Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 12 Chapter 3
dṛṣṭvātmani jaye vyagrān
nṛpān hasati bhūr iyam
aho mā vijigīṣanti
mṛtyoḥ krīḍanakā nṛpāḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; dṛṣṭvā — observing; ātmani — of herself; jaye — in conquest; vyagrān — busily engaged; nṛpān — the kings; hasati — she laughs; bhūḥ — the earth; iyam — this; aho — ah; mā — me; vijigīṣanti — they are desiring to conquer; mṛtyoḥ — of death; krīḍanakāḥ — playthings; nṛpāḥ — the kings.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Seeing the kings of this earth busy trying to conquer her, the earth herself laughed. She said: “Just see how these kings, who are actually playthings in the hands of death, are desiring to conquer me.
kāma eṣa narendrāṇāṁ
moghaḥ syād viduṣām api
yena phenopame piṇḍe
ye ’ti-viśrambhitā nṛpāḥ
kāmaḥ — lust; eṣaḥ — this; nara-indrāṇām — of the rulers of men; moghaḥ — the failure; syāt — becomes; viduṣām — who are wise; api — even; yena — by which (lust); phena-upame — comparable to ephemeral bubbles; piṇḍe — in this lump; ye — who; ati-viśrambhitāḥ — perfectly trusting; nṛpāḥ — the kings.
“Great rulers of men, even those who are learned, meet frustration and failure because of material lust. Driven by lust, these kings place great hope and faith in the dead lump of flesh called the body, even though the material frame is as fleeting as bubbles of foam on water.
pūrvaṁ nirjitya ṣaḍ-vargaṁ
karīndrān asya kaṇṭakān
evaṁ krameṇa jeṣyāmaḥ
na paśyanty antike ’ntakam
pūrvam — first of all; nirjitya — conquering; ṣaṭ-vargam — the five senses and the mind; jeṣyāmaḥ — we will conquer; rāja-mantriṇaḥ — the royal ministers; tataḥ — then; saciva — the personal secretaries; paura — the citizens of the capital; āpta — the friends; kari-indrān — the elephant keepers; asya — ridding ourselves of; kaṇṭakān — the thorns; evam — in this way; krameṇa — gradually; jeṣyāmaḥ — we shall conquer; pṛthvīm — the earth; sāgara — the ocean; mekhalām — whose girdle; iti — thus thinking; āśā — by hopes; baddha — bound up; hṛdayāḥ — their hearts; na paśyanti — they do not see; antike — nearby; antakam — their own end.
“Kings and politicians imagine: ‘First I will conquer my senses and mind; then I will subdue my chief ministers and rid myself of the thorn-pricks of my advisors, citizens, friends and relatives, as well as the keepers of my elephants. In this way I will gradually conquer the entire earth.’ Because the hearts of these leaders are bound by great expectations, they fail to see death waiting nearby.
māṁ viśanty abdhim ojasā
muktir ātma-jaye phalam
samudra-āvaraṇām — bounded by the ocean; jitvā — having conquered; mām — me; viśanti — they enter; abdhim — the ocean; ojasā — by their strength; kiyat — how much; ātma-jayasya — of victory over the self; etat — this; muktiḥ — liberation; ātma-jaye — of victory over the self; phalam — the fruit.
“After conquering all the land on my surface, these proud kings forcibly enter the ocean to conquer the sea itself. What is the use of their self-control, which is aimed at political exploitation? The actual goal of self-control is spiritual liberation.”
yāṁ visṛjyaiva manavas
tat-sutāś ca kurūdvaha
gatā yathāgataṁ yuddhe
tāṁ māṁ jeṣyanty abuddhayaḥ
yām — whom; visṛjya — giving up; eva — indeed; manavaḥ — human beings; tat-sutāḥ — their sons; ca — also; kuru-udvaha — O best of the Kurus; gatāḥ — gone away; yathā-āgatam — just as they had originally come; yuddhe — in battle; tām — that; mām — me, the earth; jeṣyanti — they try to conquer; abuddhayaḥ — unintelligent.
O best of the Kurus, the earth continued as follows: “Although in the past great men and their descendants have left me, departing from this world in the same helpless way they came into it, even today foolish men are trying to conquer me.
bhrātṝṇāṁ cāpi vigrahaḥ
jāyate hy asatāṁ rājye
mat-kṛte — for the sake of me; pitṛ-putrāṇām — between fathers and sons; bhrātṝṇām — among brothers; ca — and; api — also; vigrahaḥ — conflict; jāyate — arises; hi — indeed; asatām — among the materialistic; rājye — for political rule; mamatā — by the sense of possession; baddha — bound up; cetasām — whose hearts.
“For the sake of conquering me, materialistic persons fight one another. Fathers oppose their sons, and brothers fight one another, because their hearts are bound to possessing political power.
mamaiveyaṁ mahī kṛtsnā
na te mūḍheti vādinaḥ
spardhamānā mitho ghnanti
mriyante mat-kṛte nṛpāḥ
mama — mine; eva — indeed; iyam — this; mahī — land; kṛtsnā — entire; na — not; te — yours; mūḍha — you fool; iti vādinaḥ — thus speaking; spardhamānāḥ — quarreling; mithaḥ — each other; ghnanti — they kill; mriyante — they are killed; mat-kṛte — for my sake; nṛpāḥ — kings.
“Political leaders challenge one another: ‘All this land is mine! It’s not yours, you fool!’ Thus they attack one another and die.
pṛthuḥ purūravā gādhir
nahuṣo bharato ’rjunaḥ
māndhātā sagaro rāmaḥ
khaṭvāṅgo dhundhuhā raghuḥ
tṛṇabindur yayātiś ca
śaryātiḥ śantanur gayaḥ
kakutstho naiṣadho nṛgaḥ
namuciḥ śambaro bhaumo
hiraṇyākṣo ’tha tārakaḥ
anye ca bahavo daityā
rājāno ye maheśvarāḥ
sarve sarva-vidaḥ śūrāḥ
sarve sarva-jito ’jitāḥ
mamatāṁ mayy avartanta
hy akṛtārthāḥ kṛtā vibho
pṛthuḥ purūravāḥ gādhiḥ — Mahārājas Pṛthu, Purūravā and Gādhi; nahuṣaḥ bharataḥ arjunaḥ — Nahuṣa, Bharata and Kārtavīrya Arjuna; māndhātā sagaraḥ rāmaḥ — Māndhātā, Sagara and Rāma; khaṭvāṅgaḥ dhundhuhā raghuḥ — Khaṭvāṅga, Dhundhuhā and Raghu; tṛṇabinduḥ yayātiḥ ca — Tṛṇabindu and Yayāti; śaryātiḥ śantanuḥ gayaḥ — Śaryāti, Śantanu and Gaya; bhagīrathaḥ kuvalayāśvaḥ — Bhagīratha and Kuvalayāśva; kakutsthaḥ naiṣadhaḥ nṛgaḥ — Kakutstha, Naiṣadha and Nṛga; hiraṇyakaśipuḥ vṛtraḥ — Hiraṇyakaśipu and Vṛtrāsura; rāvaṇaḥ — Rāvaṇa; loka-rāvaṇaḥ — who made the whole world cry; namuciḥ śambaraḥ bhaumaḥ — Namuci, Śambara and Bhauma; hiraṇyākṣaḥ — Hiraṇyākṣa; atha — and; tārakaḥ — Tāraka; anye — others; ca — as well; bahavaḥ — many; daityāḥ — demons; rājānaḥ — kings; ye — who; mahā-īśvarāḥ — great controllers; sarve — all of them; sarva-vidaḥ — all-knowing; śūrāḥ — heroes; sarve — all; sarva-jitaḥ — all-conquering; ajitāḥ — unconquerable; mamatām — possessiveness; mayi — for me; avartanta — they lived; kṛtvā — expressing; uccaiḥ — to a great degree; martya-dharmiṇaḥ — subject to the laws of birth and death; kathā-avaśeṣāḥ — remaining merely as historical narrations; kālena — by the force of time; hi — indeed; akṛta-arthāḥ — incomplete in perfecting their desires; kṛtāḥ — they have been made; vibho — O Lord.
“Such kings as Pṛthu, Purūravā, Gādhi, Nahuṣa, Bharata, Kārtavīrya Arjuna, Māndhātā, Sagara, Rāma, Khaṭvāṅga, Dhundhuhā, Raghu, Tṛṇabindu, Yayāti, Śaryāti, Śantanu, Gaya, Bhagīratha, Kuvalayāśva, Kakutstha, Naiṣadha, Nṛga, Hiraṇyakaśipu, Vṛtra, Rāvaṇa, who made the whole world lament, Namuci, Śambara, Bhauma, Hiraṇyākṣa and Tāraka, as well as many other demons and kings who possessed great powers of control over others, were all full of knowledge, heroic, all-conquering and unconquerable. Nevertheless, O almighty Lord, although they lived their lives intensely trying to possess me, these kings were subject to the passage of time, which reduced them all to mere historical accounts. None of them could permanently establish their rule.”
kathā imās te kathitā mahīyasāṁ
vitāya lokeṣu yaśaḥ pareyuṣām
vaco-vibhūtīr na tu pāramārthyam
kathāḥ — the narrations; imāḥ — these; te — unto you; kathitāḥ — have been spoken; mahīyasām — of great kings; vitāya — spreading; lokeṣu — throughout all the worlds; yaśaḥ — their fame; pareyuṣām — who have departed; vijñāna — transcendental knowledge; vairāgya — and renunciation; vivakṣayā — with the desire for teaching; vibho — O mighty Parīkṣit; vacaḥ — of words; vibhūtīḥ — the decoration; na — not; tu — but; pārama-arthyam — of the most essential purport.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: O mighty Parīkṣit, I have related to you the narrations of all these great kings, who spread their fame throughout the world and then departed. My real purpose was to teach transcendental knowledge and renunciation. Stories of kings lend power and opulence to these narrations but do not in themselves constitute the ultimate aspect of knowledge.
saṅgīyate ’bhīkṣṇam amaṅgala-ghnaḥ
tam eva nityaṁ śṛṇuyād abhīkṣṇaṁ
kṛṣṇe ’malāṁ bhaktim abhīpsamānaḥ
yaḥ — which; tu — on the other hand; uttamaḥ-śloka — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is praised in transcendental verses; guṇa — of the qualities; anuvādaḥ — the recounting; saṅgīyate — is sung; abhīkṣṇam — always; amaṅgala-ghnaḥ — which destroys everything inauspicious; tam — that; eva — indeed; nityam — regularly; śṛṇuyāt — one should hear; abhīkṣṇam — constantly; kṛṣṇe — unto Lord Kṛṣṇa; amalām — untainted; bhaktim — devotional service; abhīpsamānaḥ — he who desires.
The person who desires pure devotional service to Lord Kṛṣṇa should hear the narrations of Lord Uttamaḥśloka’s glorious qualities, the constant chanting of which destroys everything inauspicious. The devotee should engage in such listening in regular daily assemblies and should also continue his hearing throughout the day.
kaler doṣān kalau janāḥ
tan me brūhi yathā mune
śrī-rājā uvāca — King Parīkṣit said; kena — by what; upāyena — means; bhagavan — my dear lord; kaleḥ — of the Age of Kali; doṣān — the faults; kalau — living in Kali-yuga; janāḥ — people; vidhamiṣyanti — will eradicate; upacitān — accumulated; tat — that; me — to me; brūhi — please explain; yathā — fittingly; mune — O sage.
King Parīkṣit said: My lord, how can persons living in the Age of Kali rid themselves of the cumulative contamination of this age? O great sage, please explain this to me.
yugāni yuga-dharmāṁś ca
gatiṁ viṣṇor mahātmanaḥ
yugāni — the ages of the universal history; yuga-dharmān — the special qualities of each age; ca — and; mānam — the measurement; pralaya — of annihilation; kalpayoḥ — and of universal maintenance; kālasya — of time; īśvara-rūpasya — the representation of the Personality of Godhead; gatim — the movement; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; mahā-ātmanaḥ — the Supreme Soul.
Please explain the different ages of universal history, the special qualities of each age, the duration of cosmic maintenance and destruction, and the movement of time, which is the direct representation of the Supreme Soul, the Personality of Godhead, Lord Viṣṇu.
kṛte pravartate dharmaś
catuṣ-pāt taj-janair dhṛtaḥ
satyaṁ dayā tapo dānam
iti pādā vibhor nṛpa
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; kṛte — in the Satya-yuga, the age of truth; pravartate — exists; dharmaḥ — religion; catuḥ-pāt — with four legs; tat — of that age; janaiḥ — by the people; dhṛtaḥ — maintained; satyam — truth; dayā — mercy; tapaḥ — austerity; dānam — charity; iti — thus; pādāḥ — the legs; vibhoḥ — of mighty religion; nṛpa — O King.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: My dear King, in the beginning, during Satya-yuga, the age of truth, religion is present with all four of its legs intact and is carefully maintained by the people of that age. These four legs of powerful religion are truthfulness, mercy, austerity and charity.
santuṣṭāḥ karuṇā maitrāḥ
śāntā dāntās titikṣavaḥ
prāyaśaḥ śramaṇā janāḥ
santuṣṭāḥ — self-satisfied; karuṇāḥ — merciful; maitrāḥ — friendly; śāntāḥ — pacified; dāntāḥ — self-controlled; titikṣavaḥ — tolerant; ātma-ārāmāḥ — enthused from within; sama-dṛśaḥ — possessed of equal vision; prāyaśaḥ — for the most part; śramaṇāḥ — endeavoring diligently (for self-realization); janāḥ — the people.
The people of Satya-yuga are for the most part self-satisfied, merciful, friendly to all, peaceful, sober and tolerant. They take their pleasure from within, see all things equally and always endeavor diligently for spiritual perfection.
turyāṁśo hīyate śanaiḥ
tretāyām — in the second age; dharma-pādānām — of the legs of religion; turya — one fourth; aṁśaḥ — part; hīyate — is lost; śanaiḥ — gradually; adharma-pādaiḥ — by the legs of irreligion; anṛta — by falsity; hiṁsā — violence; asantoṣa — dissatisfaction; vigrahaiḥ — and quarrel.
In Tretā-yuga each leg of religion is gradually reduced by one quarter by the influence of the four pillars of irreligion — lying, violence, dissatisfaction and quarrel.
nāti-hiṁsrā na lampaṭāḥ
varṇā brahmottarā nṛpa
tadā — then (in the Tretā age); kriyā — to ritualistic ceremonies; tapaḥ — and to penances; niṣṭhāḥ — devoted; na ati-hiṁsrāḥ — not excessively violent; na lampaṭāḥ — not wantonly desiring sense gratification; trai-vargikāḥ — interested in the three principles of religiosity, economic development and sense gratification; trayī — by the three Vedas; vṛddhāḥ — made prosperous; varṇāḥ — the four classes of society; brahma-uttarāḥ — mostly brāhmaṇas; nṛpa — O King.
In the Tretā age people are devoted to ritual performances and severe austerities. They are not excessively violent or very lusty after sensual pleasure. Their interest lies primarily in religiosity, economic development and regulated sense gratification, and they achieve prosperity by following the prescriptions of the three Vedas. Although in this age society evolves into four separate classes, O King, most people are brāhmaṇas.
ardhaṁ hrasvati dvāpare
tapaḥ — of austerity; satya — truth; dayā — mercy; dāneṣu — and charity; ardham — one half; hrasvati — diminishes; dvāpare — in the age of Dvāpara; hiṁsā — by violence; atuṣṭi — dissatisfaction; anṛta — untruth; dveṣaiḥ — and hatred; dharmasya — of religion; adharma-lakṣaṇaiḥ — by the qualities of irreligion.
In Dvāpara-yuga the religious qualities of austerity, truth, mercy and charity are reduced to one half by their irreligious counterparts — dissatisfaction, untruth, violence and enmity.
āḍhyāḥ kuṭumbino hṛṣṭā
yaśasvinaḥ — eager for glory; mahā-śīlāḥ — noble; svādhyāya-adhyayane — in study of the Vedic literature; ratāḥ — absorbed; āḍhyāḥ — endowed with opulence; kuṭumbinaḥ — having large families; hṛṣṭāḥ — joyful; varṇāḥ — the four classes of society; kṣatra-dvija-uttarāḥ — represented mostly by the kṣatriyas and brāhmaṇas.
In the Dvāpara age people are interested in glory and are very noble. They devote themselves to the study of the Vedas, possess great opulence, support large families and enjoy life with vigor. Of the four classes, the kṣatriyas and brāhmaṇas are most numerous.
kalau tu dharma-pādānāṁ
hy ante so ’pi vinaṅkṣyati
kalau — in the Age of Kali; tu — and; dharma-pādānām — of the legs of religion; turya-aṁśaḥ — one fourth; adharma — of irreligion; hetubhiḥ — by the principles; edhamānaiḥ — which are increasing; kṣīyamāṇaḥ — decreasing; hi — indeed; ante — in the end; saḥ — that one quarter; api — also; vinaṅkṣyati — will be destroyed.
In the Age of Kali only one fourth of the religious principles remains. That last remnant will continuously be decreased by the ever-increasing principles of irreligion and will finally be destroyed.
tasmin lubdhā durācārā
durbhagā bhūri-tarṣāś ca
tasmin — in that age; lubdhāḥ — greedy; durācārāḥ — ill-behaved; nirdayāḥ — merciless; śuṣka-vairiṇaḥ — prone to useless quarrel; durbhagāḥ — unfortunate; bhūri-tarṣāḥ — obsessed by many kinds of hankering; ca — and; śūdra-dāsa-uttarāḥ — predominantly low-class laborers and barbarians; prajāḥ — the people.
In the Kali age people tend to be greedy, ill-behaved and merciless, and they fight one another without good reason. Unfortunate and obsessed with material desires, the people of Kali-yuga are almost all śūdras and barbarians.
sattvaṁ rajas tama iti
dṛśyante puruṣe guṇāḥ
kāla-sañcoditās te vai
sattvam — goodness; rajaḥ — passion; tamaḥ — ignorance; iti — thus; dṛśyante — are seen; puruṣe — in a person; guṇāḥ — the modes of material nature; kāla-sañcoditāḥ — impelled by time; te — they; vai — indeed; parivartante — undergo permutation; ātmani — within the mind.
The material modes — goodness, passion and ignorance — whose permutations are observed within a person’s mind, are set into motion by the power of time.
prabhavanti yadā sattve
tadā kṛta-yugaṁ vidyāj
jñāne tapasi yad ruciḥ
prabhavanti — they are predominantly manifest; yadā — when; sattve — in the mode of goodness; manaḥ — the mind; buddhi — intelligence; indriyāṇi — senses; ca — and; tadā — then; kṛta-yugam — the age of Kṛta; vidyāt — should be understood; jñāne — in knowledge; tapasi — and austerity; yat — when; ruciḥ — pleasure.
When the mind, intelligence and senses are solidly fixed in the mode of goodness, that time should be understood as Satya-yuga, the age of truth. People then take pleasure in knowledge and austerity.
yadā karmasu kāmyeṣu
bhaktir yaśasi dehinām
tadā tretā rajo-vṛttir
iti jānīhi buddhiman
yadā — when; karmasu — in duties; kāmyeṣu — based on selfish desire; bhaktiḥ — devotion; yaśasi — in honor; dehinām — of the embodied souls; tadā — then; tretā — the age of Tretā; rajaḥ-vṛttiḥ — predominated by activities in the mode of passion; iti — thus; jānīhi — you should understand; buddhi-man — O intelligent King Parīkṣit.
O most intelligent one, when the conditioned souls are devoted to their duties but have ulterior motives and seek personal prestige, you should understand such a situation to be the age of Tretā, in which the functions of passion are prominent.
yadā lobhas tv asantoṣo
māno dambho ’tha matsaraḥ
karmaṇāṁ cāpi kāmyānāṁ
dvāparaṁ tad rajas-tamaḥ
yadā — when; lobhaḥ — greed; tu — indeed; asantoṣaḥ — dissatisfaction; mānaḥ — false pride; dambhaḥ — hypocrisy; atha — and; matsaraḥ — envy; karmaṇām — of activities; ca — and; api — also; kāmyānām — selfish; dvāparam — the age of Dvāpara; tat — that; rajaḥ-tamaḥ — predominated by a mixture of the modes of passion and ignorance.
When greed, dissatisfaction, false pride, hypocrisy and envy become prominent, along with attraction for selfish activities, such a time is the age of Dvāpara, dominated by the mixed modes of passion and ignorance.
yadā māyānṛtaṁ tandrā
nidrā hiṁsā viṣādanam
śoka-mohau bhayaṁ dainyaṁ
sa kalis tāmasaḥ smṛtaḥ
yadā — when; māyā — deceit; anṛtam — false speech; tandrā — sloth; nidrā — sleep and intoxication; hiṁsā — violence; viṣādanam — depression; śoka — lamentation; mohau — and delusion; bhayam — fear; dainyam — poverty; saḥ — that; kaliḥ — the Age of Kali; tāmasaḥ — in the mode of ignorance; smṛtaḥ — is considered.
When there is a predominance of cheating, lying, sloth, sleepiness, violence, depression, lamentation, bewilderment, fear and poverty, that age is Kali, the age of the mode of ignorance.
tasmāt kṣudra-dṛśo martyāḥ
kāmino vitta-hīnāś ca
svairiṇyaś ca striyo ’satīḥ
tasmāt — due to these qualities of the Age of Kali; kṣudra-dṛśaḥ — shortsighted; martyāḥ — human beings; kṣudra-bhāgyāḥ — unfortunate; mahā-aśanāḥ — excessive in their eating habits; kāminaḥ — full of lust; vitta-hīnāḥ — lacking wealth; ca — and; svairiṇyaḥ — independent in their social dealings; ca — and; striyaḥ — the women; asatīḥ — unchaste.
Because of the bad qualities of the Age of Kali, human beings will become shortsighted, unfortunate, gluttonous, lustful and poverty-stricken. The women, becoming unchaste, will freely wander from one man to the next.
rājānaś ca prajā-bhakṣāḥ
dasyu-utkṛṣṭāḥ — predominated by thieves; jana-padāḥ — the populated places; vedāḥ — the Vedic scriptures; pāṣaṇḍa — by atheists; dūṣitāḥ — contaminated; rājānaḥ — the political leaders; ca — and; prajā-bhakṣāḥ — consuming the populace; śiśna-udara — to the genitals and belly; parāḥ — dedicated; dvijāḥ — the brāhmaṇas.
Cities will be dominated by thieves, the Vedas will be contaminated by speculative interpretations of atheists, political leaders will virtually consume the citizens, and the so-called priests and intellectuals will be devotees of their bellies and genitals.
avratā baṭavo ’śaucā
bhikṣavaś ca kuṭumbinaḥ
avratāḥ — failing to execute their vows; baṭavaḥ — the brahmacārīs; aśaucāḥ — unclean; bhikṣavaḥ — prone to begging; ca — and; kuṭumbinaḥ — the householders; tapasvinaḥ — those who have gone to the forest for austerities; grāma-vāsāḥ — village residents; nyāsinaḥ — the sannyāsīs; atyartha-lolupāḥ — excessively greedy for wealth.
The brahmacārīs will fail to execute their vows and become generally unclean, the householders will become beggars, the vānaprasthas will live in the villages, and the sannyāsīs will become greedy for wealth.
hrasva-kāyāḥ — having dwarfed bodies; mahā-āhārāḥ — eating too much; bhūri-apatyāḥ — having many children; gata-hriyaḥ — losing their shyness; śaśvat — constantly; kaṭuka — harshly; bhāṣiṇyaḥ — speaking; caurya — exhibiting the tendencies of thievery; māyā — deceit; uru-sāhasāḥ — and great audacity.
Women will become much smaller in size, and they will eat too much, have more children than they can properly take care of, and lose all shyness. They will always speak harshly and will exhibit qualities of thievery, deceit and unrestrained audacity.
paṇayiṣyanti vai kṣudrāḥ
anāpady api maṁsyante
vārtāṁ sādhu jugupsitām
paṇayiṣyanti — will engage in commerce; vai — indeed; kṣudrāḥ — petty; kirāṭāḥ — the merchants; kūṭa-kāriṇaḥ — indulging in cheating; anāpadi — when there is no emergency; api — even; maṁsyante — people will consider; vārtām — an occupation; sādhu — good; jugupsitām — which is actually contemptible.
Businessmen will engage in petty commerce and earn their money by cheating. Even when there is no emergency, people will consider any degraded occupation quite acceptable.
patiṁ tyakṣyanti nirdravyaṁ
bhṛtyā apy akhilottamam
bhṛtyaṁ vipannaṁ patayaḥ
kaulaṁ gāś cāpayasvinīḥ
patim — a master; tyakṣyanti — they will abandon; nirdravyam — lacking property; bhṛtyāḥ — servants; api — even; akhila-uttamam — most excellent in personal qualities; bhṛtyam — a servant; vipannam — incapacitated; patayaḥ — masters; kaulam — belonging to the family for generations; gāḥ — cows; ca — and; apayasvinīḥ — which have stopped giving milk.
Servants will abandon a master who has lost his wealth, even if that master is a saintly person of exemplary character. Masters will abandon an incapacitated servant, even if that servant has been in the family for generations. Cows will be abandoned or killed when they stop giving milk.
dīnāḥ straiṇāḥ kalau narāḥ
pitṛ — their fathers; bhrātṛ — brothers; suhṛt — well-wishing friends; jñātīn — and immediate relatives; hitvā — giving up; saurata — based on sexual relationships; sauhṛdāḥ — their conception of friendship; nanāndṛ — with their wives’ sisters; śyāla — and wives’ brothers; saṁvādāḥ — associating regularly; dīnāḥ — wretched; straiṇāḥ — effeminate; kalau — in Kali-yuga; narāḥ — the men.
In Kali-yuga men will be wretched and controlled by women. They will reject their fathers, brothers, other relatives and friends and will instead associate with the sisters and brothers of their wives. Thus their conception of friendship will be based exclusively on sexual ties.
dharmaṁ vakṣyanty adharma-jñā
śūdrāḥ — lowly, common workers; pratigrahīṣyanti — will accept religious charity; tapaḥ — by shows of austerity; veṣa — and by dressing as mendicants; upajīvinaḥ — earning their living; dharmam — the principles of religion; vakṣyanti — will speak about; adharma-jñāḥ — those who know nothing about religion; adhiruhya — mounting; uttama-āsanam — a high seat.
Uncultured men will accept charity on behalf of the Lord and will earn their livelihood by making a show of austerity and wearing a mendicant’s dress. Those who know nothing about religion will mount a high seat and presume to speak on religious principles.
niranne bhū-tale rājan
bhaviṣyanti kalau prajāḥ
nityam — constantly; udvigna — agitated; manasaḥ — their minds; durbhikṣa — by famine; kara — and taxes; karśitāḥ — emaciated; niranne — when there is no food to be found; bhū-tale — upon the surface of the earth; rājan — O King Parīkṣit; anāvṛṣṭi — of drought; bhaya — because of fear; āturāḥ — anxious; vāsaḥ — clothing; anna — food; pāna — drink; śayana — rest; vyavāya — sex; snāna — bathing; bhūṣaṇaiḥ — and personal ornaments; hīnāḥ — lacking; piśāca-sandarśāḥ — appearing just like ghostly demons; bhaviṣyanti — they will become; kalau — in the Age of Kali; prajāḥ — the people.
In the Age of Kali, people’s minds will always be agitated. They will become emaciated by famine and taxation, my dear King, and will always be disturbed by fear of drought. They will lack adequate clothing, food and drink, will be unable to properly rest, have sex or bathe themselves, and will have no ornaments to decorate their bodies. In fact, the people of Kali-yuga will gradually come to appear like ghostly, haunted creatures.
kalau kākiṇike ’py arthe
tyakṣyanti ca priyān prāṇān
haniṣyanti svakān api
kalau — in the Age of Kali; kākiṇike — of a small coin; api — even; arthe — for the sake; vigṛhya — developing enmity; tyakta — abandoning; sauhṛdāḥ — friendly relations; tyakṣyanti — they will reject; ca — and; priyān — dear; prāṇān — their own lives; haniṣyanti — they will kill; svakān — their own relatives; api — even.
In Kali-yuga men will develop hatred for each other even over a few coins. Giving up all friendly relations, they will be ready to lose their own lives and kill even their own relatives.
na rakṣiṣyanti manujāḥ
sthavirau pitarāv api
putrān bhāryāṁ ca kula-jāṁ
na rakṣiṣyanti — they will not protect; manujāḥ — men; sthavirau — elderly; pitarau — parents; api — even; putrān — children; bhāryām — wife; ca — also; kula-jām — born of a proper family; kṣudrāḥ — petty; śiśna-udaram — their genitals and belly; bharāḥ — simply maintaining.
Men will no longer protect their elderly parents, their children or their respectable wives. Thoroughly degraded, they will care only to satisfy their own bellies and genitals.
kalau na rājan jagatāṁ paraṁ guruṁ
prāyeṇa martyā bhagavantam acyutaṁ
kalau — in the Age of Kali; na — not; rājan — O King; jagatām — of the universe; param — the supreme; gurum — spiritual master; tri-loka — of the three worlds; nātha — by the various masters; ānata — bowed down to; pāda-paṅkajam — whose lotus feet; prāyeṇa — for the most part; martyāḥ — human beings; bhagavantam — the Personality of Godhead; acyutam — Lord Acyuta; yakṣyanti — they will offer sacrifice; pāṣaṇḍa — by atheism; vibhinna — diverted; cetasaḥ — their intelligence.
O King, in the Age of Kali people’s intelligence will be diverted by atheism, and they will almost never offer sacrifice to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme spiritual master of the universe. Although the great personalities who control the three worlds all bow down to the lotus feet of the Supreme Lord, the petty and miserable human beings of this age will not do so.
yan-nāmadheyaṁ mriyamāṇa āturaḥ
patan skhalan vā vivaśo gṛṇan pumān
vimukta-karmārgala uttamāṁ gatiṁ
prāpnoti yakṣyanti na taṁ kalau janāḥ
yat — whose; nāmadheyam — name; mriyamāṇaḥ — a person who is dying; āturaḥ — distressed; patan — collapsing; skhalan — voice faltering; vā — or; vivaśaḥ — helplessly; gṛṇan — chanting; pumān — a person; vimukta — freed; karma — of fruitive work; argalaḥ — from the chains; uttamām — the topmost; gatim — destination; prāpnoti — achieves; yakṣyanti na — they do not worship; tam — Him, the Personality of Godhead; kalau — in the Age of Kali; janāḥ — people.
Terrified, about to die, a man collapses on his bed. Although his voice is faltering and he is hardly conscious of what he is saying, if he utters the holy name of the Supreme Lord he can be freed from the reaction of his fruitive work and achieve the supreme destination. But still people in the Age of Kali will not worship the Supreme Lord.
puṁsāṁ kali-kṛtān doṣān
sarvān harati citta-stho
puṁsām — of men; kali-kṛtān — created by the influence of Kali; doṣān — the faults; dravya — objects; deśa — space; ātma — and personal nature; sambhavān — based upon; sarvān — all; harati — steals away; citta-sthaḥ — situated within the heart; bhagavān — the almighty Lord; puruṣa-uttamaḥ — the Supreme Person.
In the Kali-yuga, objects, places and even individual personalities are all polluted. The almighty Personality of Godhead, however, can remove all such contamination from the life of one who fixes the Lord within his mind.
śrutaḥ saṅkīrtito dhyātaḥ
pūjitaś cādṛto ’pi vā
nṛṇāṁ dhunoti bhagavān
śrutaḥ — heard; saṅkīrtitaḥ — glorified; dhyātaḥ — meditated upon; pūjitaḥ — worshiped; ca — and; ādṛtaḥ — venerated; api — even; vā — or; nṛṇām — of men; dhunoti — cleanses away; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hṛt-sthaḥ — seated within their hearts; janma-ayuta — of thousands of births; aśubham — the inauspicious contamination.
If a person hears about, glorifies, meditates upon, worships or simply offers great respect to the Supreme Lord, who is situated within the heart, the Lord will remove from his mind the contamination accumulated during many thousands of lifetimes.
yathā hemni sthito vahnir
durvarṇaṁ hanti dhātu-jam
evam ātma-gato viṣṇur
yathā — just as; hemni — in gold; sthitaḥ — situated; vahniḥ — fire; durvarṇam — the discoloration; hanti — destroys; dhātu-jam — due to the taint of other metals; evam — in the same way; ātma-gataḥ — having entered the soul; viṣṇuḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; yoginām — of the yogīs; aśubha-āśayam — the dirty mind.
Just as fire applied to gold removes any discoloration caused by traces of other metals, Lord Viṣṇu within the heart purifies the minds of the yogīs.
nātyanta-śuddhiṁ labhate ’ntarātmā
yathā hṛdi-sthe bhagavaty anante
vidyā — by worship of demigods; tapaḥ — austerities; prāṇa-nirodha — exercise of breath control; maitrī — compassion; tīrtha-abhiṣeka — bathing in holy places; vrata — strict vows; dāna — charity; japyaiḥ — and chanting of various mantras; na — not; atyanta — complete; śuddhim — purification; labhate — can achieve; antaḥ-ātmā — the mind; yathā — as; hṛdi-sthe — when He is present within the heart; bhagavati — the Personality of Godhead; anante — the unlimited Lord.
By one’s engaging in the processes of demigod worship, austerities, breath control, compassion, bathing in holy places, strict vows, charity and chanting of various mantras, one’s mind cannot attain the same absolute purification as that achieved when the unlimited Personality of Godhead appears within one’s heart.
tasmāt sarvātmanā rājan
hṛdi-sthaṁ kuru keśavam
mriyamāṇo hy avahitas
tato yāsi parāṁ gatim
tasmāt — therefore; sarva-ātmanā — with all endeavor; rājan — O King; hṛdi-stham — within your heart; kuru — make; keśavam — Lord Keśava; mriyamāṇaḥ — dying; hi — indeed; avahitaḥ — concentrated; tataḥ — then; yāsi — you will go; parām — to the supreme; gatim — destination.
Therefore, O King, endeavor with all your might to fix the Supreme Lord Keśava within your heart. Maintain this concentration upon the Lord, and at the time of death you will certainly attain the supreme destination.
ātma-bhāvaṁ nayaty aṅga
mriyamāṇaiḥ — by those who are dying; abhidhyeyaḥ — meditated upon; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; parama-īśvaraḥ — the Supreme Lord; ātma-bhāvam — their own true identity; nayati — leads them to; aṅga — my dear King; sarva-ātmā — the Supreme Soul; sarva-saṁśrayaḥ — the shelter of all beings.
My dear King, the Personality of Godhead is the ultimate controller. He is the Supreme Soul and the supreme shelter of all beings. When meditated upon by those about to die, He reveals to them their own eternal spiritual identity.
kaler doṣa-nidhe rājann
asti hy eko mahān guṇaḥ
kīrtanād eva kṛṣṇasya
mukta-saṅgaḥ paraṁ vrajet
kaleḥ — of the Age of Kali; doṣa-nidheḥ — in the ocean of faults; rājan — O King; asti — there is; hi — certainly; ekaḥ — one; mahān — very great; guṇaḥ — good quality; kīrtanāt — by chanting; eva — certainly; kṛṣṇasya — of the holy name of Kṛṣṇa; mukta-saṅgaḥ — liberated from material bondage; param — to the transcendental spiritual kingdom; vrajet — one can go.
My dear King, although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults, there is still one good quality about this age: Simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom.
kṛte yad dhyāyato viṣṇuṁ
tretāyāṁ yajato makhaiḥ
kalau tad dhari-kīrtanāt
kṛte — in the Satya-yuga; yat — which; dhyāyataḥ — from meditation; viṣṇum — on Lord Viṣṇu; tretāyām — in the Tretā-yuga; yajataḥ — from worshiping; makhaiḥ — by performing sacrifices; dvāpare — in the age of Dvāpara; paricaryāyām — by worshiping the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa; kalau — in the Age of Kali; tat — that same result (can be achieved); hari-kīrtanāt — simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.
Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Viṣṇu, in Tretā-yuga by performing sacrifices, and in Dvāpara-yuga by serving the Lord’s lotus feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Kṛṣṇa mahā-mantra.