Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 3 Chapter 12
Creation of the Kumāras and Others
iti te varṇitaḥ kṣattaḥ
mahimā veda-garbho ’tha
yathāsrākṣīn nibodha me
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Śrī Maitreya said; iti — thus; te — unto you; varṇitaḥ — described; kṣattaḥ — O Vidura; kāla-ākhyaḥ — by the name eternal time; paramātmanaḥ — of the Supersoul; mahimā — glories; veda-garbhaḥ — Lord Brahmā, the reservoir of the Vedas; atha — hereafter; yathā — as it is; asrākṣīt — did create; nibodha — just try to understand; me — from me.
Śrī Maitreya said: O learned Vidura, so far I have explained to you the glories of the form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His feature of kāla. Now you can hear from me about the creation of Brahmā, the reservoir of all Vedic knowledge.
atha tāmisram ādi-kṛt
mahāmohaṁ ca mohaṁ ca
sasarja — created; agre — at first; andha-tāmisram — the sense of death; atha — then; tāmisram — anger upon frustration; ādi-kṛt — all these; mahā-moham — ownership of enjoyable objects; ca — also; moham — illusory conception; ca — also; tamaḥ — darkness in self-knowledge; ca — as well as; ajñāna — nescience; vṛttayaḥ — engagements.
Brahmā first created the nescient engagements like self-deception, the sense of death, anger after frustration, the sense of false ownership, and the illusory bodily conception, or forgetfulness of one’s real identity.
dṛṣṭvā pāpīyasīṁ sṛṣṭiṁ
nātmānaṁ bahv amanyata
manasānyāṁ tato ’sṛjat
dṛṣṭvā — by seeing; pāpīyasīm — sinful; sṛṣṭim — creation; na — did not; ātmānam — unto Himself; bahu — much pleasure; amanyata — felt; bhagavat — on the Personality of Godhead; dhyāna — meditation; pūtena — purified by that; manasā — by such a mentality; anyām — another; tataḥ — thereafter; asṛjat — created.
Seeing such a misleading creation as a sinful task, Brahmā did not feel much pleasure in his activity, and therefore he purified himself by meditation on the Personality of Godhead. Then he began another term of creation.
sanakaṁ ca sanandaṁ ca
sanat-kumāraṁ ca munīn
sanakam — Sanaka; ca — also; sanandam — Sananda; ca — and; sanātanam — Sanātana; atha — thereafter; ātma-bhūḥ — Brahmā, who is self-born; sanat-kumāram — Sanat-kumāra; ca — also; munīn — the great sages; niṣkriyān — free from all fruitive action; ūrdhva-retasaḥ — those whose semen flows upwards.
In the beginning, Brahmā created four great sages named Sanaka, Sananda, Sanātana and Sanat-kumāra. All of them were unwilling to adopt materialistic activities because they were highly elevated due to their semen’s flowing upwards.
tān babhāṣe svabhūḥ putrān
prajāḥ sṛjata putrakāḥ
tan naicchan mokṣa-dharmāṇo
tān — unto the Kumāras, as above mentioned; babhāṣe — addressed; svabhūḥ — Brahmā; putrān — unto the sons; prajāḥ — generations; sṛjata — to create; putrakāḥ — O my sons; tat — that; na — not; aicchan — desired; mokṣa-dharmāṇaḥ — pledged to the principles of liberation; vāsudeva — the Personality of Godhead; parāyaṇāḥ — who are so devoted.
Brahmā spoke to his sons after generating them. “My dear sons,” he said, “now generate progeny.” But due to their being attached to Vāsudeva, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, they aimed at liberation, and therefore they expressed their unwillingness.
so ’vadhyātaḥ sutair evaṁ
krodhaṁ durviṣahaṁ jātaṁ
saḥ — he (Brahmā); avadhyātaḥ — thus being disrespected; sutaiḥ — by the sons; evam — thus; pratyākhyāta — refusing to obey; anuśāsanaiḥ — the order of their father; krodham — anger; durviṣaham — too much to be tolerated; jātam — thus generated; niyantum — to control; upacakrame — tried his best.
On the refusal of the sons to obey the order of their father, there was much anger generated in the mind of Brahmā, which he tried to control and not express.
dhiyā nigṛhyamāṇo ’pi
bhruvor madhyāt prajāpateḥ
sadyo ’jāyata tan-manyuḥ
dhiyā — by intelligence; nigṛhyamāṇaḥ — being controlled; api — in spite of; bhruvoḥ — of the eyebrows; madhyāt — from between; prajāpateḥ — of Brahmā; sadyaḥ — at once; ajāyata — generated; tat — his; manyuḥ — anger; kumāraḥ — a child; nīla-lohitaḥ — mixture of blue and red.
Although he tried to curb his anger, it came out from between his eyebrows, and a child mixed blue and red was immediately generated.
sa vai ruroda devānāṁ
pūrvajo bhagavān bhavaḥ
nāmāni kuru me dhātaḥ
sthānāni ca jagad-guro
saḥ — he; vai — certainly; ruroda — cried loudly; devānām pūrvajaḥ — the eldest of all demigods; bhagavān — the most powerful; bhavaḥ — Lord Śiva; nāmāni — different names; kuru — designate; me — my; dhātaḥ — O destiny maker; sthānāni — places; ca — also; jagat-guro — O teacher of the universe.
After his birth he began to cry: O destiny maker, teacher of the universe, kindly designate my name and place.
iti tasya vacaḥ pādmo
abhyadhād bhadrayā vācā
mā rodīs tat karomi te
iti — thus; tasya — his; vacaḥ — request; pādmaḥ — one who is born from the lotus flower; bhagavān — the powerful; paripālayan — accepting the request; abhyadhāt — pacified; bhadrayā — by gentle; vācā — words; mā — do not; rodīḥ — cry; tat — that; karomi — I shall do it; te — as desired by you.
The all-powerful Brahmā, who was born from the lotus flower, pacified the boy with gentle words, accepting his request, and said: Do not cry. I shall certainly do as you desire.
yad arodīḥ sura-śreṣṭha
sodvega iva bālakaḥ
tatas tvām abhidhāsyanti
nāmnā rudra iti prajāḥ
yat — as much as; arodīḥ — cried loudly; sura-śreṣṭha — O chief of the demigods; sa-udvegaḥ — with great anxiety; iva — like; bālakaḥ — a boy; tataḥ — therefore; tvām — you; abhidhāsyanti — will call; nāmnā — by the name; rudraḥ — Rudra; iti — thus; prajāḥ — people.
Thereafter Brahmā said: O chief of the demigods, you shall be called by the name Rudra by all people because you have so anxiously cried.
hṛd indriyāṇy asur vyoma
vāyur agnir jalaṁ mahī
sūryaś candras tapaś caiva
sthānāny agre kṛtāni te
hṛt — the heart; indriyāṇi — the senses; asuḥ — life air; vyoma — the sky; vāyuḥ — the air; agniḥ — fire; jalam — water; mahī — the earth; sūryaḥ — the sun; candraḥ — the moon; tapaḥ — austerity; ca — as well as; eva — certainly; sthānāni — all these places; agre — hereinbefore; kṛtāni — already made; te — for you.
My dear boy, I have already selected the following places for your residence: the heart, the senses, the air of life, the sky, the air, the fire, the water, the earth, the sun, the moon and austerity.
manyur manur mahinaso
mahāñ chiva ṛtadhvajaḥ
ugraretā bhavaḥ kālo
manyuḥ, manuḥ, mahinasaḥ, mahān, śivaḥ, ṛtadhvajaḥ, ugaretāḥ, bhavaḥ, kālaḥ, vāmadevaḥ, dhṛtavrataḥ — all names of Rudra.
Lord Brahmā said: My dear boy Rudra, you have eleven other names: Manyu, Manu, Mahinasa, Mahān, Śiva, Ṛtadhvaja, Ugraretā, Bhava, Kāla, Vāmadeva and Dhṛtavrata.
dhīr dhṛti-rasalomā ca
niyut sarpir ilāmbikā
irāvatī svadhā dīkṣā
rudrāṇyo rudra te striyaḥ
dhīḥ, dhṛti, rasalā, umā, niyut, sarpiḥ, ilā, ambikā, irāvatī, svadhā, dīkṣā rudrāṇyaḥ — the eleven Rudrāṇīs; rudra — O Rudra; te — unto you; striyaḥ — wives.
O Rudra, you also have eleven wives, called the Rudrāṇīs, and they are as follows: Dhī, Dhṛti, Rasalā, Umā, Niyut, Sarpi, Ilā, Ambikā, Irāvatī, Svadhā and Dīkṣā.
sthānāni ca sa-yoṣaṇaḥ
ebhiḥ sṛja prajā bahvīḥ
prajānām asi yat patiḥ
gṛhāṇa — just accept; etāni — all these; nāmāni — different names; sthānāni — as well as places; ca — also; sa-yoṣaṇaḥ — along with wives; ebhiḥ — with them; sṛja — just generate; prajāḥ — progeny; bahvīḥ — on a large scale; prajānām — of the living entities; asi — you are; yat — since; patiḥ — the master.
My dear boy, you may now accept all the names and places designated for you and your different wives, and since you are now one of the masters of the living entities, you may increase the population on a large scale.
ity ādiṣṭaḥ sva-guruṇā
iti — thus; ādiṣṭaḥ — being ordered; sva-guruṇā — by his own spiritual master; bhagavān — the most powerful; nīla-lohitaḥ — Rudra, whose color is mixed blue and red; sattva — power; ākṛti — bodily features; svabhāvena — and with a very furious mode of nature; sasarja — created; ātma-samāḥ — like his own prototype; prajāḥ — generations.
The most powerful Rudra, whose bodily color was blue mixed with red, created many offspring exactly resembling him in features, strength and furious nature.
samantād grasatāṁ jagat
rudrāṇām — of the sons of Rudra; rudra-sṛṣṭānām — who were generated by Rudra; samantāt — being assembled together; grasatām — while devouring; jagat — the universe; niśāmya — by observing their activities; asaṅkhyaśaḥ — unlimited; yūthān — assembly; prajā-patiḥ — the father of the living entities; aśaṅkata — became afraid of.
The sons and grandsons generated by Rudra were unlimited in number, and when they assembled together they attempted to devour the entire universe. When Brahmā, the father of the living entities, saw this, he became afraid of the situation.
alaṁ prajābhiḥ sṛṣṭābhir
mayā saha dahantībhir
diśaś cakṣurbhir ulbaṇaiḥ
alam — unnecessary; prajābhiḥ — by such living entities; sṛṣṭābhiḥ — generated; īdṛśībhiḥ — of this type; sura-uttama — O best among the demigods; mayā — me; saha — along with; dahantībhiḥ — who are burning; diśaḥ — all sides; cakṣurbhiḥ — by the eyes; ulbaṇaiḥ — fiery flames.
Brahmā told Rudra: O best among the demigods, there is no need for you to generate living entities of this nature. They have begun to devastate everything on all sides with the fiery flames from their eyes, and they have even attacked me.
tapa ātiṣṭha bhadraṁ te
tapasaiva yathā pūrvaṁ
sraṣṭā viśvam idaṁ bhavān
tapaḥ — penance; ātiṣṭha — be situated; bhadram — auspicious; te — unto you; sarva — all; bhūta — living entities; sukha-āvaham — bringing happiness; tapasā — by penance; eva — only; yathā — as much as; pūrvam — before; sraṣṭā — will create; viśvam — the universe; idam — this; bhavān — yourself.
My dear son, you had better situate yourself in penance, which is auspicious for all living entities and which will bring all benediction upon you. By penance only shall you be able to create the universe as it was before.
tapasaiva paraṁ jyotir
añjasā vindate pumān
tapasā — by penance; eva — only; param — the supreme; jyotiḥ — light; bhagavantam — unto the Personality of Godhead; adhokṣajam — He who is beyond the approach of the senses; sarva-bhūta-guhā-āvāsam — residing in the heart of all living entities; añjasā — completely; vindate — can know; pumān — a person.
By penance only can one even approach the Personality of Godhead, who is within the heart of every living entity and at the same time beyond the reach of all senses.
parikramya girāṁ patim
bāḍham ity amum āmantrya
viveśa tapase vanam
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Śrī Maitreya said; evam — thus; ātma-bhuvā — by Brahmā; ādiṣṭaḥ — being so requested; parikramya — by circumambulating; girām — of the Vedas; patim — unto the master; bāḍham — that is right; iti — thus; amum — unto Brahmā; āmantrya — thus addressing; viveśa — entered into; tapase — for the matter of penance; vanam — into the forest.
Śrī Maitreya said: Thus Rudra, having been ordered by Brahmā, circumambulated his father, the master of the Vedas. Addressing him with words of assent, he entered the forest to perform austere penances.
daśa putrāḥ prajajñire
atha — thus; abhidhyāyataḥ — while thinking of; sargam — creation; daśa — ten; putrāḥ — sons; prajajñire — were begotten; bhagavat — regarding the Personality of Godhead; śakti — potency; yuktasya — empowered with; loka — the world; santāna — generation; hetavaḥ — the causes.
Brahmā, who was empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, thought of generating living entities and begot ten sons for the extension of the generations.
pulastyaḥ pulahaḥ kratuḥ
bhṛgur vasiṣṭho dakṣaś ca
daśamas tatra nāradaḥ
marīciḥ, atri, aṅgirasau, pulastyaḥ, pulahaḥ, kratuḥ, bhṛguḥ, vasiṣṭhaḥ, dakṣaḥ — names of sons of Brahmā; ca — and; daśamaḥ — the tenth; tatra — there; nāradaḥ — Nārada.
Marīci, Atri, Aṅgirā, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhṛgu, Vasiṣṭha, Dakṣa, and the tenth son, Nārada, were thus born.
utsaṅgān nārado jajñe
dakṣo ’ṅguṣṭhāt svayambhuvaḥ
prāṇād vasiṣṭhaḥ sañjāto
bhṛgus tvaci karāt kratuḥ
utsaṅgāt — by transcendental deliberation; nāradaḥ — Mahāmuni Nārada; jajñe — was generated; dakṣaḥ — Dakṣa; aṅguṣṭhāt — from the thumb; svayambhuvaḥ — of Brahmā; prāṇāt — from the life air, or breathing; vasiṣṭhaḥ — Vasiṣṭha; sañjātaḥ — was born; bhṛguḥ — the sage Bhṛgu; tvaci — from the touch; karāt — from the hand; kratuḥ — the sage Kratu.
Nārada was born from the deliberation of Brahmā, which is the best part of the body. Vasiṣṭha was born from his breathing, Dakṣa from a thumb, Bhṛgu from his touch, and Kratu from his hand.
pulaho nābhito jajñe
pulastyaḥ karṇayor ṛṣiḥ
aṅgirā mukhato ’kṣṇo ’trir
marīcir manaso ’bhavat
pulahaḥ — the sage Pulaha; nābhitaḥ — from the navel; jajñe — generated; pulastyaḥ — the sage Pulastya; karṇayoḥ — from the ears; ṛṣiḥ — the great sage; aṅgirāḥ — the sage Aṅgirā; mukhataḥ — from the mouth; akṣṇaḥ — from the eyes; atriḥ — the sage Atri; marīciḥ — the sage Marīci; manasaḥ — from the mind; abhavat — appeared.
Pulastya was generated from the ears, Aṅgirā from the mouth, Atri from the eyes, Marīci from the mind and Pulaha from the navel of Brahmā.
dharmaḥ stanād dakṣiṇato
yatra nārāyaṇaḥ svayam
adharmaḥ pṛṣṭhato yasmān
dharmaḥ — religion; stanāt — from the breast; dakṣiṇataḥ — on the right side; yatra — wherein; nārāyaṇaḥ — the Supreme Lord; svayam — personally; adharmaḥ — irreligion; pṛṣṭhataḥ — from the back; yasmāt — from which; mṛtyuḥ — death; loka — to the living entity; bhayam-karaḥ — horrible.
Religion was manifested from the breast of Brahmā, wherein is seated the Supreme Personality of Godhead Nārāyaṇa, and irreligion appeared from his back, where horrible death takes place for the living entity.
hṛdi kāmo bhruvaḥ krodho
āsyād vāk sindhavo meḍhrān
nirṛtiḥ pāyor aghāśrayaḥ
hṛdi — from the heart; kāmaḥ — lust; bhruvaḥ — from the eyebrows; krodhaḥ — anger; lobhaḥ — greed; ca — also; adhara-dacchadāt — from between the lips; āsyāt — from the mouth; vāk — speaking; sindhavaḥ — the seas; meḍhrāt — from the penis; nirṛtiḥ — low activities; pāyoḥ — from the anus; agha-āśrayaḥ — reservoir of all vices.
Lust and desire became manifested from the heart of Brahmā, anger from between his eyebrows, greed from between his lips, the power of speaking from his mouth, the ocean from his penis, and low and abominable activities from his anus, the source of all sins.
chāyāyāḥ kardamo jajñe
devahūtyāḥ patiḥ prabhuḥ
manaso dehataś cedaṁ
jajñe viśva-kṛto jagat
chāyāyāḥ — by the shadow; kardamaḥ — Kardama Muni; jajñe — became manifested; devahūtyāḥ — of Devahūti; patiḥ — husband; prabhuḥ — the master; manasaḥ — from the mind; dehataḥ — from the body; ca — also; idam — this; jajñe — developed; viśva — the universe; kṛtaḥ — of the creator; jagat — cosmic manifestation.
Sage Kardama, husband of the great Devahūti, was manifested from the shadow of Brahmā. Thus all became manifested from either the body or the mind of Brahmā.
vācaṁ duhitaraṁ tanvīṁ
svayambhūr haratīṁ manaḥ
akāmāṁ cakame kṣattaḥ
sa-kāma iti naḥ śrutam
vācam — Vāk; duhitaram — unto the daughter; tanvīm — born of his body; svayambhūḥ — Brahmā; haratīm — attracting; manaḥ — his mind; akāmām — without being sexually inclined; cakame — desired; kṣattaḥ — O Vidura; sa-kāmaḥ — being sexually inclined; iti — thus; naḥ — we; śrutam — have heard.
O Vidura, we have heard that Brahmā had a daughter named Vāk who was born from his body and who attracted his mind toward sex, although she was not sexually inclined towards him.
tam adharme kṛta-matiṁ
vilokya pitaraṁ sutāḥ
tam — unto him; adharme — in the matter of immortality; kṛta-matim — the mind being so given; vilokya — seeing thus; pitaram — unto the father; sutāḥ — sons; marīci-mukhyāḥ — headed by Marīci; munayaḥ — sages; viśrambhāt — with due respect; pratyabodhayan — submitted as follows.
Thus, finding their father so deluded in an act of immorality, the sages headed by Marīci, all sons of Brahmā, spoke as follows with great respect.
naitat pūrvaiḥ kṛtaṁ tvad ye
na kariṣyanti cāpare
yas tvaṁ duhitaraṁ gaccher
na — never; etat — such a thing; pūrvaiḥ — by any other Brahmā, or yourself in any previous kalpa; kṛtam — performed; tvat — by you; ye — that which; na — nor; kariṣyanti — will do; ca — also; apare — anyone else; yaḥ — that which; tvam — you; duhitaram — unto the daughter; gaccheḥ — would go; anigṛhya — without controlling; aṅgajam — sex desire; prabhuḥ — O father.
O father, this performance in which you are endeavoring to complicate yourself was never attempted by any other Brahmā, nor by anyone else, nor by you in previous kalpas, nor will anyone dare to attempt it in the future. You are the supreme being in the universe, so how is it that you want to have sex with your daughter and cannot control your desire?
tejīyasām api hy etan
na suślokyaṁ jagad-guro
yad-vṛttam anutiṣṭhan vai
lokaḥ kṣemāya kalpate
tejīyasām — of the most powerful; api — also; hi — certainly; etat — such an act; na — not suitable; su-ślokyam — good behavior; jagat-guro — O spiritual master of the universe; yat — whose; vṛttam — character; anutiṣṭhan — following; vai — certainly; lokaḥ — the world; kṣemāya — for prosperity; kalpate — becomes eligible.
Even though you are the most powerful being, this act does not suit you because your character is followed for spiritual improvement by people in general.
tasmai namo bhagavate
ya idaṁ svena rociṣā
ātma-sthaṁ vyañjayām āsa
sa dharmaṁ pātum arhati
tasmai — unto Him; namaḥ — obeisances; bhagavate — unto the Personality of Godhead; yaḥ — who; idam — this; svena — by His own; rociṣā — effulgence; ātma-stham — situated in Himself; vyañjayām āsa — has manifested; saḥ — He; dharmam — religion; pātum — for protection; arhati — may kindly do so.
Let us offer our respectful obeisances unto the Personality of Godhead, who, by His own effulgence, while situated in Himself, has manifested this cosmos. May He also protect religion for all goodness.
sa itthaṁ gṛṇataḥ putrān
puro dṛṣṭvā prajāpatīn
tatyāja vrīḍitas tadā
tāṁ diśo jagṛhur ghorāṁ
nīhāraṁ yad vidus tamaḥ
saḥ — he (Brahmā); ittham — thus; gṛṇataḥ — speaking; putrān — sons; puraḥ — before; dṛṣṭvā — seeing; prajā-patīn — all the progenitors of living entities; prajāpati-patiḥ — the father of them (Brahmā); tanvam — body; tatyāja — quit; vrīḍitaḥ — ashamed; tadā — at that time; tām — that body; diśaḥ — all directions; jagṛhuḥ — accepted; ghorām — blamable; nīhāram — fog; yat — which; viduḥ — they know as; tamaḥ — darkness.
The father of all Prajāpatis, Brahmā, thus seeing all his Prajāpati sons speaking in that way, became very much ashamed and at once gave up the body he had accepted. Later that body appeared in all directions as the dangerous fog in darkness.
kadācid dhyāyataḥ sraṣṭur
vedā āsaṁś catur-mukhāt
kathaṁ srakṣyāmy ahaṁ lokān
samavetān yathā purā
kadācit — once upon a time; dhyāyataḥ — while contemplating; sraṣṭuḥ — of Brahmā; vedāḥ — the Vedic literature; āsan — became manifested; catuḥ-mukhāt — from the four mouths; katham srakṣyāmi — how shall I create; aham — myself; lokān — all these worlds; samavetān — assembled; yathā — as they were; purā — in the past.
Once upon a time, when Brahmā was thinking of how to create the worlds as in the past millennium, the four Vedas, which contain all varieties of knowledge, became manifested from his four mouths.
dharmasya pādāś catvāras
cātuḥ — four; hotram — paraphernalia for sacrifice; karma — action; tantram — expansions of such activities; upaveda — supplementary to the Vedas; nayaiḥ — by logical conclusions; saha — along with; dharmasya — of religiosity; pādāḥ — principles; catvāraḥ — four; tathā eva — in the same way; āśrama — social orders; vṛttayaḥ — occupations.
The four kinds of paraphernalia for conducting the fire sacrifice became manifest: the performer [the chanter], the offerer, the fire, and the action performed in terms of the supplementary Vedas. Also the four principles of religiosity [truth, austerity, mercy and cleanliness] and the duties in the four social orders all became manifest.
sa vai viśva-sṛjām īśo
vedādīn mukhato ’sṛjat
yad yad yenāsṛjad devas
tan me brūhi tapo-dhana
viduraḥ uvāca — Vidura said; saḥ — he (Brahmā); vai — certainly; viśva — the universe; sṛjām — of those who created; īśaḥ — the controller; veda-ādīn — the Vedas, etc; mukhataḥ — from the mouth; asṛjat — established; yat — that; yat — which; yena — by which; asṛjat — created; devaḥ — the god; tat — that; me — unto me; brūhi — please explain; tapaḥ-dhana — O sage whose only wealth is penance.
Vidura said: O great sage whose only wealth is penance, kindly explain to me how and with whose help Brahmā established the Vedic knowledge which emanated from his mouth.
vedān pūrvādibhir mukhaiḥ
śāstram ijyāṁ stuti-stomaṁ
prāyaścittaṁ vyadhāt kramāt
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Maitreya said; ṛk-yajuḥ-sāma-atharva — the four Vedas; ākhyān — of the name; vedān — Vedic literatures; pūrva-ādibhiḥ — beginning with the front; mukhaiḥ — by the mouths; śāstram — Vedic hymns not pronounced before; ijyām — priestly rituals; stuti-stomam — the subject matter of the reciters; prāyaścittam — transcendental activities; vyadhāt — established; kramāt — one after another.
Maitreya said: Beginning from the front face of Brahmā, gradually the four Vedas — Ṛk, Yajur, Sāma and Atharva — became manifest. Thereafter, Vedic hymns which had not been pronounced before, priestly rituals, the subject matters of the recitation, and transcendental activities were all established, one after another.
gāndharvaṁ vedam ātmanaḥ
sthāpatyaṁ cāsṛjad vedaṁ
kramāt pūrvādibhir mukhaiḥ
āyuḥ-vedam — medical science; dhanuḥ-vedam — military science; gāndharvam — musical art; vedam — they are all Vedic knowledge; ātmanaḥ — of his own; sthāpatyam — architectural; ca — also; asṛjat — created; vedam — knowledge; kramāt — respectively; pūrva-ādibhiḥ — beginning from the front face; mukhaiḥ — by the mouths.
He also created the medical science, military art, musical art and architectural science, all from the Vedas. They all emanated one after another, beginning from the front face.
pañcamaṁ vedam īśvaraḥ
sarvebhya eva vaktrebhyaḥ
itihāsa — histories; purāṇāni — the Purāṇas (supplementary Vedas); pañcamam — the fifth; vedam — the Vedic literature; īśvaraḥ — the Lord; sarvebhyaḥ — all together; eva — certainly; vaktrebhyaḥ — from his mouths; sasṛje — created; sarva — all around; darśanaḥ — one who can see all time.
Then he created the fifth Veda — the Purāṇas and the histories — from all his mouths, since he could see all the past, present and future.
ṣoḍaśī-ukthau — types of sacrifice; pūrva-vaktrāt — from the eastern mouth; purīṣi-agniṣṭutau — types of sacrifice; atha — then; āptoryāma-atirātrau — types of sacrifice; ca — and; vājapeyam — type of sacrifice; sa-gosavam — type of sacrifice.
All the different varieties of fire sacrifices [ṣoḍaśī, uktha, purīṣi, agniṣṭoma, āptoryāma, atirātra, vājapeya and gosava] became manifested from the eastern mouth of Brahmā.
vidyā dānaṁ tapaḥ satyaṁ
dharmasyeti padāni ca
āśramāṁś ca yathā-saṅkhyam
asṛjat saha vṛttibhiḥ
vidyā — education; dānam — charity; tapaḥ — penance; satyam — truth; dharmasya — of religion; iti — thus; padāni — four legs; ca — also; āśramān — orders of life; ca — also; yathā — as they are; saṅkhyam — in number; asṛjat — created; saha — along with; vṛttibhiḥ — by vocations.
Education, charity, penance and truth are said to be the four legs of religion, and to learn this there are four orders of life with different classifications of castes according to vocation. Brahmā created all these in systematic order.
sāvitraṁ prājāpatyaṁ ca
brāhmaṁ cātha bṛhat tathā
śiloñcha iti vai gṛhe
sāvitram — the thread ceremony of the twice-born; prājāpatyam — to execute the vow for one year; ca — and; brāhmam — acceptance of the Vedas; ca — and; atha — also; bṛhat — complete abstinence from sex life; tathā — then; vārtā — vocation in terms of Vedic sanction; sañcaya — professional duty; śālīna — livelihood without asking anyone for cooperation; śila-uñchaḥ — picking up rejected grains; iti — thus; vai — even though; gṛhe — in household life.
Then the thread ceremony for the twice-born was inaugurated, as were the rules to be followed for at least one year after acceptance of the Vedas, rules for observing complete abstinence from sex life, vocations in terms of Vedic injunctions, various professional duties in household life, and the method of maintaining a livelihood without anyone’s cooperation by picking up rejected grains.
dumbarāḥ phenapā vane
nyāse kuṭīcakaḥ pūrvaṁ
vaikhānasāḥ — the section of men who retire from active life and live on half-boiled meals; vālakhilya — one who quits his former stock of grains on receipt of more; audumbarāḥ — one who lives on what he gets from the direction towards which he starts after rising from bed; phenapāḥ — one who lives on the fruits which automatically fall from the tree; vane — in the forest; nyāse — in the order of renunciation; kuṭīcakaḥ — life in the family without attachment; pūrvam — in the beginning; bahvodaḥ — giving up all material activities and engaging fully in transcendental service; haṁsa — fully engaged in transcendental knowledge; niṣkriyau — stopping all kinds of activities.
The four divisions of retired life are the vaikhānasas, vālakhilyas, audumbaras and phenapas. The four divisions of the renounced order of life are the kuṭīcakas, bahvodas, haṁsas and niṣkriyas. All these were manifested from Brahmā.
ānvīkṣikī trayī vārtā
daṇḍa-nītis tathaiva ca
evaṁ vyāhṛtayaś cāsan
praṇavo hy asya dahrataḥ
ānvīkṣikī — logic; trayī — the three goals, namely religion, economy and salvation; vārtā — sense gratification; daṇḍa — law and order; nītiḥ — moral codes; tathā — as also; eva ca — respectively; evam — thus; vyāhṛtayaḥ — the celebrated hymns bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ and svaḥ; ca — also; āsan — came into existence; praṇavaḥ — the oṁkāra; hi — certainly; asya — of him (Brahmā); dahrataḥ — from the heart.
The science of logical argument, the Vedic goals of life, and also law and order, moral codes and the celebrated hymns bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ and svaḥ all became manifested from the mouths of Brahmā, and the praṇava oṁkāra was manifested from his heart.
tasyoṣṇig āsīl lomabhyo
gāyatrī ca tvaco vibhoḥ
triṣṭum māṁsāt snuto ’nuṣṭub
jagaty asthnaḥ prajāpateḥ
tasya — his; uṣṇik — one of the Vedic meters; āsīt — generated; lomabhyaḥ — from the hairs on the body; gāyatrī — the principal Vedic hymn; ca — also; tvacaḥ — from the skin; vibhoḥ — of the Lord; triṣṭup — a particular type of poetic meter; māṁsāt — from the flesh; snutaḥ — from the sinews; anuṣṭup — another type of poetic meter; jagatī — another type of poetic meter; asthnaḥ — from the bones; prajāpateḥ — of the father of the living entities.
Thereafter the art of literary expression, uṣṇik, was generated from the hairs on the body of the almighty Prajāpati. The principal Vedic hymn, gāyatrī, was generated from the skin, triṣṭup from the flesh, anuṣṭup from the veins, and jagatī from the bones of the lord of the living entities.
majjāyāḥ paṅktir utpannā
bṛhatī prāṇato ’bhavat
majjāyāḥ — from the bone marrow; paṅktiḥ — a particular type of verse; utpannā — became manifested; bṛhatī — another type of verse; prāṇataḥ — out of the life-breathing; abhavat — generated.
The art of writing verse, paṅkti, became manifested from the bone marrow, and that of bṛhatī, another type of verse, was generated from the life-breath of the lord of the living entities.
sparśas tasyābhavaj jīvaḥ
svaro deha udāhṛta
ūṣmāṇam indriyāṇy āhur
antaḥ-sthā balam ātmanaḥ
svarāḥ sapta vihāreṇa
bhavanti sma prajāpateḥ
sparśaḥ — the set of letters from ka to ma; tasya — his; abhavat — became; jīvaḥ — the soul; svaraḥ — vowels; dehaḥ — his body; udāhṛtaḥ — are expressed; ūṣmāṇam — the letters śa, ṣa, sa and ha; indriyāṇi — the senses; āhuḥ — are called; antaḥ-sthāḥ — the set of letters so known (ya, ra, la and va); balam — energy; ātmanaḥ — of his self; svarāḥ — music; sapta — seven; vihāreṇa — by the sensual activities; bhavanti sma — became manifested; prajāpateḥ — of the lord of the living entities.
Brahmā’s soul was manifested as the touch alphabets, his body as the vowels, his senses as the sibilant alphabets, his strength as the intermediate alphabets and his sensual activities as the seven notes of music.
śabda-brahma — transcendental sound; ātmanaḥ — of the Supreme Lord; tasya — His; vyakta — manifested; avyakta-ātmanaḥ — of the unmanifested; paraḥ — transcendental; brahmā — the Absolute; avabhāti — completely manifested; vitataḥ — distributing; nānā — multifarious; śakti — energies; upabṛṁhitaḥ — invested with.
Brahmā is the personal representation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the source of transcendental sound and is therefore above the conception of manifested and unmanifested. Brahmā is the complete form of the Absolute Truth and is invested with multifarious energies.
tato ’parām upādāya
sa sargāya mano dadhe
tataḥ — thereafter; aparām — another; upādāya — having accepted; saḥ — he; sargāya — in the matter of creation; manaḥ — mind; dadhe — gave attention.
Thereafter Brahmā accepted another body, in which sex life was not forbidden, and thus he engaged himself in the matter of further creation.
api sargam avistṛtam
jñātvā tad dhṛdaye bhūyaś
cintayām āsa kaurava
ṛṣīṇām — of the great sages; bhūri-vīryāṇām — with great potency; api — in spite of; sargam — the creation; avistṛtam — not extended; jñātvā — knowing; tat — that; hṛdaye — in his heart; bhūyaḥ — again; cintayām āsa — he began to consider; kaurava — O son of the Kurus.
O son of the Kurus, when Brahmā saw that in spite of the presence of sages of great potency there was no sufficient increase in population, he seriously began to consider how the population could be increased.
aho adbhutam etan me
na hy edhante prajā nūnaṁ
daivam atra vighātakam
aho — alas; adbhutam — it is wonderful; etat — this; me — for me; vyāpṛtasya — being busy; api — although; nityadā — always; na — does not; hi — certainly; edhante — generate; prajāḥ — living entities; nūnam — however; daivam — destiny; atra — herein; vighātakam — against.
Brahmā thought to himself: Alas, it is wonderful that in spite of my being scattered all over, there is still insufficient population throughout the universe. There is no other cause for this misfortune but destiny.
evaṁ yukta-kṛtas tasya
daivaṁ cāvekṣatas tadā
kasya rūpam abhūd dvedhā
yat kāyam abhicakṣate
evam — thus; yukta — contemplating; kṛtaḥ — while doing so; tasya — his; daivam — supernatural power; ca — also; avekṣataḥ — observing; tadā — at that time; kasya — of Brahmā; rūpam — form; abhūt — became manifested; dvedhā — twofold; yat — which is; kāyam — his body; abhicakṣate — is said to be.
While he was thus absorbed in contemplation and was observing the supernatural power, two other forms were generated from his body. They are still celebrated as the body of Brahmā.
tābhyām — of them; rūpa — form; vibhāgābhyām — thus being divided; mithunam — sex relation; samapadyata — perfectly executed.
The two newly separated bodies united together in a sexual relationship.
yas tu tatra pumān so ’bhūn
manuḥ svāyambhuvaḥ svarāṭ
strī yāsīc chatarūpākhyā
mahiṣy asya mahātmanaḥ
yaḥ — one who; tu — but; tatra — there; pumān — the male; saḥ — he; abhūt — became; manuḥ — the father of mankind; svāyambhuvaḥ — of the name Svāyambhuva; sva-rāṭ — fully independent; strī — the woman; yā — one who; āsīt — there was; śatarūpā — of the name Śatarūpā; ākhyā — known as; mahiṣī — the queen; asya — of him; mahātmanaḥ — the great soul.
Out of them, the one who had the male form became known as the Manu named Svāyambhuva, and the woman became known as Śatarūpā, the queen of the great soul Manu.
prajā hy edhām babhūvire
tadā — at that time; mithuna — sex life; dharmeṇa — according to regulative principles; prajāḥ — generations; hi — certainly; edhām — increased; babhūvire — took place.
Thereafter, by sex indulgence, they gradually increased generations of population one after another.
sa cāpi śatarūpāyāṁ
tisraḥ kanyāś ca bhārata
ākūtir devahūtiś ca
prasūtir iti sattama
saḥ — he (Manu); ca — also; api — in due course; śatarūpāyām — unto Śatarūpā; pañca — five; apatyāni — children; ajījanat — begot; priyavrata — Priyavrata; uttānapādau — Uttānapāda; tisraḥ — three in number; kanyāḥ — daughters; ca — also; bhārata — O son of Bharata; ākūtiḥ — Ākūti; devahūtiḥ — Devahūti; ca — and; prasūtiḥ — Prasūti; iti — thus; sattama — O best of all.
O son of Bharata, in due course of time he [Manu] begot in Śatarūpā five children — two sons, Priyavrata and Uttānapāda, and three daughters, Ākūti, Devahūti and Prasūti.
ākūtiṁ rucaye prādāt
kardamāya tu madhyamām
dakṣāyādāt prasūtiṁ ca
yata āpūritaṁ jagat
ākūtim — the daughter named Ākūti; rucaye — unto the sage Ruci; prādāt — handed over; kardamāya — unto the sage Kardama; tu — but; madhyamām — the middle one (Devahūti); dakṣāya — unto Dakṣa; adāt — handed over; prasūtim — the youngest daughter; ca — also; yataḥ — wherefrom; āpūritam — is fulfilled; jagat — the whole world.
The father, Manu, handed over his first daughter, Ākūti, to the sage Ruci, the middle daughter, Devahūti, to the sage Kardama, and the youngest, Prasūti, to Dakṣa. From them, all the world filled with population.