Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 3 Chapter 11
Calculation of Time, from the Atom
aneko ’saṁyutaḥ sadā
paramāṇuḥ sa vijñeyo
nṛṇām aikya-bhramo yataḥ
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Maitreya said; caramaḥ — ultimate; sat — effect; viśeṣāṇām — symptoms; anekaḥ — innumerable; asaṁyutaḥ — unmixed; sadā — always; parama-aṇuḥ — atoms; saḥ — that; vijñeyaḥ — should be understood; nṛṇām — of men; aikya — oneness; bhramaḥ — mistaken; yataḥ — from which.
The material manifestation’s ultimate particle, which is indivisible and not formed into a body, is called the atom. It exists always as an invisible identity, even after the dissolution of all forms. The material body is but a combination of such atoms, but it is misunderstood by the common man.
sata eva padārthasya
sataḥ — of the effective manifestation; eva — certainly; pada-arthasya — of physical bodies; svarūpa-avasthitasya — staying in the same form even to the time of dissolution; yat — that which; kaivalyam — oneness; parama — the supreme; mahān — unlimited; aviśeṣaḥ — forms; nirantaraḥ — eternally.
Atoms are the ultimate state of the manifest universe. When they stay in their own forms without forming different bodies, they are called the unlimited oneness. There are certainly different bodies in physical forms, but the atoms themselves form the complete manifestation.
evaṁ kālo ’py anumitaḥ
saukṣmye sthaulye ca sattama
avyakto vyakta-bhug vibhuḥ
evam — thus; kālaḥ — time; api — also; anumitaḥ — measured; saukṣmye — in the subtle; sthaulye — in the gross forms; ca — also; sattama — O best; saṁsthāna — combinations of the atoms; bhuktyā — by the motion; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; avyaktaḥ — unmanifested; vyakta-bhuk — controlling all physical movement; vibhuḥ — the Almighty.
One can estimate time by measuring the movement of the atomic combination of bodies. Time is the potency of the almighty Personality of Godhead, Hari, who controls all physical movement although He is not visible in the physical world.
sa kālaḥ paramāṇur vai
yo bhuṅkte paramāṇutām
sato ’viśeṣa-bhug yas tu
sa kālaḥ paramo mahān
saḥ — that; kālaḥ — eternal time; parama-aṇuḥ — atomic; vai — certainly; yaḥ — which; bhuṅkte — passes through; parama-aṇutām — the space of an atom; sataḥ — of the entire aggregate; aviśeṣa-bhuk — passing through the nondual exhibition; yaḥ tu — which; saḥ — that; kālaḥ — time; paramaḥ — the supreme; mahān — the great.
Atomic time is measured according to its covering a particular atomic space. That time which covers the unmanifest aggregate of atoms is called the great time.
aṇur dvau paramāṇū syāt
trasareṇus trayaḥ smṛtaḥ
kham evānupatann agāt
aṇuḥ — double atom; dvau — two; parama-aṇu — atoms; syāt — become; trasareṇuḥ — hexatom; trayaḥ — three; smṛtaḥ — considered; jāla-arka — of sunshine through the holes of a window screen; raśmi — by the rays; avagataḥ — can be known; kham eva — towards the sky; anupatan agāt — going up.
The division of gross time is calculated as follows: two atoms make one double atom, and three double atoms make one hexatom. This hexatom is visible in the sunshine which enters through the holes of a window screen. One can clearly see that the hexatom goes up towards the sky.
yaḥ kālaḥ sa truṭiḥ smṛtaḥ
śata-bhāgas tu vedhaḥ syāt
tais tribhis tu lavaḥ smṛtaḥ
trasareṇu-trikam — combination of three hexatoms; bhuṅkte — as they take time to integrate; yaḥ — that which; kālaḥ — duration of time; saḥ — that; truṭiḥ — by the name truṭi; smṛtaḥ — is called; śata-bhāgaḥ — one hundred truṭis; tu — but; vedhaḥ — called a vedha; syāt — it so happens; taiḥ — by them; tribhiḥ — three times; tu — but; lavaḥ — lava; smṛtaḥ — so called.
The time duration needed for the integration of three trasareṇus is called a truṭi, and one hundred truṭis make one vedha. Three vedhas make one lava.
nimeṣas tri-lavo jñeya
āmnātas te trayaḥ kṣaṇaḥ
kṣaṇān pañca viduḥ kāṣṭhāṁ
laghu tā daśa pañca ca
nimeṣaḥ — the duration of time called a nimeṣa; tri-lavaḥ — the duration of three lavas; jñeyaḥ — is to be known; āmnātaḥ — it is so called; te — they; trayaḥ — three; kṣaṇaḥ — the duration of time called a kṣaṇa; kṣaṇān — such kṣaṇas; pañca — five; viduḥ — one should understand; kāṣṭhām — the duration of time called a kāṣṭhā; laghu — the duration of time called a laghu; tāḥ — those; daśa pañca — fifteen; ca — also.
The duration of time of three lavas is equal to one nimeṣa, the combination of three nimeṣas makes one kṣaṇa, five kṣaṇas combined together make one kāṣṭhā, and fifteen kāṣṭhās make one laghu.
laghūni vai samāmnātā
daśa pañca ca nāḍikā
te dve muhūrtaḥ praharaḥ
ṣaḍ yāmaḥ sapta vā nṛṇām
laghūni — such laghus (each of two minutes); vai — exactly; samāmnātā — is called; daśa pañca — fifteen; ca — also; nāḍikā — a nāḍikā; te — of them; dve — two; muhūrtaḥ — a moment; praharaḥ — three hours; ṣaṭ — six; yāmaḥ — one fourth of a day or night; sapta — seven; vā — or; nṛṇām — of human calculation.
Fifteen laghus make one nāḍikā, which is also called a daṇḍa. Two daṇḍas make one muhūrta, and six or seven daṇḍas make one fourth of a day or night, according to human calculation.
dvādaśa-ardha — six; pala — of the scale of weight; unmānam — measuring pot; caturbhiḥ — by weight of four; catuḥ-aṅgulaiḥ — four fingers by measure; svarṇa — of gold; māṣaiḥ — of the weight; kṛta-chidram — making a hole; yāvat — as long as; prastha — measuring one prastha; jala-plutam — filled by water.
The measuring pot for one nāḍikā, or daṇḍa, can be prepared with a six-pala-weight [fourteen ounce] pot of copper, in which a hole is bored with a gold probe weighing four māṣa and measuring four fingers long. When the pot is placed on water, the time before the water overflows in the pot is called one daṇḍa.
yāmāś catvāraś catvāro
martyānām ahanī ubhe
śuklaḥ kṛṣṇaś ca mānada
yāmāḥ — three hours; catvāraḥ — four; catvāraḥ — and four; martyānām — of the human beings; ahanī — duration of day; ubhe — both day and night; pakṣaḥ — fortnight; pañca-daśa — fifteen; ahāni — days; śuklaḥ — white; kṛṣṇaḥ — black; ca — also; mānada — measured.
It is calculated that there are four praharas, which are also called yāmas, in the day and four in the night of the human being. Similarly, fifteen days and nights are a fortnight, and there are two fortnights, white and black, in a month.
tayoḥ samuccayo māsaḥ
pitṝṇāṁ tad ahar-niśam
dvau tāv ṛtuḥ ṣaḍ ayanaṁ
dakṣiṇaṁ cottaraṁ divi
tayoḥ — of them; samuccayaḥ — aggregate; māsaḥ — month; pitṝṇām — of the Pitā planets; tat — that (month); ahaḥ-niśam — day and night; dvau — two; tau — months; ṛtuḥ — a season; ṣaṭ — six; ayanam — the movement of the sun in six months; dakṣiṇam — southern; ca — also; uttaram — northern; divi — in the heavens.
The aggregate of two fortnights is one month, and that period is one complete day and night for the Pitā planets. Two of such months comprise one season, and six months comprise one complete movement of the sun from south to north.
ayane cāhanī prāhur
vatsaro dvādaśa smṛtaḥ
ayane — in the solar movement (of six months); ca — and; ahanī — a day of the demigods; prāhuḥ — it is said; vatsaraḥ — one calendar year; dvādaśa — twelve months; smṛtaḥ — is so called; saṁvatsara-śatam — one hundred years; nṝṇām — of human beings; parama-āyuḥ — duration of life; nirūpitam — is estimated.
Two solar movements make one day and night of the demigods, and that combination of day and night is one complete calendar year for the human being. The human being has a duration of life of one hundred years.
paryety animiṣo vibhuḥ
graha — influential planets like the moon; ṛkṣa — luminaries like Aśvinī; tārā — stars; cakra-sthaḥ — in the orbit; parama-aṇu-ādinā — along with the atoms; jagat — the entire universe; saṁvatsara-avasānena — by the end of one year; paryeti — completes its orbit; animiṣaḥ — the eternal time; vibhuḥ — the Almighty.
Influential stars, planets, luminaries and atoms all over the universe are rotating in their respective orbits under the direction of the Supreme, represented by eternal kāla.
iḍā-vatsara eva ca
anuvatsaro vatsaraś ca
saṁvatsaraḥ — orbit of the sun; parivatsaraḥ — circumambulation of Bṛhaspati; iḍā-vatsaraḥ — orbit of the stars; eva — as they are; ca — also; anuvatsaraḥ — orbit of the moon; vatsaraḥ — one calendar year; ca — also; vidura — O Vidura; evam — thus; prabhāṣyate — they are so told.
There are five different names for the orbits of the sun, moon, stars and luminaries in the firmament, and they each have their own saṁvatsara.
yaḥ sṛjya-śaktim urudhocchvasayan sva-śaktyā
puṁso ’bhramāya divi dhāvati bhūta-bhedaḥ
kālākhyayā guṇamayaṁ kratubhir vitanvaṁs
tasmai baliṁ harata vatsara-pañcakāya
yaḥ — one who; sṛjya — of creation; śaktim — the seeds; urudhā — in various ways; ucchvasayan — invigorating; sva-śaktyā — by his own energy; puṁsaḥ — of the living entity; abhramāya — to dissipate darkness; divi — during the daytime; dhāvati — moves; bhūta-bhedaḥ — distinct from all other material form; kāla-ākhyayā — by the name eternal time; guṇa-mayam — the material results; kratubhiḥ — by offerings; vitanvan — enlarging; tasmai — unto him; balim — ingredients of offerings; harata — one should offer; vatsara-pañcakāya — offerings every five years.
O Vidura, the sun enlivens all living entities with his unlimited heat and light. He diminishes the duration of life of all living entities in order to release them from their illusion of material attachment, and he enlarges the path of elevation to the heavenly kingdom. He thus moves in the firmament with great velocity, and therefore everyone should offer him respects once every five years with all ingredients of worship.
āyuḥ param idaṁ smṛtam
pareṣāṁ gatim ācakṣva
ye syuḥ kalpād bahir vidaḥ
viduraḥ uvāca — Vidura said; pitṛ — the Pitā planets; deva — the heavenly planets; manuṣyāṇām — and that of the human beings; āyuḥ — duration of life; param — final; idam — in their own measurement; smṛtam — calculated; pareṣām — of the superior living entities; gatim — duration of life; ācakṣva — kindly calculate; ye — all those who; syuḥ — are; kalpāt — from the millennium; bahiḥ — outside; vidaḥ — greatly learned.
Vidura said: I now understand the life durations of the residents of the Pitā planets and heavenly planets as well as that of the human beings. Now kindly inform me of the durations of life of those greatly learned living entities who are beyond the range of a kalpa.
bhagavān veda kālasya
gatiṁ bhagavato nanu
viśvaṁ vicakṣate dhīrā
bhagavān — O spiritually powerful one; veda — you know; kālasya — of the eternal time; gatim — movements; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; nanu — as a matter of course; viśvam — the whole universe; vicakṣate — see; dhīrāḥ — those who are self-realized; yoga-rāddhena — by dint of mystic vision; cakṣuṣā — by the eyes.
O spiritually powerful one, you can understand the movements of eternal time, which is the controlling form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Because you are a self-realized person, you can see everything by the power of mystic vision.
kṛtaṁ tretā dvāparaṁ ca
kaliś ceti catur-yugam
divyair dvādaśabhir varṣaiḥ
maitreyaḥ uvāca — Maitreya said; kṛtam — the age of Satya; tretā — the age of Tretā; dvāparam — the age of Dvāpara; ca — also; kaliḥ — the Age of Kali; ca — and; iti — thus; catuḥ-yugam — four millenniums; divyaiḥ — of the demigods; dvādaśabhiḥ — twelve; varṣaiḥ — thousands of years; sa-avadhānam — approximately; nirūpitam — ascertained.
Maitreya said: O Vidura, the four millenniums are called the Satya-, Tretā-, Dvāpara- and Kali-yuga. The aggregate number of years of all of these combined is equal to twelve thousand years of the demigods.
catvāri trīṇi dve caikaṁ
dvi-guṇāni śatāni ca
catvāri — four; trīṇi — three; dve — two; ca — also; ekam — one; kṛta-ādiṣu — in the Satya-yuga; yathā-kramam — and subsequently others; saṅkhyātāni — numbering; sahasrāṇi — thousands; dvi-guṇāni — twice; śatāni — hundreds; ca — also.
The duration of the Satya millennium equals 4,800 years of the years of the demigods; the duration of the Tretā millennium equals 3,600 years of the demigods; the duration of the Dvāpara millennium equals 2,400 years; and that of the Kali millennium is 1,200 years of the demigods.
yaḥ kālaḥ śata-saṅkhyayoḥ
tam evāhur yugaṁ taj-jñā
yatra dharmo vidhīyate
sandhyā — transitional period before; sandhyā-aṁśayoḥ — and transitional period after; antaḥ — within; yaḥ — that which; kālaḥ — duration of time; śata-saṅkhyayoḥ — hundreds of years; tam eva — that period; āhuḥ — they call; yugam — millennium; tat-jñāḥ — the expert astronomers; yatra — wherein; dharmaḥ — religion; vidhīyate — is performed.
The transitional periods before and after every millennium, which are a few hundred years as aforementioned, are known as yuga-sandhyās, or the conjunctions of two millenniums, according to the expert astronomers. In those periods all kinds of religious activities are performed.
dharmaś catuṣ-pān manujān
sa evānyeṣv adharmeṇa
vyeti pādena vardhatā
dharmaḥ — religion; catuḥ-pāt — complete four dimensions; manujān — mankind; kṛte — in the Satya-yuga; samanuvartate — properly maintained; saḥ — that; eva — certainly; anyeṣu — in other; adharmeṇa — by the influence of irreligion; vyeti — declined; pādena — by one part; vardhatā — gradually increasing proportionately.
O Vidura, in the Satya millennium mankind properly and completely maintained the principles of religion, but in other millenniums religion gradually decreased by one part as irreligion was proportionately admitted.
bahir ābrahmaṇo dinam
tāvaty eva niśā tāta
yan nimīlati viśva-sṛk
tri-lokyāḥ — of the three worlds; yuga — the four yugas; sāhasram — one thousand; bahiḥ — outside of; ābrahmaṇaḥ — up to Brahmaloka; dinam — is a day; tāvatī — a similar (period); eva — certainly; niśā — is night; tāta — O dear one; yat — because; nimīlati — goes to sleep; viśva-sṛk — Brahmā.
Outside of the three planetary systems [Svarga, Martya and Pātāla], the four yugas multiplied by one thousand comprise one day on the planet of Brahmā. A similar period comprises a night of Brahmā, in which the creator of the universe goes to sleep.
yāvad dinaṁ bhagavato
manūn bhuñjaṁś catur-daśa
niśā — night; avasāne — termination; ārabdhaḥ — beginning from; loka-kalpaḥ — further creation of the three worlds; anuvartate — follows; yāvat — until; dinam — the daytime; bhagavataḥ — of the lord (Brahmā); manūn — the Manus; bhuñjan — existing through; catuḥ-daśa — fourteen.
After the end of Brahmā’s night, the creation of the three worlds begins again in the daytime of Brahmā, and they continue to exist through the life durations of fourteen consecutive Manus, or fathers of mankind.
svaṁ svaṁ kālaṁ manur bhuṅkte
sādhikāṁ hy eka-saptatim
svam — own; svam — accordingly; kālam — duration of life; manuḥ — Manu; bhuṅkte — enjoys; sa-adhikām — a little more than; hi — certainly; eka-saptatim — seventy-one.
Each and every Manu enjoys a life of a little more than seventy-one sets of four millenniums.
tad-vaṁśyā ṛṣayaḥ surāḥ
bhavanti caiva yugapat
sureśāś cānu ye ca tān
manu-antareṣu — after the dissolution of each and every Manu; manavaḥ — other Manus; tat-vaṁśyāḥ — and their descendants; ṛṣayaḥ — the seven famous sages; surāḥ — devotees of the Lord; bhavanti — flourish; ca eva — also all of them; yugapat — simultaneously; sura-īśāḥ — demigods like Indra; ca — and; anu — followers; ye — all; ca — also; tān — them.
After the dissolution of each and every Manu, the next Manu comes in order, along with his descendants, who rule over the different planets; but the seven famous sages, and demigods like Indra and their followers, such as the Gandharvas, all appear simultaneously with Manu.
eṣa dainan-dinaḥ sargo
sambhavo yatra karmabhiḥ
eṣaḥ — all these creations; dainam-dinaḥ — daily; sargaḥ — creation; brāhmaḥ — in terms of the days of Brahmā; trailokya-vartanaḥ — revolution of the three worlds; tiryak — animals lower than the human beings; nṛ — human beings; pitṛ — of the Pitā planets; devānām — of the demigods; sambhavaḥ — appearance; yatra — wherein; karmabhiḥ — in the cycle of fruitive activities.
In the creation, during Brahmā’s day, the three planetary systems — Svarga, Martya and Pātāla — revolve, and the inhabitants, including the lower animals, human beings, demigods and Pitās, appear and disappear in terms of their fruitive activities.
bibhrat sattvaṁ sva-mūrtibhiḥ
manv-ādibhir idaṁ viśvam
manu-antareṣu — in each change of Manu; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; bibhrat — manifesting; sattvam — His internal potency; sva-mūrtibhiḥ — by His different incarnations; manu-ādibhiḥ — as Manus; idam — this; viśvam — the universe; avati — maintains; udita — discovering; pauruṣaḥ — divine potencies.
In each and every change of Manu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears by manifesting His internal potency in different incarnations, as Manu and others. Thus He maintains the universe by discovered power.
āste tūṣṇīṁ dinātyaye
tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance, or the darkness of night; mātrām — an insignificant portion only; upādāya — accepting; pratisaṁruddha-vikramaḥ — suspending all power of manifestation; kālena — by means of the eternal kāla; anugata — merged in; aśeṣaḥ — innumerable living entities; āste — remains; tūṣṇīm — silent; dina-atyaye — at the end of the day.
At the end of the day, under the insignificant portion of the mode of darkness, the powerful manifestation of the universe merges in the darkness of night. By the influence of eternal time, the innumerable living entities remain merged in that dissolution, and everything is silent.
tam evānv api dhīyante
lokā bhūr-ādayas trayaḥ
tam — that; eva — certainly; anu — after; api dhīyante — are out of sight; lokāḥ — the planets; bhūḥ-ādayaḥ — the three worlds: Bhūḥ, Bhuvaḥ and Svaḥ; trayaḥ — three; niśāyām — in the night; anuvṛttāyām — ordinary; nirmukta — without glare; śaśi — the moon; bhāskaram — the sun.
When the night of Brahmā ensues, all the three worlds are out of sight, and the sun and the moon are without glare, just as in the due course of an ordinary night.
yānty ūṣmaṇā maharlokāj
janaṁ bhṛgv-ādayo ’rditāḥ
tri-lokyām — when the spheres of the three worlds; dahyamānāyām — being set ablaze; śaktyā — by the potency; saṅkarṣaṇa — from the mouth of Saṅkarṣaṇa; agninā — by the fire; yānti — they go; ūṣmaṇā — heated by the warmth; mahaḥ-lokāt — from Maharloka; janam — to Janaloka; bhṛgu — the sage Bhṛgu; ādayaḥ — and others; arditāḥ — being so distressed.
The devastation takes place due to the fire emanating from the mouth of Saṅkarṣaṇa, and thus great sages like Bhṛgu and other inhabitants of Maharloka transport themselves to Janaloka, being distressed by the warmth of the blazing fire which rages through the three worlds below.
tāvat tri-bhuvanaṁ sadyaḥ
tāvat — then; tri-bhuvanam — all the three worlds; sadyaḥ — immediately after; kalpa-anta — in the beginning of the devastation; edhita — inflated; sindhavaḥ — all the oceans; plāvayanti — inundate; utkaṭa — violent; āṭopa — agitation; caṇḍa — hurricane; vāta — by winds; īrita — blown; ūrmayaḥ — waves.
At the beginning of the devastation all the seas overflow, and hurricane winds blow very violently. Thus the waves of the seas become ferocious, and in no time at all the three worlds are full of water.
antaḥ sa tasmin salila
āste ’nantāsano hariḥ
antaḥ — within; saḥ — that; tasmin — in that; salile — water; āste — there is; ananta — Ananta; āsanaḥ — on the seat of; hariḥ — the Lord; yoga — mystic; nidrā — sleep; nimīla-akṣaḥ — eyes closed; stūya-mānaḥ — being glorified; jana-ālayaiḥ — by the inhabitants of the Janaloka planets.
The Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, lies down in the water on the seat of Ananta, with His eyes closed, and the inhabitants of the Janaloka planets offer unto the Lord their glorious prayers with folded hands.
evam — thus; vidhaiḥ — by the process of; ahaḥ — days; rātraiḥ — by nights; kāla-gatyā — advancement of time; upalakṣitaiḥ — by such symptoms; apakṣitam — declined; iva — just like; asya — his; api — although; parama-āyuḥ — duration of life; vayaḥ — years; śatam — one hundred.
Thus the process of the exhaustion of the duration of life exists for every one of the living beings, including Lord Brahmā. One’s life endures for only one hundred years, in terms of the times in the different planets.
yad ardham āyuṣas tasya
pūrvaḥ parārdho ’pakrānto
hy aparo ’dya pravartate
yat — that which; ardham — half; āyuṣaḥ — of the duration of life; tasya — his; parārdham — a parārdha; abhidhīyate — is called; pūrvaḥ — the former; para-ardhaḥ — half of the duration of life; apakrāntaḥ — having passed; hi — certainly; aparaḥ — the latter; adya — in this millennium; pravartate — shall begin.
The one hundred years of Brahmā’s life are divided into two parts, the first half and the second half. The first half of the duration of Brahmā’s life is already over, and the second half is now current.
brāhmo nāma mahān abhūt
kalpo yatrābhavad brahmā
śabda-brahmeti yaṁ viduḥ
pūrvasya — of the first half; ādau — in the beginning; para-ardhasya — of the superior half; brāhmaḥ — Brāhma-kalpa; nāma — of the name; mahān — very great; abhūt — was manifest; kalpaḥ — millennium; yatra — whereupon; abhavat — appeared; brahmā — Lord Brahmā; śabda-brahma iti — the sounds of the Vedas; yam — which; viduḥ — they know.
In the beginning of the first half of Brahmā’s life, there was a millennium called Brāhma-kalpa, wherein Lord Brahmā appeared. The birth of the Vedas was simultaneous with Brahmā’s birth.
tasyaiva cānte kalpo ’bhūd
yaṁ pādmam abhicakṣate
yad dharer nābhi-sarasa
tasya — of the Brāhma-kalpa; eva — certainly; ca — also; ante — at the end of; kalpaḥ — millennium; abhūt — came into existence; yam — which; pādmam — Pādma; abhicakṣate — is called; yat — in which; hareḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; nābhi — in the navel; sarasaḥ — from the reservoir of water; āsīt — there was; loka — of the universe; saroruham — lotus.
The millennium which followed the first Brāhma millennium is known as the Pādma-kalpa because in that millennium the universal lotus flower grew out of the navel reservoir of water of the Personality of Godhead, Hari.
ayaṁ tu kathitaḥ kalpo
vārāha iti vikhyāto
yatrāsīc chūkaro hariḥ
ayam — this; tu — but; kathitaḥ — known as; kalpaḥ — the current millennium; dvitīyasya — of the second half; api — certainly; bhārata — O descendant of Bharata; vārāhaḥ — Vārāha; iti — thus; vikhyātaḥ — is celebrated; yatra — in which; āsīt — appeared; śūkaraḥ — hog shape; hariḥ — the Personality of Godhead.
O descendant of Bharata, the first millennium in the second half of the life of Brahmā is also known as the Vārāha millennium because the Personality of Godhead appeared in that millennium as the hog incarnation.
kālo ’yaṁ dvi-parārdhākhyo
hy anāder jagad-ātmanaḥ
kālaḥ — eternal time; ayam — this (as measured by Brahmā’s duration of life); dvi-parārdha-ākhyaḥ — measured by the two halves of Brahmā’s life; nimeṣaḥ — less than a second; upacaryate — is so measured; avyākṛtasya — of one who is unchanged; anantasya — of the unlimited; hi — certainly; anādeḥ — of the beginningless; jagat-ātmanaḥ — of the soul of the universe.
The duration of the two parts of Brahmā’s life, as above mentioned, is calculated to be equal to one nimeṣa [less than a second] for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is unchanging and unlimited and is the cause of all causes of the universe.
kālo ’yaṁ paramāṇv-ādir
naiveśituṁ prabhur bhūmna
kālaḥ — the eternal time; ayam — this; parama-aṇu — atom; ādiḥ — beginning from; dvi-parārdha — two superdurations of time; antaḥ — to the end; īśvaraḥ — controller; na — never; eva — certainly; īśitum — to control; prabhuḥ — capable; bhūmnaḥ — of the Supreme; īśvaraḥ — controller; dhāma-māninām — of those who are body conscious.
Eternal time is certainly the controller of different dimensions, from that of the atom up to the superdivisions of the duration of Brahmā’s life; but, nevertheless, it is controlled by the Supreme. Time can control only those who are body conscious, even up to the Satyaloka or the other higher planets of the universe.
vikāraiḥ sahito yuktair
āṇḍakośo bahir ayaṁ
vikāraiḥ — by the transformation of the elements; sahitaḥ — along with; yuktaiḥ — being so amalgamated; viśeṣa — manifestations; ādibhiḥ — by them; āvṛtaḥ — covered; āṇḍa-kośaḥ — the universe; bahiḥ — outside; ayam — this; pañcāśat — fifty; koṭi — ten million; vistṛtaḥ — widespread.
This phenomenal material world is expanded to a diameter of four billion miles, as a combination of eight material elements transformed into sixteen further categories, within and without, as follows.
lakṣyate ’ntar-gatāś cānye
koṭiśo hy aṇḍa-rāśayaḥ
daśa-uttara-adhikaiḥ — with ten times greater thickness; yatra — in which; praviṣṭaḥ — entered; parama-aṇu-vat — like atoms; lakṣyate — it (the mass of universes) appears; antaḥ-gatāḥ — come together; ca — and; anye — in the other; koṭiśaḥ — clustered; hi — for; aṇḍa-rāśayaḥ — huge combination of universes.
The layers or elements covering the universes are each ten times thicker than the one before, and all the universes clustered together appear like atoms in a huge combination.
tad āhur akṣaraṁ brahma
viṣṇor dhāma paraṁ sākṣāt
tat — that; āhuḥ — is said; akṣaram — infallible; brahma — the supreme; sarva-kāraṇa — all causes; kāraṇam — the supreme cause; viṣṇoḥ dhāma — the spiritual abode of Viṣṇu; param — the supreme; sākṣāt — without doubt; puruṣasya — of the puruṣa incarnation; mahātmanaḥ — of the Mahā-Viṣṇu.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, is therefore said to be the original cause of all causes. Thus the spiritual abode of Viṣṇu is eternal without a doubt, and it is also the abode of Mahā-Viṣṇu, the origin of all manifestations.