Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 12 Chapter 6
Mahārāja Parīkṣit Passes Away
etan niśamya muninābhihitaṁ parīkṣid
vyāsātmajena nikhilātma-dṛśā samena
tat-pāda-mūlam upasṛtya natena mūrdhnā
baddhāñjalis tam idam āha sa viṣṇurātaḥ
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; etat — this; niśamya — hearing; muninā — by the sage (Śukadeva); abhihitam — narrated; parīkṣit — Mahārāja Parīkṣit; vyāsa-ātma-jena — by the son of Vyāsadeva; nikhila — of all living beings; ātma — the Supreme Lord; dṛśā — who sees; samena — who is perfectly equipoised; tat — of him (Śukadeva); pāda-mūlam — to the lotus feet; upasṛtya — going up; natena — bowed down; mūrdhnā — with his head; baddha-añjaliḥ — his arms folded in supplication; tam — to him; idam — this; āha — said; saḥ — he; viṣṇu-rātaḥ — Parīkṣit, who while still in the womb had been protected by Lord Kṛṣṇa Himself.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: After hearing all that was narrated to him by the self-realized and equipoised Śukadeva, the son of Vyāsadeva, Mahārāja Parīkṣit humbly approached his lotus feet. Bowing his head down upon the sage’s feet, the King, who had lived his entire life under the protection of Lord Viṣṇu, folded his hands in supplication and spoke as follows.
siddho ’smy anugṛhīto ’smi
śrāvito yac ca me sākṣād
rājā uvāca — King Parīkṣit said; siddhaḥ — fully successful; asmi — I am; anugṛhītaḥ — shown great mercy; asmi — I am; bhavatā — by your good self; karuṇā-ātmanā — who are full of mercy; śrāvitaḥ — has been described aurally; yat — because; ca — and; me — to me; sākṣāt — directly; anādi — who has no beginning; nidhanaḥ — or end; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Mahārāja Parīkṣit said: I have now achieved the purpose of my life, because a great and merciful soul like you has shown such kindness to me. You have personally spoken to me this narration of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Hari, who is without beginning or end.
nāty-adbhutam ahaṁ manye
bhūteṣu yad anugrahaḥ
na — not; ati-adbhutam — very surprising; aham — I; manye — think; mahatām — for the great souls; acyuta-ātmanām — whose minds are always absorbed in Lord Kṛṣṇa; ajñeṣu — upon the ignorant; tāpa — by the distresses of material life; tapteṣu — tormented; bhūteṣu — upon the conditioned souls; yat — which; anugrahaḥ — mercy.
I do not consider it at all amazing that great souls such as yourself, whose minds are always absorbed in the infallible Personality of Godhead, show mercy to the foolish conditioned souls, tormented as we are by the problems of material life.
aśrauṣma bhavato vayam
purāṇa-saṁhitām — essential summary of all the Purāṇas; etām — this; aśrauṣma — have heard; bhavataḥ — from you; vayam — we; yasyām — in which; khalu — indeed; uttamaḥ-ślokaḥ — who is always described in choice poetry; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; anuvarṇyate — is fittingly described.
I have heard from you this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, which is the perfect summary of all the Purāṇas and which perfectly describes the Supreme Lord, Uttamaḥśloka.
mṛtyubhyo na bibhemy aham
praviṣṭo brahma nirvāṇam
abhayaṁ darśitaṁ tvayā
bhagavan — my lord; takṣaka — from the snake-bird Takṣaka; ādibhyaḥ — or other living entities; mṛtyubhyaḥ — from repeated deaths; na bibhemi — do not fear; aham — I; praviṣṭaḥ — having entered; brahma — the Absolute Truth; nirvāṇam — exclusive of everything material; abhayam — fearlessness; darśitam — shown; tvayā — by you.
My lord, I now have no fear of Takṣaka or any other living being, or even of repeated deaths, because I have absorbed myself in that purely spiritual Absolute Truth, which you have revealed and which destroys all fear.
anujānīhi māṁ brahman
vācaṁ yacchāmy adhokṣaje
praveśya visṛjāmy asūn
anujānīhi — please give your permission; mām — to me; brahman — O great brāhmaṇa; vācam — my speech (and all other sensory functions); yacchāmi — I shall place; adhokṣaje — within the Supreme Personality of Godhead; mukta — having given up; kāma-āśayam — all lusty desires; cetaḥ — my mind; praveśya — absorbing; visṛjāmi — I shall give up; asūn — my life air.
O brāhmaṇa, please give me permission to resign my speech and the functions of all my senses unto Lord Adhokṣaja. Allow me to absorb my mind, purified of lusty desires, within Him and to thus give up my life.
ajñānaṁ ca nirastaṁ me
bhavatā darśitaṁ kṣemaṁ
paraṁ bhagavataḥ padam
ajñānam — ignorance; ca — also; nirastam — eradicated; me — my; jñāna — in knowledge of the Supreme Lord; vijñāna — and direct realization of His opulence and sweetness; niṣṭhayā — by becoming fixed; bhavatā — by you; darśitam — has been shown; kṣemam — all-auspicious; param — supreme; bhagavataḥ — of the Lord; padam — the Personality.
You have revealed to me that which is most auspicious, the supreme personal feature of the Lord. I am now fixed in knowledge and self-realization, and my ignorance has been eradicated.
ity uktas tam anujñāpya
jagāma bhikṣubhiḥ sākaṁ
sūtaḥ uvāca — Śrī Sūta Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; uktaḥ — spoken to; tam — him; anujñāpya — giving permission; bhagavān — the powerful saint; bādarāyaṇiḥ — Śukadeva, the son of Bādarāyaṇa Vedavyāsa; jagāma — went away; bhikṣubhiḥ — the renounced sages; sākam — along with; nara-devena — by the King; pūjitaḥ — worshiped.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: Thus requested, the saintly son of Śrīla Vyāsadeva gave his permission to King Parīkṣit. Then, after being worshiped by the King and all the sages present, Śukadeva departed from that place.
parīkṣid api rājarṣir
ātmany ātmānam ātmanā
samādhāya paraṁ dadhyāv
aspandāsur yathā taruḥ
prāk-kūle barhiṣy āsīno
parīkṣit — Mahārāja Parīkṣit; api — furthermore; rāja-ṛṣiḥ — the great saintly King; ātmani — within his own spiritual identity; ātmānam — his mind; ātmanā — by his intelligence; samādhāya — placing; param — upon the Supreme; dadhyau — he meditated; aspanda — motionless; asuḥ — his living air; yathā — just as; taruḥ — a tree; prāk-kūle — with the tips of its stalks facing east; barhiṣi — upon darbha grass; āsīnaḥ — sitting; gaṅgā-kūle — on the bank of the Gaṅgā; udak-mukhaḥ — facing north; brahma-bhūtaḥ — in perfect realization of his true identity; mahā-yogī — the exalted mystic; niḥsaṅgaḥ — free of all material attachment; chinna — broken off; saṁśayaḥ — all doubts.
Mahārāja Parīkṣit then sat down on the bank of the Ganges, upon a seat made of darbha grass with the tips of its stalks facing east, and turned himself toward the north. Having attained the perfection of yoga, he experienced full self-realization and was free of material attachment and doubt. The saintly King settled his mind within his spiritual self by pure intelligence and proceeded to meditate upon the Supreme Absolute Truth. His life air ceased to move, and he became as stationary as a tree.
takṣakaḥ prahito viprāḥ
hantu-kāmo nṛpaṁ gacchan
dadarśa pathi kaśyapam
takṣakaḥ — the snake-bird Takṣaka; prahitaḥ — sent; viprāḥ — O learned brāhmaṇas; kruddhena — who had been angered; dvija — of the sage Śamīka; sūnunā — by the son; hantu-kāmaḥ — desirous of killing; nṛpam — the King; gacchan — while going; dadarśa — he saw; pathi — upon the road; kaśyapam — Kaśyapa Muni.
O learned brāhmaṇas, the snake-bird Takṣaka, who had been sent by the angry son of a brāhmaṇa, was going toward the King to kill him when he saw Kaśyapa Muni on the path.
taṁ tarpayitvā draviṇair
kāma-rūpo ’daśan nṛpam
tam — him (Kaśyapa); tarpayitvā — gratifying; draviṇaiḥ — with valuable offerings; nivartya — stopping; viṣa-hāriṇam — an expert in counteracting poison; dvija-rūpa — in the form of a brāhmaṇa; praticchannaḥ — disguising himself; kāma-rūpaḥ — Takṣaka, who could assume any form he wished; adaśat — bit; nṛpam — King Parīkṣit.
Takṣaka flattered Kaśyapa by presenting him with valuable offerings and thereby stopped the sage, who was expert in counteracting poison, from protecting Mahārāja Parīkṣit. Then the snake-bird, who could assume any form he wished, disguised himself as a brāhmaṇa, approached the King and bit him.
babhūva bhasmasāt sadyaḥ
brahma-bhūtasya — of the fully self-realized; rāja-ṛṣeḥ — the saint among kings; dehaḥ — the body; ahi — of the snake; garala — from the poison; agninā — by the fire; babhūva — turned; bhasma-sāt — to ashes; sadyaḥ — immediately; paśyatām — while they were watching; sarva-dehinām — all embodied living beings.
While living beings all over the universe looked on, the body of the great self-realized saint among kings was immediately burned to ashes by the fire of the snake’s poison.
hāhā-kāro mahān āsīd
bhuvi khe dikṣu sarvataḥ
vismitā hy abhavan sarve
hāhā-kāraḥ — a cry of lamentation; mahān — great; āsīt — there was; bhuvi — on the earth; khe — in the sky; dikṣu — in the directions; sarvataḥ — all about; vismitāḥ — amazed; hi — indeed; abhavan — they became; sarve — all; deva — the demigods; asura — demons; nara — human beings; ādayaḥ — and other creatures.
There arose a terrible cry of lamentation in all directions on the earth and in the heavens, and all the demigods, demons, human beings and other creatures were astonished.
deva — of the demigods; dundubhayaḥ — the kettledrums; neduḥ — resounded; gandharva-apsarasaḥ — the Gandharvas and Apsarās; jaguḥ — sang; vavṛṣuḥ — they showered down; puṣpa-varṣāṇi — rains of flowers; vibudhāḥ — the demigods; sādhu-vādinaḥ — speaking praise.
Kettledrums sounded in the regions of the demigods, and the celestial Gandharvas and Apsarās sang. The demigods showered flowers and spoke words of praise.
nāgān satre saha dvijaiḥ
janmejayaḥ — King Janamejaya, the son of Parīkṣit; sva-pitaram — his own father; śrutvā — hearing; takṣaka — by Takṣaka, the snake-bird; bhakṣitam — bitten; yathā — properly; ājuhāva — offered as oblations; saṅkruddhaḥ — extremely angry; nāgān — the snakes; satre — in a great sacrifice; saha — along with; dvijaiḥ — brāhmaṇas.
Hearing that his father had been fatally bitten by the snake-bird, Mahārāja Janamejaya became extremely angry and had brāhmaṇas perform a mighty sacrifice in which he offered all the snakes in the world into the sacrificial fire.
takṣakaḥ śaraṇaṁ yayau
sarpa-satre — in the snake sacrifice; samiddha — blazing; agnau — in the fire; dahyamānān — being burned; mahā-uragān — the great serpents; dṛṣṭvā — seeing; indram — to Indra; bhaya — with fear; saṁvignaḥ — very disturbed; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; śaraṇam — for shelter; yayau — went.
When Takṣaka saw even the most powerful serpents being burned in the blazing fire of that snake sacrifice, he was overwhelmed with fear and approached Lord Indra for shelter.
apaśyaṁs takṣakaṁ tatra
rājā pārīkṣito dvijān
uvāca takṣakaḥ kasmān
apaśyan — not seeing; takṣakam — Takṣaka; tatra — there; rājā — the King; pārīkṣitaḥ — Janamejaya; dvijān — to the brāhmaṇas; uvāca — said; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; kasmāt — why; na dahyeta — has not been burned; uraga — of all the serpents; adhamaḥ — the lowest.
When King Janamejaya did not see Takṣaka entering his sacrificial fire, he said to the brāhmaṇas: Why is not Takṣaka, the lowest of all serpents, burning in this fire?
taṁ gopāyati rājendra
śakraḥ śaraṇam āgatam
tena saṁstambhitaḥ sarpas
tasmān nāgnau pataty asau
tam — him (Takṣaka); gopāyati — is hiding; rāja-indra — O best of kings; śakraḥ — Lord Indra; śaraṇam — for shelter; āgatam — who has approached; tena — by that Indra; saṁstambhitaḥ — kept; sarpaḥ — the snake; tasmāt — thus; na — not; agnau — into the fire; patati — does fall; asau — he.
The brāhmaṇas replied: O best of kings, the snake Takṣaka has not fallen into the fire because he is being protected by Indra, whom he has approached for shelter. Indra is holding him back from the fire.
pārīkṣita iti śrutvā
sahendras takṣako viprā
nāgnau kim iti pātyate
pārīkṣitaḥ — King Janamejaya; iti — these words; śrutvā — hearing; prāha — replied; ṛtvijaḥ — to the priests; udāra — broad; dhīḥ — whose intelligence; saha — along with; indraḥ — Indra; takṣakaḥ — Takṣaka; viprāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; na — not; agnau — into the fire; kim — why; iti — indeed; pātyate — is made to fall.
The intelligent King Janamejaya, hearing these words, replied to the priests: Then, my dear brāhmaṇas, why not make Takṣaka fall into the fire, along with his protector, Indra?
tac chrutvājuhuvur viprāḥ
sahendraṁ takṣakaṁ makhe
tat — that; śrutvā — hearing; ājuhuvuḥ — they performed the ritual of offering oblation; viprāḥ — the brāhmaṇa priests; saha — along with; indram — King Indra; takṣakam — the snake-bird Takṣaka; makhe — into the sacrificial fire; takṣaka — O Takṣaka; āśu — quickly; patasva — you should fall; iha — here; saha indreṇa — together with Indra; marut-vatā — who is accompanied by all the demigods.
Hearing this, the priests then chanted this mantra for offering Takṣaka together with Indra as an oblation into the sacrificial fire: O Takṣaka, fall immediately into this fire, together with Indra and his entire host of demigods!
sthānād indraḥ pracālitaḥ
iti — thus; brahma — by the brāhmaṇas; udita — spoken; ākṣepaiḥ — by the insulting words; sthānāt — from his place; indraḥ — Lord Indra; pracālitaḥ — thrown; babhūva — became; sambhrānta — disturbed; matiḥ — in his mind; sa-vimānaḥ — along with his heavenly airplane; sa-takṣakaḥ — along with Takṣaka.
When Lord Indra, along with his airplane and Takṣaka, was suddenly thrown from his position by these insulting words of the brāhmaṇas, he became very disturbed.
taṁ patantaṁ vimānena
rājānaṁ taṁ bṛhaspatiḥ
tam — him; patantam — falling; vimānena — in his airplane; saha-takṣakam — with Takṣaka; ambarāt — from the sky; vilokya — observing; āṅgirasaḥ — the son of Aṅgirā; prāha — spoke; rājānam — to the King (Janamejaya); tam — to him; bṛhaspatiḥ — Bṛhaspati.
Bṛhaspati, the son of Aṅgirā Muni, seeing Indra falling from the sky in his airplane along with Takṣaka, approached King Janamejaya and spoke to him as follows.
naiṣa tvayā manuṣyendra
vadham arhati sarpa-rāṭ
anena pītam amṛtam
atha vā ajarāmaraḥ
na — not; eṣaḥ — this snake-bird; tvayā — by you; manuṣya-indra — O great ruler of men; vadham — murder; arhati — deserves; sarpa-rāṭ — the king of snakes; anena — by him; pītam — has been drunk; amṛtam — the nectar of the demigods; atha — therefore; vai — certainly; ajara — free from the effects of old age; amaraḥ — virtually immortal.
O King among men, it is not fitting that this king of snakes meet death at your hands, for he has drunk the nectar of the immortal demigods. Consequently he is not subject to the ordinary symptoms of old age and death.
jīvitaṁ maraṇaṁ jantor
gatiḥ svenaiva karmaṇā
rājaṁs tato ’nyo nāsty asya
jīvitam — the living; maraṇam — the dying; jantoḥ — of a living being; gatiḥ — the destination in his next life; svena — by his own; eva — only; karmaṇā — work; rājan — O King; tataḥ — than that; anyaḥ — another; na asti — there is not; asya — for him; pradātā — bestower; sukha-duḥkhayoḥ — of happiness and distress.
The life and death of an embodied soul and his destination in the next life are all caused by himself through his own activity. Therefore, O King, no other agent is actually responsible for creating one’s happiness and distress.
pañcatvam ṛcchate jantur
bhuṅkta ārabdha-karma tat
sarpa — from snakes; caura — thieves; agni — fire; vidyudbhyaḥ — and lightning; kṣut — from hunger; tṛṭ — thirst; vyādhi — disease; ādibhiḥ — and other agents; nṛpa — O King; pañcatvam — death; ṛcchate — obtains; jantuḥ — the conditioned living entity; bhuṅkte — he enjoys; ārabdha — already created by his past work; karma — the fruitive reaction; tat — that.
When a conditioned soul is killed by snakes, thieves, fire, lightning, hunger, disease or anything else, he is experiencing the reaction to his own past work.
tasmāt satram idaṁ rājan
sarpā anāgaso dagdhā
janair diṣṭaṁ hi bhujyate
tasmāt — therefore; satram — sacrifice; idam — this; rājan — O King; saṁsthīyeta — should be stopped; ābhicārikam — done with intent to harm; sarpāḥ — the serpents; anāgasaḥ — innocent; dagdhāḥ — burned; janaiḥ — by persons; diṣṭam — fate; hi — indeed; bhujyate — is suffered.
Therefore, my dear King, please stop this sacrificial performance, which was initiated with the intent of doing harm to others. Many innocent snakes have already been burned to death. Indeed, all persons must suffer the unforeseen consequences of their past activities.
ity uktaḥ sa tathety āha
maharṣer mānayan vacaḥ
pūjayām āsa vāk-patim
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; uktaḥ — addressed; saḥ — he (Janamejaya); tathā iti — so be it; āha — he said; mahā-ṛṣeḥ — of the great sage; mānayan — honoring; vacaḥ — the words; sarpa-satrāt — from the snake sacrifice; uparataḥ — ceasing; pūjayām āsa — he worshiped; vāk-patim — Bṛhaspati, the master of eloquence.
Sūta Gosvāmī continued: Advised in this manner, Mahārāja Janamejaya replied, “So be it.” Honoring the words of the great sage, he desisted from performing the snake sacrifice and worshiped Bṛhaspati, the most eloquent of sages.
saiṣā viṣṇor mahā-māyā-
sā eṣā — this very; viṣṇoḥ — of the Supreme Lord, Viṣṇu; mahā-māyā — the illusory material energy; abādhyayā — by her who cannot be checked; alakṣaṇā — indiscernible; yayā — by whom; muhyanti — become bewildered; asya — of the Lord; eva — indeed; ātma-bhūtāḥ — the part-and-parcel spirit souls; bhūteṣu — within their material bodies; guṇa — of the modes of nature; vṛttibhiḥ — by the functions.
This is indeed the Supreme Lord Viṣṇu’s illusory energy, which is unstoppable and difficult to perceive. Although the individual spirit souls are part and parcel of the Lord, through the influence of this illusory energy they are bewildered by their identification with various material bodies.
na yatra dambhīty abhayā virājitā
māyātma-vāde ’sakṛd ātma-vādibhiḥ
na yad vivādo vividhas tad-āśrayo
manaś ca saṅkalpa-vikalpa-vṛtti yat
na yatra sṛjyaṁ sṛjatobhayoḥ paraṁ
śreyaś ca jīvas tribhir anvitas tv aham
tad etad utsādita-bādhya-bādhakaṁ
niṣidhya cormīn virameta tan muniḥ
na — not; yatra — in which; dambhī — he is a hypocrite; iti — thinking thus; abhayā — fearless; virājitā — visible; māyā — the illusory energy; ātma-vāde — when spiritual inquiry is being conducted; asakṛt — constantly; ātma-vādibhiḥ — by those who describe spiritual science; na — not; yat — in which; vivādaḥ — materialistic argument; vividhaḥ — taking many different forms; tat-āśrayaḥ — founded upon that illusory energy; manaḥ — the mind; ca — and; saṅkalpa — decision; vikalpa — and doubt; vṛtti — whose functions; yat — in which; na — not; yatra — in which; sṛjyam — the created products of the material world; sṛjatā — along with their causes; ubhayoḥ — by both; param — achieved; śreyaḥ — the benefits; ca — and; jīvaḥ — the living entity; tribhiḥ — with the three (modes of nature); anvitaḥ — joined; tu — indeed; aham — (conditioned by) false ego; tat etat — that indeed; utsādita — excluding; bādhya — the obstructed (conditioned living beings); bādhakam — and the obstructing (modes of material nature); niṣidhya — warding off; ca — and; ūrmīn — the waves (of false ego and so on); virameta — should take special pleasure; tat — in that; muniḥ — a sage.
But there exists a supreme reality, in which the illusory energy cannot fearlessly dominate, thinking, “I can control this person because he is deceitful.” In that highest reality there are no illusory argumentative philosophies. Rather, there the true students of spiritual science constantly engage in authorized spiritual investigation. In that supreme reality there is no manifestation of the material mind, which functions in terms of alternating decision and doubt. Created material products, their subtle causes and the goals of enjoyment attained by their utilization do not exist there. Furthermore, in that supreme reality there is no conditioned spirit, covered by false ego and the three modes of nature. That reality excludes everything limited or limiting. One who is wise should therefore stop the waves of material life and enjoy within that Supreme Truth.
paraṁ padaṁ vaiṣṇavam āmananti tad
yan neti netīty atad-utsisṛkṣavaḥ
visṛjya daurātmyam ananya-sauhṛdā
param — the supreme; padam — situation; vaiṣṇavam — of Lord Viṣṇu; āmananti — they designate; tat — that; yat — which; na iti na iti — “not this, not this”; iti — thus analyzing; atat — everything extraneous; utsisṛkṣavaḥ — those who are desirous of giving up; visṛjya — rejecting; daurātmyam — petty materialism; ananya — placing nowhere else; sauhṛdāḥ — their affection; hṛdā — within their hearts; upaguhya — embracing Him; avasitam — who is captured; samāhitaiḥ — by those who meditate upon Him in trance.
Those who desire to give up all that is not essentially real move systematically, by negative discrimination of the extraneous, to the supreme position of Lord Viṣṇu. Giving up petty materialism, they offer their love exclusively to the Absolute Truth within their hearts and embrace that highest truth in fixed meditation.
ta etad adhigacchanti
viṣṇor yat paramaṁ padam
ahaṁ mameti daurjanyaṁ
na yeṣāṁ deha-geha-jam
te — they; etat — this; adhigacchanti — come to know; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; yat — which; paramam — the supreme; padam — personal situation; aham — I; mama — my; iti — thus; daurjanyam — the depravity; na — is not; yeṣām — for whom; deha — the body; geha — and home; jam — based upon.
Such devotees come to understand the supreme transcendental situation of the Personality of Godhead, Lord Viṣṇu, because they are no longer polluted by the concepts of “I” and “my,” which are based on body and home.
na cemaṁ deham āśritya
vairaṁ kurvīta kenacit
ati-vādān — insulting words; titikṣeta — one should tolerate; na — never; avamanyeta — one should disrespect; kañcana — anyone; na ca — nor; imam — this; deham — material body; āśritya — identifying with; vairam — enmity; kurvīta — one should have; kenacit — with anyone.
One should tolerate all insults and never fail to show proper respect to any person. Avoiding identification with the material body, one should not create enmity with anyone.
namo bhagavate tasmai
saṁhitām adhyagām imām
namaḥ — obeisances; bhagavate — to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; tasmai — to Him; kṛṣṇāya — Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa; akuṇṭha-medhase — whose power is never impeded; yat — whose; pāda-ambu-ruha — upon the lotus feet; dhyānāt — by meditation; saṁhitām — the scripture; adhyagām — I have assimilated; imām — this.
I offer my obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the invincible Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Simply by meditating upon His lotus feet I have been able to study and appreciate this great literature.
vedāś ca kathitā vyastā
etat saumyābhidhehi naḥ
śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka Ṛṣi said; paila-ādibhiḥ — by Paila and others; vyāsa-śiṣyaiḥ — the disciples of Śrīla Vyāsadeva; veda-ācāryaiḥ — the standard authorities of the Vedas; mahā-ātmabhiḥ — whose intelligence was very great; vedāḥ — the Vedas; ca — and; kathitāḥ — spoken; vyastāḥ — divided; etat — this; saumya — O gentle Sūta; abhidhehi — please narrate; naḥ — to us.
Śaunaka Ṛṣi said: O gentle Sūta, please narrate to us how Paila and the other greatly intelligent disciples of Śrīla Vyāsadeva, who are known as the standard authorities of Vedic wisdom, spoke and edited the Vedas.
hṛdy ākāśād abhūn nādo
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; samāhita-ātmanaḥ — whose mind was perfectly fixed; brahman — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); brahmaṇaḥ — of Lord Brahmā; parame-sthinaḥ — the most elevated of living beings; hṛdi — within the heart; ākāśāt — from out of the sky; abhūt — arose; nādaḥ — the transcendental subtle sound; vṛtti-rodhāt — by stopping the functioning (of the ears); vibhāvyate — is perceived.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: O brāhmaṇa, first the subtle vibration of transcendental sound appeared from the sky of the heart of the most elevated Lord Brahmā, whose mind was perfectly fixed in spiritual realization. One can perceive this subtle vibration when one stops all external hearing.
yogino malam ātmanaḥ
dhūtvā yānty apunar-bhavam
yat — of which (subtle form of the Vedas); upāsanayā — by the worship; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; yoginaḥ — mystic sages; malam — the contamination; ātmanaḥ — of the heart; dravya — substance; kriyā — activity; kāraka — and performer; ākhyam — designated as such; dhūtvā — cleansing away; yānti — they achieve; apunaḥ-bhavam — freedom from rebirth.
By worship of this subtle form of the Vedas, O brāhmaṇa, mystic sages cleanse their hearts of all contamination caused by impurity of substance, activity and doer, and thus they attain freedom from repeated birth and death.
tato ’bhūt tri-vṛd oṁkāro
yo ’vyakta-prabhavaḥ sva-rāṭ
yat tal liṅgaṁ bhagavato
tataḥ — from that; abhūt — came into being; tri-vṛt — threefold; oṁkāraḥ — the syllable om; yaḥ — which; avyakta — not apparent; prabhavaḥ — its influence; sva-rāṭ — self-manifesting; yat — which; tat — that; liṅgam — the representation; bhagavataḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Absolute Truth in His impersonal aspect; parama-ātmanaḥ — and of the Supersoul.
From that transcendental subtle vibration arose the oṁkāra composed of three sounds. The oṁkāra has unseen potencies and manifests automatically within a purified heart. It is the representation of the Absolute Truth in all three of His phases — the Supreme Personality, the Supreme Soul and the supreme impersonal truth.
śṛṇoti ya imaṁ sphoṭaṁ
supta-śrotre ca śūnya-dṛk
yena vāg vyajyate yasya
vyaktir ākāśa ātmanaḥ
sva-dhāmno brahmaṇaḥ sākṣād
śṛṇoti — hears; yaḥ — who; imam — this; sphoṭam — unmanifest and eternal subtle sound; supta-śrotre — when the sense of hearing is asleep; ca — and; śūnya-dṛk — devoid of material sight and other sensory functions; yena — by which; vāk — the expanse of Vedic sound; vyajyate — is elaborated; yasya — of which; vyaktiḥ — the manifestation; ākāśe — in the sky (of the heart); ātmanaḥ — from the soul; sva-dhāmnaḥ — who is His own origin; brahmaṇaḥ — of the Absolute Truth; sākṣāt — directly; vācakaḥ — the designating term; parama-ātmanaḥ — of the Supersoul; saḥ — that; sarva — of all; mantra — Vedic hymns; upaniṣat — the secret; veda — of the Vedas; bījam — the seed; sanātanam — eternal.
This oṁkāra, ultimately nonmaterial and imperceptible, is heard by the Supersoul without His possessing material ears or any other material senses. The entire expanse of Vedic sound is elaborated from oṁkāra, which appears from the soul, within the sky of the heart. It is the direct designation of the self-originating Absolute Truth, the Supersoul, and is the secret essence and eternal seed of all Vedic hymns.
tasya hy āsaṁs trayo varṇā
dhāryante yais trayo bhāvā
tasya — of that oṁkāra; hi — indeed; āsan — came into being; trayaḥ — three; varṇāḥ — sounds of the alphabet; a-kāra-ādyāḥ — beginning with the letter a; bhṛgu-udvaha — O most eminent of the descendants of Bhṛgu; dhāryante — are sustained; yaiḥ — by which three sounds; trayaḥ — the threefold; bhāvāḥ — states of existence; guṇa — the qualities of nature; nāma — names; artha — goals; vṛttayaḥ — and states of consciousness.
Oṁkāra exhibited the three original sounds of the alphabet — A, U and M. These three, O most eminent descendant of Bhṛgu, sustain all the different threefold aspects of material existence, including the three modes of nature, the names of the Ṛg, Yajur and Sāma Vedas, the goals known as the Bhūr, Bhuvar and Svar planetary systems, and the three functional platforms called waking consciousness, sleep and deep sleep.
asṛjad bhagavān ajaḥ
tataḥ — from that oṁkāra; akṣara — of the different sounds; samāmnāyam — the total collection; asṛjat — created; bhagavān — the powerful demigod; ajaḥ — unborn Brahmā; anta-stha — as the semivowels; uṣma — sibilants; svara — vowels; sparśa — and consonant stops; hrasva-dīrgha — in short and long forms; ādi — and so on; lakṣaṇam — characterized.
From that oṁkāra Lord Brahmā created all the sounds of the alphabet — the vowels, consonants, semivowels, sibilants and others — distinguished by such features as long and short measure.
tenāsau caturo vedāṁś
caturbhir vadanair vibhuḥ
tena — with that body of sounds; asau — he; caturaḥ — the four; vedān — Vedas; caturbhiḥ — from his four; vadanaiḥ — faces; vibhuḥ — the all-powerful; sa-vyāhṛtikān — along with the vyāhṛtis (the invocations of the names of the seven planetary systems: bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ and satya); sa-oṁkārān — along with the seed, om; cātuḥ-hotra — the four aspects of ritual sacrifice performed by the priests of each of the four Vedas; vivakṣayā — with the desire of describing.
All-powerful Brahmā made use of this collection of sounds to produce from his four faces the four Vedas, which appeared together with the sacred oṁkāra and the seven vyāhṛti invocations. His intention was to propagate the process of Vedic sacrifice according to the different functions performed by the priests of each of the four Vedas.
putrān adhyāpayat tāṁs tu
te tu dharmopadeṣṭāraḥ
putrān — to his sons; adhyāpayat — he taught; tān — those Vedas; tu — and; brahma-ṛṣīn — to the great sages among the brāhmaṇas; brahma — in the art of Vedic recitation; kovidān — who were very expert; te — they; tu — moreover; dharma — in religious rituals; upadeṣṭāraḥ — instructors; sva-putrebhyaḥ — to their own sons; samādiśan — imparted.
Brahmā taught these Vedas to his sons, who were great sages among the brāhmaṇas and experts in the art of Vedic recitation. They in turn took the role of ācāryas and imparted the Vedas to their own sons.
te paramparayā prāptās
catur-yugeṣv atha vyastā
te — these Vedas; paramparayā — by continuous disciplic succession; prāptāḥ — received; tat-tat — of each succeeding generation; śiṣyaiḥ — by the disciples; dhṛta-vrataiḥ — who were firm in their vows; catuḥ-yugeṣu — throughout the four ages; atha — then; vyastāḥ — were divided; dvāpara-ādau — at the end of the Dvāpara millennium; mahā-ṛṣibhiḥ — by great authorities.
In this way, throughout the cycles of four ages, generation after generation of disciples — all firmly fixed in their spiritual vows — have received these Vedas by disciplic succession. At the end of each Dvāpara-yuga the Vedas are edited into separate divisions by eminent sages.
durmedhān vīkṣya kālataḥ
vedān brahmarṣayo vyasyan
kṣīṇa-āyuṣaḥ — their life span diminished; kṣīṇa-sattvān — their strength diminished; durmedhān — of less intelligence; vīkṣya — observing; kālataḥ — by the effect of time; vedān — the Vedas; brahma-ṛṣayaḥ — the chief sages; vyasyan — divided up; hṛdi-stha — sitting within their hearts; acyuta — by the infallible Personality of Godhead; coditāḥ — inspired.
Observing that people in general were diminished in their life span, strength and intelligence by the influence of time, great sages took inspiration from the Personality of Godhead sitting within their hearts and systematically divided the Vedas.
asminn apy antare brahman
vedaṁ cakre catur-vidham
asmin — in this; api — also; antare — rule of Manu; brahman — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; loka — of the universe; bhāvanaḥ — the protector; brahma — by Brahmā; īśa — Śiva; ādyaiḥ — and the others; loka-pālaiḥ — the rulers of the various planets; yācitaḥ — requested; dharma-guptaye — for the protection of the principles of religion; parāśarāt — by Parāśara Muni; satyavatyām — in the womb of Satyavatī; aṁśa — of His plenary expansion (Saṅkarṣaṇa); aṁśa — of the expansion (Viṣṇu); kalayā — as the partial expansion; vibhuḥ — the Lord; avatīrṇaḥ — descended; mahā-bhāga — O most fortunate one; vedam — the Veda; cakre — he made; catuḥ-vidham — in four parts.
O brāhmaṇa, in the present age of Vaivasvata Manu, the leaders of the universe, led by Brahmā and Śiva, requested the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the protector of all the worlds, to save the principles of religion. O most fortunate Śaunaka, the almighty Lord, exhibiting a divine spark of a portion of His plenary portion, then appeared in the womb of Satyavatī as the son of Parāśara. In this form, named Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana Vyāsa, he divided the one Veda into four.
rāśīr uddhṛtya vargaśaḥ
catasraḥ saṁhitāś cakre
mantrair maṇi-gaṇā iva
ṛk-atharva-yajuḥ-sāmnām — of the Ṛg, Atharva, Yajur and Sāma Vedas; rāśīḥ — the accumulation (of mantras); uddhṛtya — separating out; vargaśaḥ — in specific categories; catasraḥ — four; saṁhitāḥ — collections; cakre — he made; mantraiḥ — with the mantras; maṇi-gaṇāḥ — gems; iva — just as.
Śrīla Vyāsadeva separated the mantras of the Ṛg, Atharva, Yajur and Sāma Vedas into four divisions, just as one sorts out a mixed collection of jewels into piles. Thus he composed four distinct Vedic literatures.
tāsāṁ sa caturaḥ śiṣyān
ekaikāṁ saṁhitāṁ brahmann
ekaikasmai dadau vibhuḥ
tāsām — of those four collections; saḥ — he; caturaḥ — four; śiṣyān — disciples; upāhūya — calling near; mahā-matiḥ — the powerfully intelligent sage; eka-ekām — one by one; saṁhitām — a collection; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; eka-ekasmai — to each of them; dadau — he gave; vibhuḥ — the powerful Vyāsadeva.
The most powerful and intelligent Vyāsadeva called four of his disciples, O brāhmaṇa, and entrusted to each of them one of these four saṁhitās.
pailāya saṁhitām ādyāṁ
bahvṛcākhyāṁ uvāca ha
sāmnāṁ jaiminaye prāha
pailāya — to Paila; saṁhitām — the collection; ādyām — first (of the Ṛg Veda); bahu-ṛca-ākhyam — called Bahvṛca; uvāca — he spoke; ha — indeed; vaiśampāyana-saṁjñāya — to the sage named Vaiśampāyana; nigada-ākhyam — known as Nigada; yajuḥ-gaṇam — the collection of Yajur mantras; sāmnām — the mantras of the Sāma Veda; jaiminaye — to Jaimini; prāha — he spoke; tathā — and; chandoga-saṁhitām — the saṁhitā named Chandoga; atharva-aṅgirasīm — the Veda ascribed to the sages Atharva and Aṅgirā; nāma — indeed; sva-śiṣyāya — to his disciple; sumantave — Sumantu.
Śrīla Vyāsadeva taught the first saṁhitā, the Ṛg Veda, to Paila and gave this collection the name Bahvṛca. To the sage Vaiśampāyana he spoke the collection of Yajur mantras named Nigada. He taught the Sāma Veda mantras, designated as the Chandoga-saṁhitā, to Jaimini, and he spoke the Atharva Veda to his dear disciple Sumantu.
pailaḥ sva-saṁhitām ūce
bāṣkalāya ca so ’py āha
śiṣyebhyaḥ saṁhitāṁ svakām
caturdhā vyasya bodhyāya
adhyāpayat saṁhitāṁ svāṁ
māṇḍūkeyam ṛṣiṁ kavim
tasya śiṣyo devamitraḥ
pailaḥ — Paila; sva-saṁhitām — his own collection; ūce — spoke; indrapramitaye — to Indrapramiti; muniḥ — the sage; bāṣkalāya — to Bāṣkala; ca — and; saḥ — he (Bāṣkala); api — moreover; āha — spoke; śiṣyebhyaḥ — to his disciples; saṁhitām — the collection; svakām — his own; caturdhā — in four parts; vyasya — dividing; bodhyāya — to Bodhya; yājñavalkyāya — to Yājñavalkya; bhārgava — O descendant of Bhṛgu (Śaunaka); parāśarāya — to Parāśara; agnimitre — to Agnimitra; indrapramitiḥ — Indrapramiti; ātma-vān — the self-controlled; adhyāpayat — taught; saṁhitām — the collection; svām — his; māṇḍūkeyam — to Māṇḍūkeya; ṛṣim — the sage; kavim — scholarly; tasya — of him (Māṇḍūkeya); śiṣyaḥ — the disciple; devamitraḥ — Devamitra; saubhari-ādibhyaḥ — to Saubhari and others; ūcivān — spoke.
After dividing his saṁhitā into two parts, the wise Paila spoke it to Indrapramiti and Bāṣkala. Bāṣkala further divided his collection into four parts, O Bhārgava, and instructed them to his disciples Bodhya, Yājñavalkya, Parāśara and Agnimitra. Indrapramiti, the self-controlled sage, taught his saṁhitā to the learned mystic Māṇḍūkeya, whose disciple Devamitra later passed down the divisions of the Ṛg Veda to Saubhari and others.
śākalyas tat-sutaḥ svāṁ tu
pañcadhā vyasya saṁhitām
śākalyaḥ — Śākalya; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Māṇḍūkeya; svām — his own; tu — and; pañcadhā — in five parts; vyasya — dividing; saṁhitām — the collection; vātsya-mudgala-śālīya — to Vātsya, Mudgala and Śālīya; gokhalya-śiśireṣu — and to Gokhalya and Śiśira; adhāt — gave.
The son of Māṇḍūkeya, named Śākalya, divided his own collection into five, entrusting one subdivision each to Vātsya, Mudgala, Śālīya, Gokhalya and Śiśira.
jātūkarṇyaś ca tac-chiṣyaḥ
virajebhyo dadau muniḥ
jātūkarṇyaḥ — Jātūkarṇya; ca — and; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Śākalya; sa-niruktām — along with a glossary explaining obscure terms; sva-saṁhitām — the collection he received; balāka-paila-jābāla-virajebhyaḥ — to Balāka, Paila, Jābāla and Viraja; dadau — passed down; muniḥ — the sage.
The sage Jātūkarṇya was also a disciple of Śākalya, and after dividing the saṁhitā he received from Śākalya into three parts, he added a fourth section, a Vedic glossary. He taught one of these parts to each of four disciples — Balāka, the second Paila, Jābāla and Viraja.
cakre vālāyanir bhajyaḥ
kāśāraś caiva tāṁ dadhuḥ
bāṣkaliḥ — Bāṣkali, the son of Bāṣkala; prati-śākhābhyaḥ — from all the different branches; vālakhilya-ākhya — entitled Vālakhilya; saṁhitām — the collection; cakre — he made; vālāyaniḥ — Vālāyani; bhajyaḥ — Bhajya; kāśāraḥ — Kāśāra; ca — and; eva — indeed; tām — that; dadhuḥ — they accepted.
Bāṣkali assembled the Vālakhilya-saṁhitā, a collection from all the branches of the Ṛg Veda. This collection was received by Vālāyani, Bhajya and Kāśāra.
bahvṛcāḥ saṁhitā hy etā
ebhir brahmarṣibhir dhṛtāḥ
bahu-ṛcāḥ — of the Ṛg Veda; saṁhitāḥ — the collections; hi — indeed; etāḥ — these; ebhiḥ — by these; brahma-ṛṣibhiḥ — saintly brāhmaṇas; dhṛtāḥ — maintained through disciplic succession; śrutvā — hearing; etat — their; chandasām — of the sacred verses; vyāsam — the process of division; sarva-pāpaiḥ — from all sins; pramucyate — one becomes delivered.
Thus these various saṁhitās of the Ṛg Veda were maintained through disciplic succession by these saintly brāhmaṇas. Simply by hearing of this distribution of the Vedic hymns, one will be freed from all sins.
yac cerur brahma-hatyāṁhaḥ
kṣapaṇaṁ sva-guror vratam
vaiśampāyana-śiṣyāḥ — the disciples of Vaiśampāyana; vai — indeed; caraka — named the Carakas; adhvaryavaḥ — authorities of the Atharva Veda; abhavan — became; yat — because; ceruḥ — they executed; brahma-hatyā — due to the killing of a brāhmaṇa; aṁhaḥ — of the sin; kṣapaṇam — the expiation; sva-guroḥ — for their own guru; vratam — the vow.
The disciples of Vaiśampāyana became authorities in the Atharva Veda. They were known as the Carakas because they executed strict vows to free their guru from his sin of killing a brāhmaṇa.
yājñavalkyaś ca tac-chiṣya
āhāho bhagavan kiyat
cariṣye ’haṁ su-duścaram
yājñavalkyaḥ — Yājñavalkya; ca — and; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Vaiśampāyana; āha — said; aho — just see; bhagavan — O master; kiyat — how much value; caritena — with the endeavor; alpa-sārāṇām — of these weak fellows; cariṣye — shall execute; aham — I; su-duścaram — that which is very difficult to perform.
Once Yājñavalkya, one of the disciples of Vaiśampāyana, said: O master, how much benefit will be derived from the feeble endeavors of these weak disciples of yours? I will personally perform some outstanding penance.
ity ukto gurur apy āha
kupito yāhy alaṁ tvayā
mad-adhītaṁ tyajāśv iti
iti — thus; uktaḥ — addressed; guruḥ — his spiritual master; api — indeed; āha — said; kupitaḥ — angry; yāhi — go away; alam — enough; tvayā — with you; vipra-avamantrā — the insulter of brāhmaṇas; śiṣyeṇa — such a disciple; mat-adhītam — what has been taught by me; tyaja — give up; āśu — immediately; iti — thus.
Addressed thus, the spiritual master Vaiśampāyana became angry and said: Go away from here! Enough of you, O disciple who insults brāhmaṇas! Furthermore, you must immediately give back everything I have taught you.
devarāta-sutaḥ so ’pi
charditvā yajuṣāṁ gaṇam
tato gato ’tha munayo
dadṛśus tān yajur-gaṇān
yajūṁṣi tittirā bhūtvā
taittirīyā iti yajuḥ-
śākhā āsan su-peśalāḥ
devarāta-sutaḥ — the son of Devarāta (Yājñavalkya); saḥ — he; api — indeed; charditvā — vomiting; yajuṣām — of the Yajur Veda; gaṇam — the collected mantras; tataḥ — from there; gataḥ — having gone; atha — then; munayaḥ — the sages; dadṛśuḥ — saw; tān — those; yajuḥ-gaṇān — yajur-mantras; yajūṁsi — these yajur-mantras; tittirāḥ — partridges; bhūtvā — becoming; tat — for those mantras; lolupatayā — with greedy desire; ādaduḥ — picked them up; taittirīyāḥ — known as Taittirīya; iti — thus; yajuḥ-śākhāḥ — branches of the Yajur Veda; āsan — came into being; su-peśalāḥ — most beautiful.
Yājñavalkya, the son of Devarāta, then vomited the mantras of the Yajur Veda and went away from there. The assembled disciples, looking greedily upon these yajur hymns, assumed the form of partridges and picked them all up. These divisions of the Yajur Veda therefore became known as the most beautiful Taittirīya-saṁhitā, the hymns collected by partridges [tittirāḥ].
yājñavalkyas tato brahmaṁś
chandāṁsy adhi gaveṣayan
sūpatasthe ’rkam īśvaram
yājñavalkyaḥ — Yājñavalkya; tataḥ — thereafter; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; chandāṁsi — mantras; adhi — additional; gaveṣayan — seeking out; guroḥ — to his spiritual master; avidyamānāni — not known; su-upatasthe — he carefully worshiped; arkam — the sun; īśvaram — the powerful controller.
My dear brāhmaṇa Śaunaka, Yājñavalkya then desired to find out new yajur-mantras unknown to even his spiritual master. With this in mind he offered attentive worship to the powerful lord of the sun.
oṁ namo bhagavate ādityāyākhila-jagatām ātma-svarūpeṇa kāla-svarūpeṇa catur-vidha-bhūta-nikāyānāṁ brahmādi-stamba-paryantānām antar-hṛdayeṣu bahir api cākāśa ivopādhināvyavadhīyamāno bhavān eka eva kṣaṇa-lava-nimeṣāvayavopacita-saṁvatsara-gaṇenāpām ādāna- visargābhyām imāṁ loka-yātrām anuvahati.
śrī-yājñavalkyaḥ uvāca — Śrī Yājñavalkya said; oṁ namaḥ — I offer my respectful obeisances; bhagavate — to the Personality of Godhead; ādityāya — appearing as the sun-god; akhila-jagatām — of all the planetary systems; ātma-svarūpeṇa — in the form of the Supersoul; kāla-svarūpeṇa — in the form of time; catuḥ-vidha — of four kinds; bhūta-nikāyānām — of all the living beings; brahma-ādi — beginning from Lord Brahmā; stamba-paryantānām — and extending down to the blades of grass; antaḥ-hṛdayeṣu — within the recesses of their hearts; bahiḥ — externally; api — also; ca — and; ākāśaḥ iva — in the same way as the sky; upādhinā — by material designations; avyavadhīyamānaḥ — not being covered; bhavān — yourself; ekaḥ — alone; eva — indeed; kṣaṇa-lava-nimeṣa — the kṣaṇa, lava and nimeṣa (the smallest fractions of time); avayava — by these fragments; upacita — collected together; saṁvatsara-gaṇena — by the years; apām — of the water; ādāna — by taking away; visargābhyām — and giving; imām — this; loka — of the universe; yātrām — the maintenance; anuvahati — carries out.
Śrī Yājñavalkya said: I offer my respectful obeisances to the Supreme Personality of Godhead appearing as the sun. You are present as the controller of the four kinds of living entities, beginning from Brahmā and extending down to the blades of grass. Just as the sky is present both inside and outside every living being, you exist both within the hearts of all as the Supersoul and externally in the form of time. Just as the sky cannot be covered by the clouds present within it, you are never covered by any false material designation. By the flow of years, which are made up of the tiny fragments of time called kṣaṇas, lavas and nimeṣas, you alone maintain this world, drying up the waters and giving them back as rain.
yad u ha vāva vibudharṣabha savitar adas tapaty anusavanam ahar ahar āmnāya-vidhinopatiṣṭhamānānām akhila-durita-vṛjina- bījāvabharjana bhagavataḥ samabhidhīmahi tapana maṇḍalam.
yat — which; u ha vāva — indeed; vibudha-ṛṣabha — O chief of the demigods; savitaḥ — O lord of the sun; adaḥ — that; tapati — is glowing; anusavanam — at each of the junctures of the day (sunrise, noon and sunset); ahaḥ ahaḥ — each day; āmnāya-vidhinā — by the Vedic path, as passed down through disciplic succession; upatiṣṭhamānānām — of those who are engaged in offering prayer; akhila-durita — all sinful activities; vṛjina — the consequent suffering; bīja — and the original seed of such; avabharjana — O you who burn; bhagavataḥ — of the mighty controller; samabhidhīmahi — I meditate with full attention; tapana — O glowing one; maṇḍalam — upon the sphere.
O glowing one, O powerful lord of the sun, you are the chief of all the demigods. I meditate with careful attention on your fiery globe, because for those who offer prayers to you three times daily according to the Vedic method passed down through authorized disciplic succession, you burn away all sinful activities, all consequent suffering and even the original seed of desire.
ya iha vāva sthira-cara-nikarāṇāṁ nija-niketanānāṁ mana-indriyāsu-gaṇān anātmanaḥ svayam ātmāntar-yāmī pracodayati.
yaḥ — who; iha — in this world; vāva — indeed; sthira-cara-nikarāṇām — of all the nonmoving and moving living beings; nija-niketanānām — who depend on your shelter; manaḥ-indriya-asu-gaṇān — the mind, senses and vital air; anātmanaḥ — which are nonliving matter; svayam — yourself; ātma — in their hearts; antaḥ-yāmī — the indwelling lord; pracodayati — inspires to activity.
You are personally present as the indwelling lord in the hearts of all moving and nonmoving beings, who depend completely on your shelter. Indeed, you animate their material minds, senses and vital airs to act.
ya evemaṁ lokam ati-karāla-vadanāndhakāra-saṁjñājagara-graha-gilitaṁ mṛtakam iva vicetanam avalokyānukampayā parama-kāruṇika īkṣayaivotthāpyāhar ahar anusavanaṁ śreyasi sva-dharmākhyātmāva-sthane pravartayati.
yaḥ — who; eva — alone; imam — this; lokam — world; ati-karāla — very fearful; vadana — the mouth of which; andhakāra-saṁjña — known as darkness; ajagara — by the python; graha — seized; gilitam — and swallowed; mṛtakam — dead; iva — as if; vicetanam — unconscious; avalokya — by glancing; anukampayā — mercifully; parama-kāruṇikaḥ — supremely magnanimous; īkṣayā — by casting his glance; eva — indeed; utthāpya — raising them up; ahaḥ ahaḥ — day after day; anu-savanam — at the three sacred junctures of the day; śreyasi — in the ultimate benefit; sva-dharma-ākhya — known as the soul’s proper duty; ātma-avasthāne — in the inclination toward spiritual life; pravartayati — engages.
The world has been seized and swallowed by the python of darkness in its horrible mouth and has become unconscious, as if dead. But mercifully glancing upon the sleeping people of the world, you raise them up with the gift of sight. Thus you are most magnanimous. At the three sacred junctures of each day, you engage the pious in the path of ultimate good, inducing them to perform religious duties that situate them in their spiritual position.
avani-patir ivāsādhūnāṁ bhayam udīrayann aṭati parita āśā-pālais tatra tatra kamala-kośāñjalibhir upahṛtārhaṇaḥ.
avani-patiḥ — a king; iva — as; asādhūnām — of the unholy; bhayam — fear; udīrayan — creating; aṭati — travels about; paritaḥ — all around; āśā-pālaiḥ — by the controlling deities of the directions; tatra tatra — here and there; kamala-kośa — holding lotus flowers; añjalibhiḥ — with folded palms; upahṛta — offered; arhaṇaḥ — honorable presentations.
Just like an earthly king, you travel about everywhere spreading fear among the unholy as the powerful deities of the directions offer you in their folded palms lotus flowers and other respectful presentations.
atha ha bhagavaṁs tava caraṇa-nalina-yugalaṁ tri-bhuvana-gurubhir abhivanditam aham ayāta-yāma-yajuṣ-kāma upasarāmīti.
atha — thus; ha — indeed; bhagavan — O lord; tava — your; caraṇa-nalina-yugalam — two lotus feet; tri-bhuvana — of the three worlds; gurubhiḥ — by the spiritual masters; abhivanditam — honored; aham — I; ayāta-yāma — unknown to anyone else; yajuḥ-kāmaḥ — desiring to have the yajur-mantras; upasarāmi — am approaching with worship; iti — thus.
Therefore, my lord, I am prayerfully approaching your lotus feet, which are honored by the spiritual masters of the three worlds, because I hope to receive from you mantras of the Yajur Veda unknown to anyone else.
evaṁ stutaḥ sa bhagavān
munaye ’dāt prasāditaḥ
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; evam — in this way; stutaḥ — offered glorification; saḥ — he; bhagavān — the powerful demigod; vāji-rūpa — the form of a horse; dharaḥ — assuming; raviḥ — the sun-god; yajūṁṣi — yajur- mantras; ayāta-yāmāni — never learned by any other mortal; munaye — to the sage; adāt — presented; prasāditaḥ — being satisfied.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: Satisfied by such glorification, the powerful sun-god assumed the form of a horse and presented to the sage Yājñavalkya yajur-mantras previously unknown in human society.
yajurbhir akaroc chākhā
daśa pañca śatair vibhuḥ
jagṛhur vājasanyas tāḥ
yajurbhiḥ — with the yajur-mantras; akarot — he made; śākhāḥ — branches; daśa — ten; pañca — plus five; śataiḥ — with the hundreds; vibhuḥ — the powerful; jagṛhuḥ — they accepted; vāja-sanyaḥ — produced from the hairs of the horse’s mane and thus known as Vājasaneyī; tāḥ — them; kāṇva-mādhyandina-ādayaḥ — the disciples of Kāṇva and Mādhyandina, and other ṛṣis.
From these countless hundreds of mantras of the Yajur Veda, the powerful sage compiled fifteen new branches of Vedic literature. These became known as the Vājasaneyi-saṁhitā because they were produced from the hairs of the horse’s mane, and they were accepted in disciplic succession by the followers of Kāṇva, Mādhyandina and other ṛṣis.
sumantus tanayo muniḥ
sutvāṁs tu tat-sutas tābhyām
ekaikāṁ prāha saṁhitām
jaimineḥ — of Jaimini; sama-gasya — the singer of the Sāma Veda; āsīt — there was; sumantuḥ — Sumantu; tanayaḥ — the son; muniḥ — the sage (Jaimini); sutvān — Sutvān; tu — and; tat-sutaḥ — the son of Sumantu; tābhyām — to each of them; eka-ekām — one of each of the two parts; prāha — he spoke; saṁhitām — collection.
Jaimini Ṛṣi, the authority of the Sāma Veda, had a son named Sumantu, and the son of Sumantu was Sutvān. The sage Jaimini spoke to each of them a different part of the Sāma-veda-saṁhitā.
sukarmā cāpi tac-chiṣyaḥ
cakre sāmnāṁ tato dvija
pauṣyañjiś ca sukarmaṇaḥ
śiṣyau jagṛhatuś cānya
sukarmā — Sukarmā; ca — and; api — indeed; tat-śiṣyaḥ — the disciple of Jaimini; sāma-veda-taroḥ — of the tree of the Sāma Veda; mahān — the great thinker; sahasra-saṁhitā — of one thousand collections; bhedam — a division; cakre — he made; sāmnām — of the sāma-mantras; tataḥ — and then; dvija — O brāhmaṇa (Śaunaka); hiraṇyanābhaḥ kauśalyaḥ — Hiraṇyanābha, the son of Kuśala; pauṣyañjiḥ — Pauṣyañji; ca — and; sukarmaṇaḥ — of Sukarmā; śiṣyau — the two disciples; jagṛhatuḥ — took; ca — and; anyaḥ — another; āvantyaḥ — Āvantya; brahma-vit-tamaḥ — most perfectly realized in knowledge of the Absolute Truth.
Sukarmā, another disciple of Jaimini, was a great scholar. He divided the mighty tree of the Sāma Veda into one thousand saṁhitās. Then, O brāhmaṇa, three disciples of Sukarmā — Hiraṇyanābha, the son of Kuśala; Pauṣyañji; and Āvantya, who was very advanced in spiritual realization — took charge of the sāma-mantras.
udīcyāḥ sāma-gāḥ śiṣyā
āsan pañca-śatāni vai
tāṁś ca prācyān pracakṣate
udīcyāḥ — belonging to the north; sāma-gāḥ — the singer of the Sāma Veda; śiṣyāḥ — the disciples; āsan — there were; pañca-śatāni — five hundred; vai — indeed; pauṣyañji-āvantyayoḥ — of Pauṣyañji and Āvantya; ca — and; api — indeed; tān — they; ca — also; prācyān — easterners; pracakṣate — are called.
The five hundred disciples of Pauṣyañji and Āvantya became known as the northern singers of the Sāma Veda, and in later times some of them also became known as eastern singers.
laugākṣir māṅgaliḥ kulyaḥ
kuśīdaḥ kukṣir eva ca
saṁhitās te śataṁ śatam
laugākṣiḥ māṅgaliḥ kulyaḥ — Laugākṣi, Māṅgali and Kulya; kuśīdaḥ kukṣiḥ — Kuśīda and Kukṣi; eva — indeed; ca — also; pauṣyañji-śiṣyāḥ — disciples of Pauṣyañji; jagṛhuḥ — they took; saṁhitāḥ — collections; te — they; śatam śatam — each one hundred.
Five other disciples of Pauṣyañji, namely Laugākṣi, Māṅgali, Kulya, Kuśīda and Kukṣi, each received one hundred saṁhitās.
śiṣya ūce sva-śiṣyebhyaḥ
śeṣā āvantya ātmavān
kṛtaḥ — Kṛta; hiraṇyanābhasya — of Hiraṇyanābha; catuḥ-viṁśati — twenty-four; saṁhitāḥ — collections; śiṣyaḥ — the disciple; ūce — spoke; sva-śiṣyebhyaḥ — to his own disciples; śeṣāḥ — the remaining (collections); āvantyaḥ — Āvantya; ātma-vān — the self-controlled.
Kṛta, the disciple of Hiraṇyanābha, spoke twenty-four saṁhitās to his own disciples, and the remaining collections were passed down by the self-realized sage Āvantya.