contact with earth, is clear, sweet and unruffled, so the characteristic traits of pure consciousness are complete serenity, clarity, and freedom from distraction.
vaikārikas taijasaś ca
tāmasaś ca yato bhavaḥ
manasaś cendriyāṇāṁ ca
bhūtānāṁ mahatām api
mahat-tattvāt — from the mahat-tattva; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing a change; bhagavat-vīrya-sambhavāt — evolved from the Lord’s own energy; kriyā-śaktiḥ — endowed with active power; ahaṅkāraḥ — the material ego; tri-vidhaḥ — of the three kinds; samapadyata — sprang up; vaikārikaḥ — material ego in transformed goodness; taijasaḥ — material ego in passion; ca — and; tāmasaḥ — material ego in ignorance; ca — also; yataḥ — from which; bhavaḥ — the origin; manasaḥ — of the mind; ca — and; indriyāṇām — of the senses for perception and action; ca — and; bhūtānām mahatām — of the five gross elements; api — also.
The material ego springs up from the mahat-tattva, which evolved from the Lord’s own energy. The material ego is endowed predominantly with active power of three kinds: good, passionate and ignorant. It is from these three types of material ego that the mind, the senses of perception, the organs of action, and the gross elements evolve.
yam anantaṁ pracakṣate
sahasra-śirasam — with a thousand heads; sākṣāt — directly; yam — whom; anantam — Ananta; pracakṣate — they all; saṅkarṣaṇa-ākhyam — Saṅkarṣaṇa by name; puruṣam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhūta — the gross elements; indriya — the senses; manaḥ-mayam — consisting of the mind.
The threefold ahaṅkāra, the source of the gross elements, the senses and the mind, is identical with them because it is their cause. It is known by the name of Saṅkarṣaṇa, who is directly Lord Ananta with a thousand heads.
kartṛtvaṁ karaṇatvaṁ ca
kāryatvaṁ ceti lakṣaṇam
iti vā syād ahaṅkṛteḥ
kartṛtvam — being the doer; karaṇatvam — being the instrument; ca — and; kāryatvam — being the effect; ca — also; iti — thus; lakṣaṇam — characteristic; śānta — serene; ghora — active; vimūḍhatvam — being dull; iti — thus; vā — or; syāt — may be; ahaṅkṛteḥ — of the false ego.
This false ego is characterized as the doer, as an instrument and as an effect. It is further characterized as serene, active or dull according to how it is influenced by the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance.
vaikārikāt — from the false ego of goodness; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing transformation; manaḥ — the mind; tattvam — principle; ajāyata — evolved; yat — whose; saṅkalpa — thoughts; vikalpābhyām — and by reflections; vartate — happens; kāma-sambhavaḥ — the rise of desire.
From the false ego of goodness, another transformation takes place. From this evolves the mind, whose thoughts and reflections give rise to desire.
yad vidur hy aniruddhākhyaṁ
saṁrādhyaṁ yogibhiḥ śanaiḥ
yat — which mind; viduḥ — is known; hi — indeed; aniruddha-ākhyam — by the name Aniruddha; hṛṣīkāṇām — of the senses; adhīśvaram — the supreme ruler; śārada — autumnal; indīvara — like a blue lotus; śyāmam — bluish; saṁrādhyam — who is found; yogibhiḥ — by the yogīs; śanaiḥ — gradually.
The mind of the living entity is known by the name of Lord Aniruddha, the supreme ruler of the senses. He possesses a bluish-black form resembling a lotus flower growing in the autumn. He is found slowly by the yogīs.
taijasāt tu vikurvāṇād
buddhi-tattvam abhūt sati
taijasāt — from the false ego in passion; tu — then; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing transformation; buddhi — intelligence; tattvam — principle; abhūt — took birth; sati — O virtuous lady; dravya — objects; sphuraṇa — coming into view; vijñānam — ascertaining; indriyāṇām — to the senses; anugrahaḥ — giving assistance.
By transformation of the false ego in passion, intelligence takes birth, O virtuous lady. The functions of intelligence are to help in ascertaining the nature of objects when they come into view, and to help the senses.
saṁśayo ’tha viparyāso
niścayaḥ smṛtir eva ca
svāpa ity ucyate buddher
lakṣaṇaṁ vṛttitaḥ pṛthak
saṁśayaḥ — doubt; atha — then; viparyāsaḥ — misapprehension; niścayaḥ — correct apprehension; smṛtiḥ — memory; eva — also; ca — and; svāpaḥ — sleep; iti — thus; ucyate — are said; buddheḥ — of intelligence; lakṣaṇam — characteristics; vṛttitaḥ — by their functions; pṛthak — different.
Doubt, misapprehension, correct apprehension, memory and sleep, as determined by their different functions, are said to be the distinct characteristics of intelligence.
prāṇasya hi kriyā-śaktir
taijasāni — produced from egoism in the mode of passion; indriyāṇi — the senses; eva — certainly; kriyā — action; jñāna — knowledge; vibhāgaśaḥ — according to; prāṇasya — of the vital energy; hi — indeed; kriyā-śaktiḥ — the senses of action; buddheḥ — of the intelligence; vijñāna-śaktitā — the senses for acquiring knowledge.
Egoism in the mode of passion produces two kinds of senses: the senses for acquiring knowledge and the senses of action. The senses of action depend on the vital energy, and the senses for acquiring knowledge depend on intelligence.
tāmasāc ca vikurvāṇād
śabda-mātram abhūt tasmān
nabhaḥ śrotraṁ tu śabdagam
tāmasāt — from egoism in ignorance; ca — and; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing transformation; bhagavat-vīrya — by the energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; coditāt — impelled; śabda-mātram — the subtle element sound; abhūt — was manifested; tasmāt — from that; nabhaḥ — ether; śrotram — the sense of hearing; tu — then; śabda-gam — which catches sound.
When egoism in ignorance is agitated by the sex energy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the subtle element sound is manifested, and from sound come the ethereal sky and the sense of hearing.
draṣṭur liṅgatvam eva ca
tan-mātratvaṁ ca nabhaso
lakṣaṇaṁ kavayo viduḥ
artha-āśrayatvam — that which conveys the meaning of an object; śabdasya — of sound; draṣṭuḥ — of the speaker; liṅgatvam — that which indicates the presence; eva — also; ca — and; tat-mātratvam — the subtle element; ca — and; nabhasaḥ — of ether; lakṣaṇam — definition; kavayaḥ — learned persons; viduḥ — know.
Persons who are learned and who have true knowledge define sound as that which conveys the idea of an object, indicates the presence of a speaker screened from our view and constitutes the subtle form of ether.
bahir antaram eva ca
bhūtānām — of all living entities; chidra-dātṛtvam — the accommodation of room; bahiḥ — external; antaram — internal; eva — also; ca — and; prāṇa — of the vital air; indriya — the senses; ātma — and the mind; dhiṣṇyatvam — being the field of activities; nabhasaḥ — of the ethereal element; vṛtti — activities; lakṣaṇam — characteristics.
The activities and characteristics of the ethereal element can be observed as the accommodation of room for the external and internal existences of all living entities, namely the field of activities of the vital air, the senses and the mind.
sparśo ’bhavat tato vāyus
tvak sparśasya ca saṅgrahaḥ
nabhasaḥ — from ether; śabda-tanmātrāt — which evolves from the subtle element sound; kāla-gatyā — under the impulse of time; vikurvataḥ — undergoing transformation; sparśaḥ — the subtle element touch; abhavat — evolved; tataḥ — thence; vāyuḥ — air; tvak — the sense of touch; sparśasya — of touch; ca — and; saṅgrahaḥ — perception.
From ethereal existence, which evolves from sound, the next transformation takes place under the impulse of time, and thus the subtle element touch and thence the air and sense of touch become prominent.
mṛdutvaṁ kaṭhinatvaṁ ca
śaityam uṣṇatvam eva ca
etat sparśasya sparśatvaṁ
mṛdutvam — softness; kaṭhinatvam — hardness; ca — and; śaityam — cold; uṣṇatvam — heat; eva — also; ca — and; etat — this; sparśasya — of the subtle element touch; sparśatvam — the distinguishing attributes; tat-mātratvam — the subtle form; nabhasvataḥ — of air.
Softness and hardness and cold and heat are the distinguishing attributes of touch, which is characterized as the subtle form of air.
cālanaṁ vyūhanaṁ prāptir
cālanam — moving; vyūhanam — mixing; prāptiḥ — allowing approach; netṛtvam — carrying; dravya-śabdayoḥ — particles of substances and sound; sarva-indriyāṇām — of all the senses; ātmatvam — providing for the proper functioning; vāyoḥ — of air; karma — by actions; abhilakṣaṇam — the distinct characteristics.
The action of the air is exhibited in movements, mixing, allowing approach to the objects of sound and other sense perceptions, and providing for the proper functioning of all other senses.
vāyoś ca sparśa-tanmātrād
rūpaṁ daiveritād abhūt
samutthitaṁ tatas tejaś
vāyoḥ — from air; ca — and; sparśa-tanmātrāt — which evolves from the subtle element touch; rūpam — form; daiva-īritāt — according to destiny; abhūt — evolved; samutthitam — arose; tataḥ — from that; tejaḥ — fire; cakṣuḥ — sense of sight; rūpa — color and form; upalambhanam — perceiving.
By interactions of the air and the sensations of touch, one receives different forms according to destiny. By evolution of such forms, there is fire, and the eye sees different forms in color.
vyakti-saṁsthātvam eva ca
tejastvaṁ tejasaḥ sādhvi
dravya — of an object; ākṛtitvam — dimension; guṇatā — quality; vyakti-saṁsthātvam — individuality; eva — also; ca — and; tejastvam — effulgence; tejasaḥ — of fire; sādhvi — O virtuous lady; rūpa-mātrasya — of the subtle element form; vṛttayaḥ — the characteristics.
My dear mother, the characteristics of form are understood by dimension, quality and individuality. The form of fire is appreciated by its effulgence.
dyotanaṁ pacanaṁ pānam
tejaso vṛttayas tv etāḥ
śoṣaṇaṁ kṣut tṛḍ eva ca
dyotanam — illumination; pacanam — cooking, digesting; pānam — drinking; adanam — eating; hima-mardanam — destroying cold; tejasaḥ — of fire; vṛttayaḥ — functions; tu — indeed; etāḥ — these; śoṣaṇam — evaporating; kṣut — hunger; tṛṭ — thirst; eva — also; ca — and.
Fire is appreciated by its light and by its ability to cook, to digest, to destroy cold, to evaporate, and to give rise to hunger, thirst, eating and drinking.
rasa-mātram abhūt tasmād
ambho jihvā rasa-grahaḥ
rūpa-mātrāt — which evolves from the subtle element form; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing transformation; tejasaḥ — from fire; daiva-coditāt — under a superior arrangement; rasa-mātram — the subtle element taste; abhūt — became manifested; tasmāt — from that; ambhaḥ — water; jihvā — the sense of taste; rasa-grahaḥ — which perceives taste.
By the interaction of fire and the visual sensation, the subtle element taste evolves under a superior arrangement. From taste, water is produced, and the tongue, which perceives taste, is also manifested.
kaṣāyo madhuras tiktaḥ
kaṭv amla iti naikadhā
rasa eko vibhidyate
kaṣāyaḥ — astringent; madhuraḥ — sweet; tiktaḥ — bitter; kaṭu — pungent; amlaḥ — sour; iti — thus; na-ekadhā — manifoldly; bhautikānām — of other substances; vikāreṇa — by transformation; rasaḥ — the subtle element taste; ekaḥ — originally one; vibhidyate — is divided.
Although originally one, taste becomes manifold as astringent, sweet, bitter, pungent, sour and salty due to contact with other substances.
kledanaṁ piṇḍanaṁ tṛptiḥ
ambhaso vṛttayas tv imāḥ
kledanam — moistening; piṇḍanam — coagulating; tṛptiḥ — causing satisfaction; prāṇana — maintaining life; āpyāyana — refreshing; undanam — softening; tāpa — heat; apanodaḥ — driving away; bhūyastvam — being in abundance; ambhasaḥ — of water; vṛttayaḥ — the characteristic functions; tu — in fact; imāḥ — these.
The characteristics of water are exhibited by its moistening other substances, coagulating various mixtures, causing satisfaction, maintaining life, softening things, driving away heat, incessantly supplying itself to reservoirs of water, and refreshing by slaking thirst.
gandha-mātram abhūt tasmāt
pṛthvī ghrāṇas tu gandhagaḥ
rasa-mātrāt — which evolves from the subtle element taste; vikurvāṇāt — undergoing transformation; ambhasaḥ — from water; daiva-coditāt — by a superior arrangement; gandha-mātram — the subtle element odor; abhūt — became manifest; tasmāt — from that; pṛthvī — earth; ghrāṇaḥ — the olfactory sense; tu — in fact; gandha-gaḥ — which perceives aromas.
Due to the interaction of water with the taste perception, the subtle element odor evolves under superior arrangement. Thence the earth and the olfactory sense, by which we can variously experience the aroma of the earth, become manifest.
gandha eko vibhidyate
karambha — mixed; pūti — offensive; saurabhya — fragrant; śānta — mild; ugra — strong, pungent; amla — acid; ādibhiḥ — and so on; pṛthak — separately; dravya — of substance; avayava — of portions; vaiṣamyāt — according to diversity; gandhaḥ — odor; ekaḥ — one; vibhidyate — is divided.
Odor, although one, becomes many — as mixed, offensive, fragrant, mild, strong, acidic and so on — according to the proportions of associated substances.
bhāvanaṁ brahmaṇaḥ sthānaṁ
bhāvanam — modeling forms; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Supreme Brahman; sthānam — constructing places of residence; dhāraṇam — containing substances; sat-viśeṣaṇam — distinguishing the open space; sarva — all; sattva — of existence; guṇa — qualities; udbhedaḥ — the place for manifestation; pṛthivī — of earth; vṛtti — of the functions; lakṣaṇam — the characteristics.
The characteristics of the functions of earth can be perceived by modeling forms of the Supreme Brahman, by constructing places of residence, by preparing pots to contain water, etc. In other words, the earth is the place of sustenance for all elements.
yasya tac chrotram ucyate
vāyor guṇa-viśeṣo ’rtho
yasya tat sparśanaṁ viduḥ
nabhaḥ-guṇa-viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic of sky (sound); arthaḥ — object of perception; yasya — whose; tat — that; śrotram — the auditory sense; ucyate — is called; vāyoḥ guṇa-viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic of air (touch); arthaḥ — object of perception; yasya — whose; tat — that; sparśanam — the tactile sense; viduḥ — they know.
The sense whose object of perception is sound is called the auditory sense, and that whose object of perception is touch is called the tactile sense.
yasya tac cakṣur ucyate
yasya tad rasanaṁ viduḥ
bhūmer guṇa-viśeṣo ’rtho
yasya sa ghrāṇa ucyate
tejaḥ-guṇa-viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic of fire (form); arthaḥ — object of perception; yasya — whose; tat — that; cakṣuḥ — the sense of sight; ucyate — is called; ambhaḥ-guṇa-viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic of water (taste); arthaḥ — object of perception; yasya — whose; tat — that; rasanam — the sense of taste; viduḥ — they know; bhūmeḥ guṇa-viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic of earth (odor); arthaḥ — object of perception; yasya — whose; saḥ — that; ghrāṇaḥ — the sense of smell; ucyate — is called.
The sense whose object of perception is form, the distinctive characteristic of fire, is the sense of sight. The sense whose object of perception is taste, the distinctive characteristic of water, is known as the sense of taste. Finally, the sense whose object of perception is odor, the distinctive characteristic of earth, is called the sense of smell.
parasya dṛśyate dharmo
hy aparasmin samanvayāt
ato viśeṣo bhāvānāṁ
parasya — of the cause; dṛśyate — is observed; dharmaḥ — the characteristics; hi — indeed; aparasmin — in the effect; samanvayāt — in order; ataḥ — hence; viśeṣaḥ — the distinctive characteristic; bhāvānām — of all the elements; bhūmau — in earth; eva — alone; upalakṣyate — is observed.
Since the cause exists in its effect as well, the characteristics of the former are observed in the latter. That is why the peculiarities of all the elements exist in the earth alone.
etāny asaṁhatya yadā
mahad-ādīni sapta vai
etāni — these; asaṁhatya — being unmixed; yadā — when; mahat-ādīni — the mahat-tattva, false ego and five gross elements; sapta — all together seven; vai — in fact; kāla — time; karma — work; guṇa — and the three modes of material nature; upetaḥ — accompanied by; jagat-ādiḥ — the origin of creation; upāviśat — entered.
When all these elements were unmixed, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the origin of creation, along with time, work, and the qualities of the modes of material nature, entered into the universe with the total material energy in seven divisions.
yuktebhyo ’ṇḍam acetanam
utthitaṁ puruṣo yasmād
udatiṣṭhad asau virāṭ
tataḥ — then; tena — by the Lord; anuviddhebhyaḥ — from these seven principles, roused into activity; yuktebhyaḥ — united; aṇḍam — an egg; acetanam — unintelligent; utthitam — arose; puruṣaḥ — Cosmic Being; yasmāt — from which; udatiṣṭhat — appeared; asau — that; virāṭ — celebrated.
From these seven principles, roused into activity and united by the presence of the Lord, an unintelligent egg arose, from which appeared the celebrated Cosmic Being.
etad aṇḍaṁ viśeṣākhyaṁ
yatra loka-vitāno ’yaṁ
rūpaṁ bhagavato hareḥ
etat — this; aṇḍam — egg; viśeṣa-ākhyam — called viśeṣa; krama — one after another; vṛddhaiḥ — increased; daśa — ten times; uttaraiḥ — greater; toya-ādibhiḥ — by water and so on; parivṛtam — enveloped; pradhānena — by pradhāna; āvṛtaiḥ — covered; bahiḥ — on the outside; yatra — where; loka-vitānaḥ — the extension of the planetary systems; ayam — this; rūpam — form; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hareḥ — of Lord Hari.
This universal egg, or the universe in the shape of an egg, is called the manifestation of material energy. Its layers of water, air, fire, sky, ego and mahat-tattva increase in thickness one after another. Each layer is ten times bigger than the previous one, and the final outside layer is covered by pradhāna. Within this egg is the universal form of Lord Hari, of whose body the fourteen planetary systems are parts.
utthāya salile śayāt
tam āviśya mahā-devo
bahudhā nirbibheda kham
hiraṇmayāt — golden; aṇḍa-kośāt — from the egg; utthāya — arising; salile — on the water; śayāt — lying; tam — in it; āviśya — having entered; mahā-devaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bahudhā — in many ways; nirbibheda — divided; kham — apertures.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the virāṭ-puruṣa, situated Himself in that golden egg, which was lying on the water, and He divided it into many departments.
mukhaṁ vāṇī tato ’bhavat
vāṇyā vahnir atho nāse
prāṇoto ghrāṇa etayoḥ
nirabhidyata — appeared; asya — of Him; prathamam — first of all; mukham — a mouth; vāṇī — the organ of speech; tataḥ — then; abhavat — came forth; vāṇyā — with the organ of speech; vahniḥ — the god of fire; athaḥ — then; nāse — the two nostrils; prāṇa — the vital air; utaḥ — joined; ghrāṇaḥ — the olfactory sense; etayoḥ — in them.
First of all a mouth appeared in Him, and then came forth the organ of speech, and with it the god of fire, the deity who presides over that organ. Then a pair of nostrils appeared, and in them appeared the olfactory sense, as well as prāṇa, the vital air.
ghrāṇād vāyur abhidyetām
akṣiṇī cakṣur etayoḥ
tasmāt sūryo nyabhidyetāṁ
karṇau śrotraṁ tato diśaḥ
ghrāṇāt — from the olfactory sense; vāyuḥ — the wind-god; abhidyetām — appeared; akṣiṇī — the two eyes; cakṣuḥ — the sense of sight; etayoḥ — in them; tasmāt — from that; sūryaḥ — the sun-god; nyabhidyetām — appeared; karṇau — the two ears; śrotram — the auditory sense; tataḥ — from that; diśaḥ — the deities presiding over the directions.
In the wake of the olfactory sense came the wind-god, who presides over that sense. Thereafter a pair of eyes appeared in the universal form, and in them the sense of sight. In the wake of this sense came the sun-god, who presides over it. Next there appeared in Him a pair of ears, and in them the auditory sense and in its wake the Dig-devatās, or the deities who preside over the directions.
nirbibheda virājas tvag-
tata oṣadhayaś cāsan
śiśnaṁ nirbibhide tataḥ
nirbibheda — appeared; virājaḥ — of the universal form; tvak — skin; roma — hair; śmaśru — beard, mustache; ādayaḥ — and so on; tataḥ — then; tataḥ — thereupon; oṣadhayaḥ — the herbs and drugs; ca — and; āsan — appeared; śiśnam — genitals; nirbibhide — appeared; tataḥ — after this.
Then the universal form of the Lord, the virāṭ-puruṣa, manifested His skin, and thereupon the hair, mustache and beard appeared. After this all the herbs and drugs became manifested, and then His genitals also appeared.
retas tasmād āpa āsan
nirabhidyata vai gudam
gudād apāno ’pānāc ca
retaḥ — semen; tasmāt — from that; āpaḥ — the god who presides over the waters; āsan — appeared; nirabhidyata — was manifested; vai — indeed; gudam — an anus; gudāt — from the anus; apānaḥ — the organ of defecation; apānāt — from the organ of defecation; ca — and; mṛtyuḥ — death; loka-bhayam-karaḥ — causing fear throughout the universe.
After this, semen (the faculty of procreation) and the god who presides over the waters appeared. Next appeared an anus and then the organs of defecation and thereupon the god of death, who is feared throughout the universe.
hastau ca nirabhidyetāṁ
balaṁ tābhyāṁ tataḥ svarāṭ
pādau ca nirabhidyetāṁ
gatis tābhyāṁ tato hariḥ
hastau — the two hands; ca — and; nirabhidyetām — were manifested; balam — power; tābhyām — from them; tataḥ — thereafter; svarāṭ — Lord Indra; pādau — the two feet; ca — and; nirabhidyetām — became manifested; gatiḥ — the process of movement; tābhyām — from them; tataḥ — then; hariḥ — Lord Viṣṇu.
Thereafter the two hands of the universal form of the Lord became manifested, and with them the power of grasping and dropping things, and after that Lord Indra appeared. Next the legs became manifested, and with them the process of movement, and after that Lord Viṣṇu appeared.
nāḍyo ’sya nirabhidyanta
tābhyo lohitam ābhṛtam
nadyas tataḥ samabhavann
nāḍyaḥ — the veins; asya — of the universal form; nirabhidyanta — became manifested; tābhyaḥ — from them; lohitam — blood; ābhṛtam — was produced; nadyaḥ — the rivers; tataḥ — from that; samabhavan — appeared; udaram — the stomach; nirabhidyata — became manifested.
The veins of the universal body became manifested and thereafter the red corpuscles, or blood. In their wake came the rivers (the deities presiding over the veins), and then appeared an abdomen.
kṣut-pipāse tataḥ syātāṁ
samudras tv etayor abhūt
athāsya hṛdayaṁ bhinnaṁ
hṛdayān mana utthitam
kṣut-pipāse — hunger and thirst; tataḥ — then; syātām — appeared; samudraḥ — the ocean; tu — then; etayoḥ — in their wake; abhūt — appeared; atha — then; asya — of the universal form; hṛdayam — a heart; bhinnam — appeared; hṛdayāt — from the heart; manaḥ — the mind; utthitam — appeared.
Next grew feelings of hunger and thirst, and in their wake came the manifestation of the oceans. Then a heart became manifest, and in the wake of the heart the mind appeared.
manasaś candramā jāto
buddhir buddher girāṁ patiḥ
ahaṅkāras tato rudraś
cittaṁ caityas tato ’bhavat
manasaḥ — from the mind; candramāḥ — the moon; jātaḥ — appeared; buddhiḥ — intelligence; buddheḥ — from intelligence; girām patiḥ — the lord of speech (Brahmā); ahaṅkāraḥ — false ego; tataḥ — then; rudraḥ — Lord Śiva; cittam — consciousness; caityaḥ — the deity presiding over consciousness; tataḥ — then; abhavat — appeared.
After the mind, the moon appeared. Intelligence appeared next, and after intelligence, Lord Brahmā appeared. Then the false ego appeared and then Lord Śiva, and after the appearance of Lord Śiva came consciousness and the deity presiding over consciousness.
ete hy abhyutthitā devā
punar āviviśuḥ khāni
tam utthāpayituṁ kramāt
ete — these; hi — indeed; abhyutthitāḥ — manifested; devāḥ — demigods; na — not; eva — at all; asya — of the virāṭ-puruṣa; utthāpane — in waking; aśakan — were able; punaḥ — again; āviviśuḥ — they entered; khāni — the apertures of the body; tam — Him; utthāpayitum — to awaken; kramāt — one after another.
When the demigods and presiding deities of the various senses were thus manifested, they wanted to wake their origin of appearance. But upon failing to do so, they reentered the body of the virāṭ-puruṣa one after another in order to wake Him.
vahnir vācā mukhaṁ bheje
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
ghrāṇena nāsike vāyur
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
vahniḥ — the god of fire; vācā — with the organ of speech; mukham — the mouth; bheje — entered; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; ghrāṇena — with the olfactory sense; nāsike — into His two nostrils; vāyuḥ — the god of the winds; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
The god of fire entered His mouth with the organ of speech, but the virāṭ-puruṣa could not be aroused. Then the god of wind entered His nostrils with the sense of smell, but still the virāṭ-puruṣa refused to be awakened.
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
śrotreṇa karṇau ca diśo
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
akṣiṇī — His two eyes; cakṣuṣā — with the sense of sight; ādityaḥ — the sun-god; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; śrotreṇa — with the sense of hearing; karṇau — His two ears; ca — and; diśaḥ — the deities presiding over the directions; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
The sun-god entered the eyes of the virāṭ-puruṣa with the sense of sight, but still the virāṭ-puruṣa did not get up. Similarly, the predominating deities of the directions entered through His ears with the sense of hearing, but still He did not get up.
tvacaṁ romabhir oṣadhyo
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
retasā śiśnam āpas tu
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
tvacam — the skin of the virāṭ-puruṣa; romabhiḥ — with the hair on the body; oṣadhyaḥ — the deities presiding over the herbs and plants; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; retasā — with the faculty of procreation; śiśnam — the organ of generation; āpaḥ — the water-god; tu — then; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
The predominating deities of the skin, herbs and seasoning plants entered the skin of the virāṭ-puruṣa with the hair of the body, but the Cosmic Being refused to get up even then. The god predominating over water entered His organ of generation with the faculty of procreation, but the virāṭ-puruṣa still would not rise.
gudaṁ mṛtyur apānena
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
hastāv indro balenaiva
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
gudam — His anus; mṛtyuḥ — the god of death; apānena — with the organ of defecation; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; hastau — the two hands; indraḥ — Lord Indra; balena — with their power to grasp and drop things; eva — indeed; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
The god of death entered His anus with the organ of defecation, but the virāṭ-puruṣa could not be spurred to activity. The god Indra entered the hands with their power of grasping and dropping things, but the virāṭ-puruṣa would not get up even then.
viṣṇur gatyaiva caraṇau
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
nāḍīr nadyo lohitena
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
viṣṇuḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; gatyā — with the faculty of locomotion; eva — indeed; caraṇau — His two feet; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; nāḍīḥ — His blood vessels; nadyaḥ — the rivers or river-gods; lohitena — with the blood, with the power of circulation; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did stir; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
Lord Viṣṇu entered His feet with the faculty of locomotion, but the virāṭ-puruṣa refused to stand up even then. The rivers entered His blood vessels with the blood and the power of circulation, but still the Cosmic Being could not be made to stir.
kṣut-tṛḍbhyām udaraṁ sindhur
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
hṛdayaṁ manasā candro
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
kṣut-tṛḍbhyām — with hunger and thirst; udaram — His abdomen; sindhuḥ — the ocean or ocean-god; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; hṛdayam — His heart; manasā — with the mind; candraḥ — the moon-god; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
The ocean entered His abdomen with hunger and thirst, but the Cosmic Being refused to rise even then. The moon-god entered His heart with the mind, but the Cosmic Being would not be roused.
buddhyā brahmāpi hṛdayaṁ
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
rudro ’bhimatyā hṛdayaṁ
nodatiṣṭhat tadā virāṭ
buddhyā — with intelligence; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; api — also; hṛdayam — His heart; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; rudraḥ — Lord Śiva; abhimatyā — with the ego; hṛdayam — His heart; na — not; udatiṣṭhat — did arise; tadā — even then; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa.
Brahmā also entered His heart with intelligence, but even then the Cosmic Being could not be prevailed upon to get up. Lord Rudra also entered His heart with the ego, but even then the Cosmic Being did not stir.
cittena hṛdayaṁ caityaḥ
kṣetra-jñaḥ prāviśad yadā
virāṭ tadaiva puruṣaḥ
cittena — along with reason, consciousness; hṛdayam — the heart; caityaḥ — the deity presiding over consciousness; kṣetra-jñaḥ — the knower of the field; prāviśat — entered; yadā — when; virāṭ — the virāṭ-puruṣa; tadā — then; eva — just; puruṣaḥ — the Cosmic Being; salilāt — from the water; udatiṣṭhata — arose.
However, when the inner controller, the deity presiding over consciousness, entered the heart with reason, at that very moment the Cosmic Being arose from the causal waters.
yathā prasuptaṁ puruṣaṁ
prabhavanti vinā yena
yathā — just as; prasuptam — sleeping; puruṣam — a man; prāṇa — the vital air; indriya — the senses for working and recording knowledge; manaḥ — the mind; dhiyaḥ — the intelligence; prabhavanti — are able; vinā — without; yena — whom (the Supersoul); na — not; utthāpayitum — to arouse; ojasā — by their own power.
When a man is sleeping, all his material assets — namely the vital energy, the senses for recording knowledge, the senses for working, the mind and the intelligence — cannot arouse him. He can be aroused only when the Supersoul helps him.
tam asmin pratyag-ātmānaṁ
bhaktyā viraktyā jñānena
tam — upon Him; asmin — in this; pratyak-ātmānam — the Supersoul; dhiyā — with the mind; yoga-pravṛttayā — engaged in devotional service; bhaktyā — through devotion; viraktyā — through detachment; jñānena — through spiritual knowledge; vivicya — considering carefully; ātmani — in the body; cintayet — one should contemplate.
Therefore, through devotion, detachment and advancement in spiritual knowledge acquired through concentrated devotional service, one should contemplate that Supersoul as present in this very body although simultaneously apart from it.