Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 2 Chapter 10
Bhāgavatam Is the Answer to All Questions
atra sargo visargaś ca
sthānaṁ poṣaṇam ūtayaḥ
nirodho muktir āśrayaḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; atra — in this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; sargaḥ — statement of the creation of the universe; visargaḥ — statement of subcreation; ca — also; sthānam — the planetary systems; poṣaṇam — protection; ūtayaḥ — the creative impetus; manvantara — changes of Manus; īśa-anukathāḥ — the science of God; nirodhaḥ — going back home, back to Godhead; muktiḥ — liberation; āśrayaḥ — the summum bonum.
Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam there are ten divisions of statements regarding the following: the creation of the universe, subcreation, planetary systems, protection by the Lord, the creative impetus, the change of Manus, the science of God, returning home, back to Godhead, liberation, and the summum bonum.
navānām iha lakṣaṇam
daśamasya — of the summum bonum; viśuddhi — isolation; artham — purpose; navānām — of the other nine; iha — in this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam; lakṣaṇam — symptoms; varṇayanti — they describe; mahā-ātmānaḥ — the great sages; śrutena — by Vedic evidences; arthena — by direct explanation; ca — and; añjasā — summarily.
To isolate the transcendence of the summum bonum, the symptoms of the rest are described sometimes by Vedic inference, sometimes by direct explanation, and sometimes by summary explanations given by the great sages.
janma sarga udāhṛtaḥ
visargaḥ pauruṣaḥ smṛtaḥ
bhūta — the five gross elements (the sky, etc); mātrā — objects perceived by the senses; indriya — the senses; dhiyām — of the mind; janma — creation; sargaḥ — manifestation; udāhṛtaḥ — is called the creation; brahmaṇaḥ — of Brahmā, the first puruṣa; guṇa-vaiṣamyāt — by interaction of the three modes of nature; visargaḥ — re-creation; pauruṣaḥ — resultant activities; smṛtaḥ — it is so known.
The elementary creation of sixteen items of matter — namely the five elements [fire, water, land, air and sky], sound, form, taste, smell, touch, and the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin and mind — is known as sarga, whereas subsequent resultant interaction of the modes of material nature is called visarga.
sthitiḥ — the right situation; vaikuṇṭha-vijayaḥ — the victory of the Lord of Vaikuṇṭha; poṣaṇam — maintenance; tat-anugrahaḥ — His causeless mercy; manvantarāṇi — the reign of the Manus; sat-dharmaḥ — perfect occupational duty; ūtayaḥ — impetus to work; karma-vāsanāḥ — desire for fruitive work.
The right situation for the living entities is to obey the laws of the Lord and thus be in perfect peace of mind under the protection of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Manus and their laws are meant to give right direction in life. The impetus for activity is the desire for fruitive work.
puṁsām īśa-kathāḥ proktā
avatāra — incarnation of Godhead; anucaritam — activities; hareḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; ca — also; asya — of His; anuvartinām — followers; puṁsām — of the persons; īśa-kathāḥ — the science of God; proktāḥ — is said; nānā — various; ākhyāna — narrations; upabṛṁhitāḥ — described.
The science of God describes the incarnations of the Personality of Godhead and His different activities together with the activities of His great devotees.
ātmanaḥ saha śaktibhiḥ
muktir hitvānyathā rūpaṁ
nirodhaḥ — the winding up of the cosmic manifestation; asya — of His; anuśayanam — the lying down of the puruṣa incarnation Mahā-Viṣṇu in mystic slumber; ātmanaḥ — of the living entities; saha — along with; śaktibhiḥ — with the energies; muktiḥ — liberation; hitvā — giving up; anyathā — otherwise; rūpam — form; sva-rūpeṇa — in constitutional form; vyavasthitiḥ — permanent situation.
The merging of the living entity, along with his conditional living tendency, with the mystic lying down of the Mahā-Viṣṇu is called the winding up of the cosmic manifestation. Liberation is the permanent situation of the form of the living entity after he gives up the changeable gross and subtle material bodies.
ābhāsaś ca nirodhaś ca
yato ’sty adhyavasīyate
sa āśrayaḥ paraṁ brahma
ābhāsaḥ — the cosmic manifestation; ca — and; nirodhaḥ — and its winding up; ca — also; yataḥ — from the source; asti — is; adhyavasīyate — become manifested; saḥ — He; āśrayaḥ — reservoir; param — the Supreme; brahma — Being; paramātmā — the Supersoul; iti — thus; śabdyate — called.
The supreme one who is celebrated as the Supreme Being or the Supreme Soul is the supreme source of the cosmic manifestation as well as its reservoir and winding up. Thus He is the Supreme Fountainhead, the Absolute Truth.
yo ’dhyātmiko ’yaṁ puruṣaḥ
so ’sāv evādhidaivikaḥ
puruṣo hy ādhibhautikaḥ
yaḥ — one who; adhyātmikaḥ — is possessed of the sense organs; ayam — this; puruṣaḥ — personality; saḥ — he; asau — that; eva — also; adhidaivikaḥ — controlling deity; yaḥ — that which; tatra — there; ubhaya — of both; vicchedaḥ — separation; puruṣaḥ — person; hi — for; ādhibhautikaḥ — the visible body or the embodied living entity.
The individual person possessing different instruments of senses is called the adhyātmic person, and the individual controlling deity of the senses is called adhidaivic. The embodiment seen on the eyeballs is called the adhibhautic person.
tritayaṁ tatra yo veda
sa ātmā svāśrayāśrayaḥ
ekam — one; ekatara — another; abhāve — in the absence of; yadā — because; na — does not; upalabhāmahe — perceptible; tritayam — in three stages; tatra — there; yaḥ — the one; veda — who knows; saḥ — he; ātmā — the Supersoul; sva — own; āśraya — shelter; āśrayaḥ — of the shelter.
All three of the above-mentioned stages of different living entities are interdependent. In the absence of one, another is not understood. But the Supreme Being who sees every one of them as the shelter of the shelter is independent of all, and therefore He is the supreme shelter.
puruṣo ’ṇḍaṁ vinirbhidya
yadāsau sa vinirgataḥ
ātmano ’yanam anvicchann
apo ’srākṣīc chuciḥ śucīḥ
puruṣaḥ — the Supreme Person, Paramātmā; aṇḍam — the universes; vinirbhidya — making them each separately situated; yadā — when; asau — the same; saḥ — He (the Lord); vinirgataḥ — came out; ātmanaḥ — of Himself; ayanam — lying in place; anvicchan — desiring; apaḥ — water; asrākṣīt — created; śuciḥ — the most pure; śucīḥ — transcendental.
After separating the different universes, the gigantic universal form of the Lord [Mahā-Viṣṇu], which came out of the Causal Ocean, the place of appearance for the first puruṣa-avatāra, entered into each of the separate universes, desiring to lie on the created transcendental water [Garbhodaka].
tāsv avātsīt sva-sṛṣṭāsu
tena nārāyaṇo nāma
yad āpaḥ puruṣodbhavāḥ
tāsu — in that; avātsīt — resided; sva — own; sṛṣṭāsu — in the matter of creation; sahasram — one thousand; parivatsarān — years of His measurement; tena — for that reason; nārāyaṇaḥ — the Personality of Godhead named Nārāyaṇa; nāma — name; yat — because; āpaḥ — water; puruṣa-udbhavāḥ — emanated from the Supreme Person.
That Supreme Person is not impersonal and therefore is distinctively a nara, or person. Therefore the transcendental water created from the Supreme Nara is known as nāra. And because He lies down on that water, He is known as Nārāyaṇa.
dravyaṁ karma ca kālaś ca
svabhāvo jīva eva ca
na santi yad-upekṣayā
dravyam — physical elements; karma — action; ca — and; kālaḥ — time; ca — also; sva-bhāvaḥ jīvaḥ — the living entities; eva — certainly; ca — also; yat — whose; anugrahataḥ — by the mercy of; santi — exist; na — does not; santi — exist; yat-upekṣayā — by negligence.
One should definitely know that all material ingredients, activities, time and modes, and the living entities who are meant to enjoy them all, exist by His mercy only, and as soon as He does not care for them, everything becomes nonexistent.
eko nānātvam anvicchan
vīryaṁ hiraṇmayaṁ devo
māyayā vyasṛjat tridhā
ekaḥ — He, one alone; nānātvam — varieties; anvicchan — so desiring; yoga-talpāt — from the bedstead of mystic slumber; samutthitaḥ — thus generated; vīryam — the semen; hiraṇmayam — golden hue; devaḥ — the demigod; māyayā — by the external energy; vyasṛjat — perfectly created; tridhā — in three features.
The Lord, while lying on His bed of mystic slumber, generated the seminal symbol, golden in hue, through external energy out of His desire to manifest varieties of living entities from Himself alone.
adhibhūtam iti prabhuḥ
athaikaṁ pauruṣaṁ vīryaṁ
tridhābhidyata tac chṛṇu
adhidaivam — the controlling entities; atha — now; adhyātmam — the controlled entities; adhibhūtam — the material bodies; iti — thus; prabhuḥ — the Lord; atha — in this way; ekam — one only; pauruṣam — of His Lordship; vīryam — potency; tridhā — in three; abhidyata — divided; tat — that; śṛṇu — just hear from me.
Just hear from me how the potency of His Lordship divides one into three, called the controlling entities, the controlled entities and the material bodies, in the manner mentioned above.
antaḥ śarīra ākāśāt
ojaḥ saho balaṁ jajñe
tataḥ prāṇo mahān asuḥ
antaḥ śarīre — within the body; ākāśāt — from the sky; puruṣasya — of Mahā-Viṣṇu; viceṣṭataḥ — while so trying, or willing; ojaḥ — the energy of the senses; sahaḥ — mental force; balam — bodily strength; jajñe — generated; tataḥ — thereafter; prāṇaḥ — the living force; mahān asuḥ — the fountainhead of everyone’s life.
From the sky situated within the transcendental body of the manifesting Mahā-Viṣṇu, sense energy, mental force and bodily strength are all generated, as well as the sum total of the fountainhead of the total living force.
anuprāṇanti yaṁ prāṇāḥ
anuprāṇanti — follow the living symptoms; yam — whom; prāṇāḥ — senses; prāṇantam — endeavoring; sarva-jantuṣu — in all living entities; apānantam — stop endeavoring; apānanti — all others stop; nara-devam — a king; iva — like; anugāḥ — the followers.
As the followers of a king follow their lord, similarly when the total energy is in motion, all other living entities move, and when the total energy stops endeavoring, all other living entities stop sensual activities.
prāṇenākṣipatā kṣut tṛḍ
antarā jāyate vibhoḥ
pipāsato jakṣataś ca
prāṅ mukhaṁ nirabhidyata
prāṇena — by the living force; ākṣipatā — being agitated; kṣut — hunger; tṛṭ — thirst; antarā — from within; jāyate — generates; vibhoḥ — of the Supreme; pipāsataḥ — being desirous to quench the thirst; jakṣataḥ — being desirous to eat; ca — and; prāk — at first; mukham — the mouth; nirabhidyata — was opened.
The living force, being agitated by the virāṭ-puruṣa, generated hunger and thirst, and when He desired to drink and eat, the mouth opened.
mukhatas tālu nirbhinnaṁ
tato nānā-raso jajñe
jihvayā yo ’dhigamyate
mukhataḥ — from the mouth; tālu — the palate; nirbhinnam — being generated; jihvā — the tongue; tatra — thereupon; upajāyate — becomes manifested; tataḥ — thereupon; nānā-rasaḥ — various tastes; jajñe — became manifested; jihvayā — by the tongue; yaḥ — which; adhigamyate — become relished.
From the mouth the palate became manifested, and thereupon the tongue was also generated. After this all the different tastes came into existence so that the tongue can relish them.
vivakṣor mukhato bhūmno
vahnir vāg vyāhṛtaṁ tayoḥ
jale caitasya suciraṁ
vivakṣoḥ — when there was a need to speak; mukhataḥ — from the mouth; bhūmnaḥ — of the Supreme; vahniḥ — fire or the controlling deity of fire; vāk — vibration; vyāhṛtam — speeches; tayoḥ — by both; jale — in the water; ca — however; etasya — of all these; suciram — a very, very long time; nirodhaḥ — suspension; samajāyata — did continue.
When the Supreme desired to speak, speeches were vibrated from the mouth. Then the controlling deity Fire was generated from the mouth. But when He was lying in the water, all these functions remained suspended.
tatra vāyur gandha-vaho
ghrāṇo nasi jighṛkṣataḥ
nāsike — in the nostrils; nirabhidyetām — being developed; dodhūyati — rapidly blowing; nabhasvati — air respiration; tatra — thereupon; vāyuḥ — air; gandha-vahaḥ — smelling odor; ghrāṇaḥ — sense of smell; nasi — in the nose; jighṛkṣataḥ — desiring to smell odors.
Thereafter, when the supreme puruṣa desired to smell odors, the nostrils and respiration were generated, the nasal instrument and odors came into existence, and the controlling deity of air, carrying smell, also became manifested.
ātmānaṁ ca didṛkṣataḥ
nirbhinne hy akṣiṇī tasya
jyotiś cakṣur guṇa-grahaḥ
yadā — while; ātmani — unto Himself; nirālokam — without any light; ātmānam — His own transcendental body; ca — also other bodily forms; didṛkṣataḥ — desired to look upon; nirbhinne — due to being sprouted; hi — for; akṣiṇī — of the eyes; tasya — of Him; jyotiḥ — the sun; cakṣuḥ — the eyes; guṇa-grahaḥ — the power of seeing.
Thus when everything existed in darkness, the Lord desired to see Himself and all that was created. Then the eyes, the illuminating god Sun, the power of vision and the object of sight all became manifested.
ātmanas taj jighṛkṣataḥ
karṇau ca nirabhidyetāṁ
diśaḥ śrotraṁ guṇa-grahaḥ
bodhyamānasya — desiring to understand; ṛṣibhiḥ — by the authorities; ātmanaḥ — of the Supreme Being; tat — that; jighṛkṣataḥ — when He desired to take up; karṇau — the ears; ca — also; nirabhidyetām — became manifested; diśaḥ — the direction or the god of air; śrotram — the power of hearing; guṇa-grahaḥ — and the objects of hearing.
By development of the desire of the great sages to know, the ears, the power of hearing, the controlling deity of hearing, and the objects of hearing became manifested. The great sages desired to hear about the Self.
jighṛkṣatas tvaṅ nirbhinnā
tatra cāntar bahir vātas
tvacā labdha-guṇo vṛtaḥ
vastunaḥ — of all matter; mṛdu — softness; kāṭhinya — hardness; laghu — lightness; guru — heaviness; oṣṇa — warmness; śītatām — coldness; jighṛkṣataḥ — desiring to perceive; tvak — the touch sensation; nirbhinnā — distributed; tasyām — in the skin; roma — hairs on the body; mahī-ruhāḥ — as well as the trees, the controlling deities; tatra — there; ca — also; antaḥ — within; bahiḥ — outside; vātaḥ tvacā — the sense of touch or the skin; labdha — having been perceived; guṇaḥ — objects of sense perception; vṛtaḥ — generated.
When there was a desire to perceive the physical characteristics of matter, such as softness, hardness, warmth, cold, lightness and heaviness, the background of sensation, the skin, the skin pores, the hairs on the body and their controlling deities (the trees) were generated. Within and outside the skin is a covering of air through which sense perception became prominent.
hastau ruruhatus tasya
tayos tu balavān indra
hastau — the hands; ruruhatuḥ — manifested; tasya — His; nānā — various; karma — work; cikīrṣayā — being so desirous; tayoḥ — of them; tu — however; balavān — to give strength; indraḥ — the demigod in heaven; ādānam — activities of the hand; ubhaya-āśrayam — dependent on both the demigod and the hand.
Thereafter when the Supreme Person desired to perform varieties of work, the two hands and their controlling strength, and Indra, the demigod in heaven, became manifested, as also the acts dependent on both the hands and the demigod.
gatiṁ jigīṣataḥ pādau
padbhyāṁ yajñaḥ svayaṁ havyaṁ
karmabhiḥ kriyate nṛbhiḥ
gatim — movement; jigīṣataḥ — so desiring; pādau — the legs; ruruhāte — being manifested; abhikāmikām — purposeful; padbhyām — from the legs; yajñaḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; svayam — personally Himself; havyam — the duties; karmabhiḥ — by one’s occupational duty; kriyate — caused to be done; nṛbhiḥ — by different human beings.
Thereupon, because of His desiring to control movement, His legs became manifested, and from the legs the controlling deity named Viṣṇu was generated. By His personal supervision of this act, all varieties of human being are busily engaged in dutiful occupational sacrifice.
nirabhidyata śiśno vai
upastha āsīt kāmānāṁ
nirabhidyata — came out; śiśnaḥ — the genitals; vai — certainly; prajā-ānanda — sex pleasure; amṛta-arthinaḥ — aspiring to taste the nectar; upasthaḥ — the male or female organ; āsīt — came into existence; kāmānām — of the lustful; priyam — very dear; tat — that; ubhaya-āśrayam — shelter for both.
Thereupon, for sexual pleasure, begetting offspring and tasting heavenly nectar, the Lord developed the genitals, and thus there is the genital organ and its controlling deity, the Prajāpati. The object of sexual pleasure and the controlling deity are under the control of the genitals of the Lord.
nirabhidyata vai gudam
tataḥ pāyus tato mitra
utsisṛkṣoḥ — desiring to evacuate; dhātu-malam — refuse of eatables; nirabhidyata — became open; vai — certainly; gudam — the evacuating hole; tataḥ — thereafter; pāyuḥ — the evacuating sense organ; tataḥ — thereafter; mitraḥ — the controlling demigod; utsargaḥ — the substance evacuated; ubhaya — both; āśrayaḥ — shelter.
Thereafter, when He desired to evacuate the refuse of eatables, the evacuating hole, anus, and the sensory organ thereof developed along with the controlling deity Mitra. The sensory organ and the evacuating substance are both under the shelter of the controlling deity.
āsisṛpsoḥ puraḥ puryā
tatrāpānas tato mṛtyuḥ
āsisṛpsoḥ — desiring to go everywhere; puraḥ — in different bodies; puryāḥ — from one body; nābhi-dvāram — the navel or abdominal hole; apānataḥ — was manifested; tatra — thereupon; apānaḥ — stopping of the vital force; tataḥ — thereafter; mṛtyuḥ — death; pṛthaktvam — separately; ubhaya — both; āśrayam — shelter.
Thereafter, when He desired to move from one body to another, the navel and the air of departure and death were combinedly created. The navel is the shelter for both, namely death and the separating force.
nadyaḥ samudrāś ca tayos
tuṣṭiḥ puṣṭis tad-āśraye
āditsoḥ — desiring to have; anna-pānānām — of food and drink; āsan — there became; kukṣi — the abdomen; antra — the intestines; nāḍayaḥ — and the arteries; nadyaḥ — the rivers; samudrāḥ — seas; ca — also; tayoḥ — of them; tuṣṭiḥ — sustenance; puṣṭiḥ — metabolism; tat — of them; āśraye — the source.
When there was a desire to have food and drink, the abdomen and the intestines and also the arteries became manifested. The rivers and seas are the source of their sustenance and metabolism.
tato manaś candra iti
saṅkalpaḥ kāma eva ca
nididhyāsoḥ — being desirous to know; ātma-māyām — own energy; hṛdayam — the location of the mind; nirabhidyata — was manifested; tataḥ — thereafter; manaḥ — the mind; candraḥ — the controlling deity of the mind, the moon; iti — thus; saṅkalpaḥ — determination; kāmaḥ — desire; eva — as much as; ca — also.
When there was a desire to think about the activities of His own energy, then the heart (the seat of the mind), the mind, the moon, determination and all desire became manifested.
tvak — the thin layer on the skin; carma — skin; māṁsa — flesh; rudhira — blood; medaḥ — fat; majjā — marrow; asthi — bone; dhātavaḥ — elements; bhūmi — earth; ap — water; tejaḥ — fire; mayāḥ — predominating; sapta — seven; prāṇaḥ — breathing air; vyoma — sky; ambu — water; vāyubhiḥ — by the air.
The seven elements of the body, namely the thin layer on the skin, the skin itself, the flesh, blood, fat, marrow and bone, are all made of earth, water and fire, whereas the life breath is produced by the sky, water and air.
guṇa-ātmakāni — attached to the qualities; indriyāṇi — the senses; bhūta-ādi — material ego; prabhavāḥ — influenced by; guṇāḥ — the modes of material nature; manaḥ — the mind; sarva — all; vikāra — affection (happiness and distress); ātmā — form; buddhiḥ — intelligence; vijñāna — deliberation; rūpiṇī — featuring.
The sense organs are attached to the modes of material nature, and the modes of material nature are products of the false ego. The mind is subjected to all kinds of material experiences (happiness and distress), and the intelligence is the feature of the mind’s deliberation.
etad bhagavato rūpaṁ
sthūlaṁ te vyāhṛtaṁ mayā
aṣṭabhir bahir āvṛtam
etat — all these; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; rūpam — form; sthūlam — gross; te — unto you; vyāhṛtam — explained; mayā — by me; mahī — the planets; ādibhiḥ — and so on; ca — unlimitedly; avaraṇaiḥ — by coverings; aṣṭabhiḥ — by eight; bahiḥ — external; āvṛtam — covered.
Thus by all this, the external feature of the Personality of Godhead is covered by gross forms such as those of planets, which were explained to you by me.
ataḥ paraṁ sūkṣmatamam
nityaṁ vāṅ-manasaḥ param
ataḥ — therefore; param — transcendental; sūkṣmatamam — finer than the finest; avyaktam — unmanifested; nirviśeṣaṇam — without material features; anādi — without beginning; madhya — without an intermediate stage; nidhanam — without end; nityam — eternal; vāk — words; manasaḥ — of the mind; param — transcendental.
Therefore beyond this [gross manifestation] is a transcendental manifestation finer than the finest form. It has no beginning, no intermediate stage and no end; therefore it is beyond the limits of expression or mental speculation and is distinct from the material conception.
mayā te hy anuvarṇite
ubhe api na gṛhṇanti
amunī — all these; bhagavat — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; rūpe — in the forms; mayā — by me; te — unto you; hi — certainly; anuvarṇite — described respectively; ubhe — both; api — also; na — never; gṛhṇanti — accepts; māyā — external; sṛṣṭe — being so manifested; vipaḥ-citaḥ — the learned one who knows.
Neither of the above forms of the Lord, as just described unto you from the material angle of vision, is accepted by the pure devotees of the Lord who know Him well.
saḥ — He; vācya — by His forms and activities; vācakatayā — by His transcendental qualities and entourage; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; brahma — absolute; rūpa-dhṛk — by accepting visible forms; nāma — name; rūpa — form; kriyā — pastimes; dhatte — accepts; sa-karma — engaged in work; akarmakaḥ — without being affected; paraḥ — transcendence.
He, the Personality of Godhead, manifests Himself in a transcendental form, being the subject of His transcendental name, quality, pastimes, entourage and transcendental variegatedness. Although He is unaffected by all such activities, He appears to be so engaged.
prajā-patīn manūn devān
ṛṣīn pitṛ-gaṇān pṛthak
sarpān kimpuruṣān narān
mātṝ rakṣaḥ-piśācāṁś ca
yātudhānān grahān api
khagān mṛgān paśūn vṛkṣān
girīn nṛpa sarīsṛpān
dvi-vidhāś catur-vidhā ye ’nye
karmaṇāṁ gatayas tv imāḥ
prajā-patīn — Brahmā and his sons like Dakṣa and others; manūn — the periodical heads like Vaivasvata Manu; devān — like Indra, Candra and Varuṇa; ṛṣīn — like Bhṛgu and Vasiṣṭha; pitṛ-gaṇān — the inhabitants of the Pitā planets; pṛthak — separately; siddha — the inhabitants of the Siddha planet; cāraṇa — the inhabitants of the Cāraṇa planet; gandharvān — the inhabitants of the Gandharva planets; vidyādhra — the inhabitants of the Vidyādhara planet; asura — the atheists; guhyakān — the inhabitants of the Yakṣa planet; kinnara — the inhabitants of the Kinnara planet; apsarasaḥ — the beautiful angels of the Apsarā planet; nāgān — the serpentine inhabitants of Nāgaloka; sarpān — the inhabitants of Sarpaloka (snakes); kimpuruṣān — the monkey-shaped inhabitants of the Kimpuruṣa planet; narān — the inhabitants of earth; mātṝ — the inhabitants of Mātṛloka; rakṣaḥ — the inhabitants of the demoniac planet; piśācān — the inhabitants of Piśācaloka; ca — also; preta — the inhabitants of Pretaloka; bhūta — the evil spirits; vināyakān — the goblins; kūṣmāṇḍa — will-o’-the-wisp; unmāda — lunatics; vetālān — the jinn; yātudhānān — a particular type of evil spirit; grahān — the good and evil stars; api — also; khagān — the birds; mṛgān — the forest animals; paśūn — the household animals; vṛkṣān — the ghosts; girīn — the mountains; nṛpa — O King; sarīsṛpān — reptiles; dvi-vidhāḥ — the moving and the standing living entities; catuḥ-vidhāḥ — living entities born from embryos, eggs, perspiration and seeds; ye — others; anye — all; jala — water; sthala — land; nabha-okasaḥ — birds; kuśala — in happiness; akuśalāḥ — in distress; miśrāḥ — in mixed happiness and distress; karmaṇām — according to one’s own past deeds; gatayaḥ — as result of; tu — but; imāḥ — all of them.
O King, know from me that all living entities are created by the Supreme Lord according to their past deeds. This includes Brahmā and his sons like Dakṣa, the periodical heads like Vaivasvata Manu, the demigods like Indra, Candra and Varuṇa, the great sages like Bhṛgu, Vyāsa and Vasiṣṭha, the inhabitants of Pitṛloka and Siddhaloka, the Cāraṇas, Gandharvas, Vidyādharas, Asuras, Yakṣas, Kinnaras and angels, the serpentines, the monkey-shaped Kimpuruṣas, the human beings, the inhabitants of Mātṛloka, the demons, Piśācas, ghosts, spirits, lunatics and evil spirits, the good and evil stars, the goblins, the animals in the forest, the birds, the household animals, the reptiles, the mountains, the moving and standing living entities, the living entities born from embryos, from eggs, from perspiration and from seeds, and all others, whether they be in the water, land or sky, in happiness, in distress or in mixed happiness and distress. All of them, according to their past deeds, are created by the Supreme Lord.
sattvaṁ rajas tama iti
tatrāpy ekaikaśo rājan
bhidyante gatayas tridhā
sattvam — the mode of goodness; rajaḥ — the mode of passion; tamaḥ — the mode of darkness; iti — thus; tisraḥ — the three; sura — demigod; nṛ — human being; nārakāḥ — one who is suffering hellish conditions; tatra api — even there; ekaikaśaḥ — another; rājan — O King; bhidyante — divide into; gatayaḥ — movements; tridhā — three; yadā — at that time; ekaikataraḥ — one in relation with another; anyābhyām — from the other; sva-bhāvaḥ — habit; upahanyate — develops.
According to the different modes of material nature — the mode of goodness, the mode of passion and the mode of darkness — there are different living creatures, who are known as demigods, human beings and hellish living entities. O King, even a particular mode of nature, being mixed with the other two, is divided into three, and thus each kind of living creature is influenced by the other modes and acquires its habits also.
sa evedaṁ jagad-dhātā
puṣṇāti sthāpayan viśvaṁ
saḥ — He; eva — certainly; idam — this; jagat-dhātā — the maintainer of the entire universe; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; dharma-rūpa-dhṛk — assuming the form of religious principles; puṣṇāti — maintains; sthāpayan — after establishing; viśvam — the universes; tiryak — living entities lower than the human beings; nara — the human beings; sura-ādibhiḥ — by the demigodly incarnations.
He, the Personality of Godhead, as the maintainer of all in the universe, appears in different incarnations after establishing the creation, and thus He reclaims all kinds of conditioned souls amongst the humans, the nonhumans and the demigods.
yat sṛṣṭam idam ātmanaḥ
sanniyacchati tat kāle
tataḥ — thereafter, at the end; kāla — destruction; agni — fire; rudra-ātmā — in the form of Rudra; yat — whatever; sṛṣṭam — created; idam — all these; ātmanaḥ — of His own; sam — completely; niyacchati — annihilates; tat kāle — at the end of the millennium; ghana-anīkam — bunches of clouds; iva — like that of; anilaḥ — air.
Thereafter, at the end of the millennium, the Lord Himself in the form of Rudra, the destroyer, will annihilate the complete creation as the wind displaces the clouds.
nettham-bhāvena hi paraṁ
draṣṭum arhanti sūrayaḥ
ittham — in these features; bhāvena — the matter of creation and destruction; kathitaḥ — described; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; bhagavat-tamaḥ — by the great transcendentalists; na — not; ittham — in this; bhāvena — features; hi — only; param — most glorious; draṣṭum — to see; arhanti — deserve; sūrayaḥ — great devotees.
The great transcendentalists thus describe the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but the pure devotees deserve to see more glorious things in transcendence, beyond these features.
nāsya karmaṇi janmādau
māyayāropitaṁ hi tat
na — never; asya — of the creation; karmaṇi — in the matter of; janma-ādau — creation and destruction; parasya — of the Supreme; anuvidhīyate — it is so described; kartṛtva — engineering; pratiṣedha-artham — counteract; māyayā — by the external energy; āropitam — is manifested; hi — for; tat — the creator.
There is no direct engineering by the Lord for the creation and destruction of the material world. What is described in the Vedas about His direct interference is simply to counteract the idea that material nature is the creator.
ayaṁ tu brahmaṇaḥ kalpaḥ
vidhiḥ sādhāraṇo yatra
ayam — this process of creation and annihilation; tu — but; brahmaṇaḥ — of Brahmā; kalpaḥ — his one day; sa-vikalpaḥ — along with the duration of the universes; udāhṛtaḥ — exemplified; vidhiḥ — regulative principles; sādhāraṇaḥ — in summary; yatra — wherein; sargāḥ — creation; prākṛta — in the matter of material nature; vaikṛtāḥ — disbursement.
This process of creation and annihilation described in summary herein is the regulative principle during the duration of Brahmā’s one day. It is also the regulative principle in the creation of mahat, in which the material nature is dispersed.
parimāṇaṁ ca kālasya
yathā purastād vyākhyāsye
pādmaṁ kalpam atho śṛṇu
parimāṇam — measurement; ca — also; kālasya — of time; kalpa — a day of Brahmā; lakṣaṇa — symptoms; vigraham — form; yathā — as much as; purastāt — hereafter; vyākhyāsye — shall be explained; pādmam — by the name Pādma; kalpam — the duration of a day; atho — thus; śṛṇu — just hear.
O King, I shall in due course explain the measurement of time in its gross and subtle features with the specific symptoms of each, but for the present let me explain unto you the Pādma-kalpa.
yad āha no bhavān sūta
cacāra tīrthāni bhuvas
tyaktvā bandhūn sudustyajān
śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka Muni said; yat — as; āha — you said; naḥ — unto us; bhavān — your good self; sūta — O Sūta; kṣattā — Vidura; bhāgavata-uttamaḥ — one of the topmost devotees of the Lord; cacāra — practiced; tīrthāni — places of pilgrimage; bhuvaḥ — on the earth; tyaktvā — leaving aside; bandhūn — all relatives; su-dustyajān — very difficult to give up.
Śaunaka Ṛṣi, after hearing all about the creation, inquired from Sūta Gosvāmī about Vidura, for Sūta Gosvāmī had previously informed him how Vidura left home, leaving aside all his relatives, who were very difficult to leave.
kṣattuḥ kauśāraves tasya
yad vā sa bhagavāṁs tasmai
pṛṣṭas tattvam uvāca ha
brūhi nas tad idaṁ saumya
kṣattuḥ — of Vidura; kauśāraveḥ — as that of Maitreya; tasya — their; saṁvādaḥ — news; adhyātma — in the matter of transcendental knowledge; saṁśritaḥ — full of; yat — which; vā — anything else; saḥ — he; bhagavān — His Grace; tasmai — unto him; pṛṣṭaḥ — inquired; tattvam — the truth; uvāca — answered; ha — in the past; brūhi — please tell; naḥ — unto us; tat — those matters; idam — here; saumya — O gentle one; vidurasya — of Vidura; viceṣṭitam — activities; bandhu-tyāga — renouncing the friends; nimittam — the cause of; ca — also; yathā — as; eva — also; āgatavān — came back; punaḥ — again (at home).
Śaunaka Ṛṣi said: Let us know, please, what topics were discussed between Vidura and Maitreya, who talked on transcendental subjects, and what was inquired by Vidura and replied by Maitreya. Also please let us know the reason for Vidura’s giving up the connection of his family members, and why he again came home. Please also let us know the activities of Vidura while he was in the places of pilgrimage.
rājñā parīkṣitā pṛṣṭo
yad avocan mahā-muniḥ
tad vo ’bhidhāsye śṛṇuta
sūtaḥ uvāca — Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī replied; rājñā — by the King; parīkṣitā — by Parīkṣit; pṛṣṭaḥ — as asked; yat — what; avocat — spoke; mahā-muniḥ — the great sage; tat — that very thing; vaḥ — unto you; abhidhāsye — I shall explain; śṛṇuta — please hear; rājñaḥ — by the King; praśna — question; anusārataḥ — in accordance with.
Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī explained: I shall now explain to you the very subjects explained by the great sage in answer to King Parīkṣit’s inquiries. Please hear them attentively.