Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 12 Chapter 11
Summary Description of the Mahāpuruṣa
athemam arthaṁ pṛcchāmo
bhavān bhāgavata tattva-vit
śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka said; atha — now; imam — this; artham — matter; pṛcchāmaḥ — we are inquiring about; bhavantam — from you; bahu-vit-tamam — the possessor of the broadest knowledge; samasta — of all; tantra — the scriptures prescribing practical methods of worship; rāddha-ante — in the definitive conclusions; bhavān — you; bhāgavata — O great devotee of the Supreme Lord; tattva-vit — the knower of the essential facts.
Śrī Śaunaka said: O Sūta, you are the best of learned men and a great devotee of the Supreme Lord. Therefore we now inquire from you about the definitive conclusion of all tantra scriptures.
kevalasya śriyaḥ pateḥ
kalpayanti yathā ca yaiḥ
tan no varṇaya bhadraṁ te
martyo yāyād amartyatām
tāntrikāḥ — the followers of the methods of the tantric literatures; paricaryāyām — in regulated worship; kevalasya — who is pure spirit; śriyaḥ — of the goddess of fortune; pateḥ — of the master; aṅga — His limbs, such as His feet; upāṅga — His secondary limbs, such as associates like Garuḍa; āyudha — His weapons, such as the Sudarśana disc; ākalpam — and His ornaments, such as the Kaustubha gem; kalpayanti — they conceive of; yathā — how; ca — and; yaiḥ — by which (material representations); tat — that; naḥ — to us; varṇaya — please describe; bhadram — all-auspiciousness; te — unto you; kriyā-yogam — the practical method of cultivation; bubhutsatām — who are eager to learn; yena — by which; kriyā — in the systematic practice; naipuṇena — expertise; martyaḥ — a mortal being; yāyāt — may attain; amartyatām — immortality.
All good fortune to you! Please explain to us, who are very eager to learn, the process of kriyā-yoga practiced through regulated worship of the transcendental Lord, the husband of the goddess of fortune. Please also explain how the Lord’s devotees conceive of His limbs, associates, weapons and ornaments in terms of particular material representations. By expertly worshiping the Supreme Lord, a mortal can attain immortality.
namaskṛtya gurūn vakṣye
vibhūtīr vaiṣṇavīr api
yāḥ proktā veda-tantrābhyām
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; namaskṛtya — offering obeisances; gurūn — to the spiritual masters; vakṣye — I shall speak; vibhūtīḥ — the opulences; vaiṣṇavīḥ — belonging to Lord Viṣṇu; api — indeed; yāḥ — which; proktāḥ — are described; veda-tantrābhyām — by the Vedas and the tantras; ācāryaiḥ — by standard authorities; padmaja-ādibhiḥ — beginning with Lord Brahmā.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: Offering obeisances to my spiritual masters, I shall repeat to you the description of the opulences of Lord Viṣṇu given in the Vedas and tantras by great authorities, beginning from lotus-born Brahmā.
māyādyair navabhis tattvaiḥ
sa vikāra-mayo virāṭ
nirmito dṛśyate yatra
māyā-ādyaiḥ — beginning with the unmanifest stage of nature; navabhiḥ — with the nine; tattvaiḥ — elements; saḥ — that; vikāra-mayaḥ — also comprising the transformations (of the eleven senses and the five gross elements); virāṭ — the universal form of the Lord; nirmitaḥ — constructed; dṛśyate — are seen; yatra — in which; sa-citke — being conscious; bhuvana-trayam — the three planetary systems.
The universal form [virāṭ] of the Personality of Godhead includes the nine basic elements of creation, starting with the unmanifest nature, and their subsequent transformations. Once this universal form is instilled with consciousness, the three planetary systems become visible within it.
etad vai pauruṣaṁ rūpaṁ
bhūḥ pādau dyauḥ śiro nabhaḥ
nābhiḥ sūryo ’kṣiṇī nāse
vāyuḥ karṇau diśaḥ prabhoḥ
apāno mṛtyur īśituḥ
manaś candro bhruvau yamaḥ
lajjottaro ’dharo lobho
dantā jyotsnā smayo bhramaḥ
romāṇi bhūruhā bhūmno
etat — this; vai — indeed; pauruṣam — of the Virāṭ-puruṣa; rūpam — the form; bhūḥ — the earth; pādau — His feet; dyauḥ — heaven; śiraḥ — His head; nabhaḥ — the sky; nābhiḥ — His navel; sūryaḥ — the sun; akṣiṇī — His eyes; nāse — His nostrils; vāyuḥ — the air; karṇau — His ears; diśaḥ — the directions; prabhoḥ — of the Supreme Lord; prajā-patiḥ — the demigod of procreation; prajananam — His genitals; apānaḥ — His anus; mṛtyuḥ — death; īśituḥ — of the absolute controller; tat-bāhavaḥ — His many arms; loka-pālāḥ — the presiding demigods of the various planets; manaḥ — His mind; candraḥ — the moon; bhruvau — His eyebrows; yamaḥ — the god of death; lajjā — shame; uttaraḥ — His upper lip; adharaḥ — His lower lip; lobhaḥ — greed; dantāḥ — His teeth; jyotsnā — the light of the moon; smayaḥ — His smile; bhramaḥ — delusion; romāṇi — the hairs of the body; bhū-ruhāḥ — the trees; bhūmnaḥ — of the almighty Lord; meghāḥ — the clouds; puruṣa — of the Virāṭ-puruṣa; mūrdha-jāḥ — the hairs upon the head.
This is the representation of the Supreme Lord as the universal person, in which the earth is His feet, the sky His navel, the sun His eyes, the wind His nostrils, the demigod of procreation His genitals, death His anus and the moon His mind. The heavenly planets are His head, the directions His ears, and the demigods protecting the various planets His many arms. The god of death is His eyebrows, shame His lower lip, greed His upper lip, delusion His smile, and moonshine His teeth, while the trees are the almighty Puruṣa’s bodily hairs, and the clouds the hair on His head.
yāvān ayaṁ vai puruṣo
yāvatyā saṁsthayā mitaḥ
tāvān asāv api mahā-
yāvān — to which extent; ayam — this; vai — indeed; puruṣaḥ — ordinary individual person; yāvatyā — extending to which dimensions; saṁsthayā — by the position of his limbs; mitaḥ — measured; tāvān — to that extent; asau — He; api — also; mahā-puruṣaḥ — the transcendental personality; loka-saṁsthayā — according to the positions of the planetary systems.
Just as one can determine the dimensions of an ordinary person of this world by measuring his various limbs, one can determine the dimensions of the Mahāpuruṣa by measuring the arrangement of the planetary systems within His universal form.
svātma-jyotir bibharty ajaḥ
tat-prabhā vyāpinī sākṣāt
śrīvatsam urasā vibhuḥ
kaustubha-vyapadeśena — represented by the Kaustubha gem; sva-ātma — of the pure jīva soul; jyotiḥ — the spiritual light; bibharti — carries; ajaḥ — the unborn Lord; tat-prabhā — the effulgence of this (Kaustubha); vyāpinī — expansive; sākṣāt — directly; śrīvatsam — of the Śrīvatsa mark; urasā — upon His chest; vibhuḥ — the almighty.
Upon His chest the almighty, unborn Personality of Godhead bears the Kaustubha gem, which represents the pure spirit soul, along with the Śrīvatsa mark, which is the direct manifestation of this gem’s expansive effulgence.
vāsaś chando-mayaṁ pītaṁ
brahma-sūtraṁ tri-vṛt svaram
bibharti sāṅkhyaṁ yogaṁ ca
mauliṁ padaṁ pārameṣṭhyaṁ
sva-māyām — His own material energy; vana-mālā-ākhyām — represented as His flower garland; nānā-guṇa — various combinations of the modes of nature; mayīm — composed of; dadhat — wearing; vāsaḥ — His garment; chandaḥ-mayam — consisting of the Vedic meters; pītam — yellow; brahma-sūtram — His sacred thread; tri-vṛt — threefold; svaram — the sacred sound oṁkāra; bibharti — He carries; sāṅkhyam — the process of Sāṅkhya; yogam — the process of yoga; ca — and; devaḥ — the Lord; makara-kuṇḍale — His shark-shaped earrings; maulim — His crown; padam — the position; pārameṣṭhyam — supreme (of Lord Brahmā); sarva-loka — to all the worlds; abhayam — fearlessness; karam — which gives.
His flower garland is His material energy, comprising various combinations of the modes of nature. His yellow garment is the Vedic meters, and His sacred thread the syllable om composed of three sounds. In the form of His two shark-shaped earrings, the Lord carries the processes of Sāṅkhya and yoga, and His crown, bestowing fearlessness on the inhabitants of all the worlds, is the supreme position of Brahmaloka.
sattvaṁ padmam ihocyate
avyākṛtam — the unmanifest phase of material creation; ananta-ākhyam — known as Lord Ananta; āsanam — His personal seat; yat-adhiṣṭhitaḥ — upon which He is sitting; dharma-jñāna-ādibhiḥ — together with religion, knowledge and so on; yuktam — conjoined; sattvam — in the mode of goodness; padmam — His lotus; iha — thereupon; ucyate — is said.
Ananta, the Lord’s sitting place, is the unmanifest phase of material nature, and the Lord’s lotus throne is the mode of goodness, endowed with religion and knowledge.
mukhya-tattvaṁ gadāṁ dadhat
apāṁ tattvaṁ dara-varaṁ
asiṁ carma tamo-mayam
kāla-rūpaṁ dhanuḥ śārṅgaṁ
ojaḥ-sahaḥ-bala — with the power of the senses, the power of the mind and the power of the body; yutam — conjoined; mukhya-tattvam — the principle element, air, which is the vital force within the material body; gadām — His club; dadhat — carrying; apām — of water; tattvam — the element; dara — His conchshell; varam — excellent; tejaḥ-tattvam — the element fire; sudarśanam — His Sudarśana disc; nabhaḥ-nibham — just like the sky; nabhaḥ-tattvam — the element ether; asim — His sword; carma — His shield; tamaḥ-mayam — composed of the mode of ignorance; kāla-rūpam — appearing as time; dhanuḥ — His bow; śārṅgam — named Śārṅga; tathā — and; karma-maya — representing the active senses; iṣu-dhim — the quiver holding His arrows.
The club the Lord carries is the chief element, prāṇa, incorporating the potencies of sensory, mental and physical strength. His excellent conchshell is the element water, His Sudarśana disc the element fire, and His sword, pure as the sky, the element ether. His shield embodies the mode of ignorance, His bow, named Śārṅga, time, and His arrow-filled quiver the working sensory organs.
indriyāṇi śarān āhur
ākūtīr asya syandanam
indriyāṇi — the senses; śarān — His arrows; āhuḥ — they say; ākūtīḥ — (the mind with its) active functions; asya — of Him; syandanam — the chariot; tat-mātrāṇi — the objects of perception; asya — His; abhivyaktim — external appearance; mudrayā — by the gestures of His hands (symbolizing the giving of benedictions, the offering of fearlessness, and so on); artha-kriyā-ātmatām — the essence of purposeful activity.
His arrows are said to be the senses, and His chariot is the active, forceful mind. His external appearance is the subtle objects of perception, and the gestures of His hands are the essence of all purposeful activity.
dīkṣā saṁskāra ātmanaḥ
maṇḍalam — the sun globe; deva-yajanam — the place where the Supreme Lord is worshiped; dīkṣā — spiritual initiation; saṁskāraḥ — the process of purification; ātmanaḥ — for the spirit soul; paricaryā — devotional service; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; ātmanaḥ — for the jīva soul; durita — of sinful reactions; kṣayaḥ — the destruction.
The sun globe is the place where the Supreme Lord is worshiped, spiritual initiation is the means of purification for the spirit soul, and rendering devotional service to the Personality of Godhead is the process for eradicating all one’s sinful reactions.
dharmaṁ yaśaś ca bhagavāṁś
bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; bhaga-śabda — of the word bhaga; artham — the meaning (namely, “opulence”); līlā-kamalam — His pastime lotus; udvahan — carrying; dharmam — religion; yaśaḥ — fame; ca — and; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; cāmara-vyajane — the pair of yak-tail fans; abhajat — has accepted.
Playfully carrying a lotus, which represents the various opulences designated by the word bhaga, the Supreme Lord accepts service from a pair of cāmara fans, which are religion and fame.
ātapatraṁ tu vaikuṇṭhaṁ
tri-vṛd vedaḥ suparṇākhyo
yajñaṁ vahati pūruṣam
ātapatram — His umbrella; tu — and; vaikuṇṭham — His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha; dvijāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; dhāma — His personal abode, the spiritual world; akutaḥ-bhayam — free from fear; tri-vṛt — threefold; vedaḥ — the Veda; suparṇa-ākhyaḥ — named Suparṇa, or Garuḍa; yajñam — sacrifice personified; vahati — carried; pūruṣam — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
O brāhmaṇas, the Lord’s umbrella is His spiritual abode, Vaikuṇṭha, where there is no fear, and Garuḍa, who carries the Lord of sacrifice, is the threefold Veda.
śrīḥ sākṣād ātmano hareḥ
nandādayo ’ṣṭau dvāḥ-sthāś ca
te ’ṇimādyā harer guṇāḥ
anapāyinī — inseparable; bhagavatī — the goddess of fortune; śrīḥ — Śrī; sākṣāt — directly; ātmanaḥ — of the internal nature; hareḥ — of Lord Hari; viṣvaksenaḥ — Viṣvaksena; tantra-mūrtiḥ — as the personification of the tantra scriptures; viditaḥ — is known; pārṣada-adhipaḥ — the chief of His personal associates; nanda-ādayaḥ — Nanda and the others; aṣṭau — the eight; dvāḥ-sthāḥ — doorkeepers; ca — and; te — they; aṇimā-ādyāḥ — aṇimā and the other mystic perfections; hareḥ — of the Supreme Lord; guṇāḥ — the qualities.
The goddess of fortune, Śrī, who never leaves the Lord’s side, appears with Him in this world as the representation of His internal potency. Viṣvaksena, the chief among His personal associates, is known to be the personification of the Pañcarātra and other tantras. And the Lord’s eight doorkeepers, headed by Nanda, are His mystic perfections, beginning with aṇimā.
pradyumnaḥ puruṣaḥ svayam
aniruddha iti brahman
vāsudevaḥ saṅkarṣaṇaḥ pradyumnaḥ — Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa and Pradyumna; puruṣaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; svayam — Himself; aniruddhaḥ — Aniruddha; iti — thus; brahman — O brāhmaṇa, Śaunaka; mūrti-vyūhaḥ — the expansion of personal forms; abhidhīyate — is designated.
Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha are the names of the direct personal expansions of the Supreme Godhead, O brāhmaṇa Śaunaka.
sa viśvas taijasaḥ prājñas
turīya iti vṛttibhiḥ
saḥ — He; viśvaḥ taijasaḥ prājñaḥ — the manifestations of waking consciousness, sleep and deep sleep; turīyaḥ — the fourth, transcendental stage; iti — thus termed; vṛttibhiḥ — by the functions; artha — by the external objects of perception; indriya — the mind; āśaya — covered consciousness; jñānaiḥ — and spiritual knowledge; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; paribhāvyate — is conceived of.
One can conceive of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in terms of awakened consciousness, sleep and deep sleep — which function respectively through external objects, the mind and material intelligence — and also in terms of the fourth, transcendental level of consciousness, which is characterized by pure knowledge.
bhagavāṁs tac catuṣṭayam
bibharti sma catur-mūrtir
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ
aṅga — with His major limbs; upāṅga — minor limbs; āyudha — weapons; ākalpaiḥ — and ornaments; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; tat catuṣṭayam — these four manifestations (of viśva, taijasa, prājña and turīya); bibharti — maintains; sma — indeed; catuḥ-mūrtiḥ — in His four personal features (Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha); bhagavān — the Lord; hariḥ — Hari; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari, thus appears in four personal expansions, each exhibiting major limbs, minor limbs, weapons and ornaments. Through these distinct features, the Lord maintains the four phases of existence.
dvija-ṛṣabha sa eṣa brahma-yoniḥ svayaṁ-dṛk
sva-mahima-paripūrṇo māyayā ca svayaitat
sṛjati harati pātīty ākhyayānāvṛtākṣo
vivṛta iva niruktas tat-parair ātma-labhyaḥ
dvija-ṛṣabha — O best of the brāhmaṇas; saḥ eṣaḥ — He alone; brahma-yoniḥ — the source of the Vedas; svayam-dṛk — who is self-illuminating; sva-mahima — in His own glory; paripūrṇaḥ — perfectly complete; māyayā — by the material energy; ca — and; svayā — His own; etat — this universe; sṛjati — He creates; harati — He withdraws; pāti — He maintains; iti ākhyayā — conceived of as such; anāvṛta — uncovered; akṣaḥ — His transcendental awareness; vivṛtaḥ — materially divided; iva — as if; niruktaḥ — described; tat-paraiḥ — by those who are devoted to Him; ātma — as their very Soul; labhyaḥ — realizable.
O best of brāhmaṇas, He alone is the self-luminous, original source of the Vedas, perfect and complete in His own glory. By His material energy He creates, destroys and maintains this entire universe. Because He is the performer of various material functions, He is sometimes described as materially divided, yet He always remains transcendentally situated in pure knowledge. Those who are dedicated to Him in devotion can realize Him to be their true Soul.
śrī-kṛṣṇa kṛṣṇa-sakha vṛṣṇy-ṛṣabhāvani-dhrug-
tīrtha-śravaḥ śravaṇa-maṅgala pāhi bhṛtyān
śrī-kṛṣṇa — O Śrī Kṛṣṇa; kṛṣṇa-sakha — O friend of Arjuna; vṛṣṇi — of the descendants of Vṛṣṇi; ṛṣabha — O chief; avani — on the earth; dhruk — rebellious; rājanya-vaṁśa — of the dynasties of kings; dahana — O annihilator; anapavarga — without deterioration; vīrya — whose prowess; govinda — O proprietor of Goloka-dhāma; gopa — of the cowherd men; vanitā — and the cowherd women; vraja — by the multitude; bhṛtya — and by their servants; gīta — sung; tīrtha — pious, as the most holy place of pilgrimage; śravaḥ — whose glories; śravaṇa — just to hear about whom; maṅgala — auspicious; pāhi — please protect; bhṛtyān — Your servants.
O Kṛṣṇa, O friend of Arjuna, O chief among the descendants of Vṛṣṇi, You are the destroyer of those political parties that are disturbing elements on this earth. Your prowess never deteriorates. You are the proprietor of the transcendental abode, and Your most sacred glories, which are sung by Vṛndāvana’s cowherd men and women and their servants, bestow all auspiciousness just by being heard. O Lord, please protect Your devotees.
ya idaṁ kalya utthāya
tac-cittaḥ prayato japtvā
brahma veda guhāśayam
yaḥ — anyone who; idam — this; kalye — at dawn; utthāya — rising; mahā-puruṣa-lakṣaṇam — the characteristics of the Supreme Personality in His universal form; tat-cittaḥ — with mind absorbed in Him; prayataḥ — purified; japtvā — chanting to oneself; brahma — the Absolute Truth; veda — he comes to know; guhā-śayam — situated within the heart.
Anyone who rises early in the morning and, with a purified mind fixed upon the Mahāpuruṣa, quietly chants this description of His characteristics will realize Him as the Supreme Absolute Truth residing within the heart.
śuko yad āha bhagavān
sauro gaṇo māsi māsi
nānā vasati saptakaḥ
teṣāṁ nāmāni karmāṇi
brūhi naḥ śraddadhānānāṁ
vyūhaṁ sūryātmano hareḥ
śrī-śaunakaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śaunaka said; śukaḥ — Śukadeva Gosvāmī; yat — which; āha — described; bhagavān — the great sage; viṣṇu-rātāya — to King Parīkṣit; śṛṇvate — who was listening; sauraḥ — of the sun-god; gaṇaḥ — the associates; māsi māsi — in each month; nānā — various; vasati — who reside; saptakaḥ — the group of seven; teṣām — of them; nāmāni — the names; karmāṇi — the activities; niyuktānām — who are engaged; adhīśvaraiḥ — by the various features of the sun-god, who are their controllers; brūhi — please speak; naḥ — to us; śraddadhānānām — who are faithful; vyūham — the personal expansions; sūrya-ātmanaḥ — in His personal expansion as the sun-god; hareḥ — of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Hari.
Śrī Śaunaka said: Please describe to us, who have great faith in your words, the different sets of seven personal features and associates the sun-god exhibits during each month, along with their names and activities. The associates of the sun-god, who serve their lord, are personal expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari in His feature as the presiding deity of the sun.
nirmito loka-tantro ’yaṁ
sūtaḥ uvāca — Sūta Gosvāmī said; anādi — beginningless; avidyayā — by the illusory energy; viṣṇoḥ — of Lord Viṣṇu; ātmanaḥ — who is the Supreme Soul; sarva-dehinām — of all embodied living beings; nirmitaḥ — produced; loka-tantraḥ — the regulator of the planets; ayam — this; lokeṣu — among the planets; parivartate — travels.
Sūta Gosvāmī said: The sun travels among all the planets and thus regulates their movements. It has been created by Lord Viṣṇu, the Supreme Soul of all embodied beings, through His beginningless material energy.
eka eva hi lokānāṁ
sūrya ātmādi-kṛd dhariḥ
ekaḥ — one; eva — only; hi — indeed; lokānām — of the worlds; sūryaḥ — the sun; ātmā — their soul; ādi-kṛt — the original creator; hariḥ — the Personality of Godhead, Hari; sarva-veda — in all the Vedas; kriyā — of the ritualistic activities; mūlam — the basis; ṛṣibhiḥ — by the sages; bahudhā — variously; uditaḥ — designated.
The sun-god, being nondifferent from Lord Hari, is the one soul of all the worlds and their original creator. He is the source of all the ritualistic activities prescribed in the Vedas and has been given many names by the Vedic sages.
kālo deśaḥ kriyā kartā
karaṇaṁ kāryam āgamaḥ
dravyaṁ phalam iti brahman
navadhokto ’jayā hariḥ
kālaḥ — time; deśaḥ — place; kriyā — endeavor; kartā — performer; karaṇam — instrument; kāryam — specific ritual; āgamaḥ — scripture; dravyam — paraphernalia; phalam — result; iti — thus; brahman — O brāhmaṇa, Śaunaka; navadhā — in nine phases; uktaḥ — described; ajayā — in terms of the material energy; hariḥ — Lord Hari.
Being the source of the material energy, the Personality of Godhead Lord Hari in His expansion as the sun-god is described in nine aspects, O Śaunaka: the time, the place, the endeavor, the performer, the instrument, the specific ritual, the scripture, the paraphernalia of worship and the result to be achieved.
pṛthag dvādaśabhir gaṇaiḥ
madhu-ādiṣu — beginning with Madhu; dvādaśasu — in the twelve (months); bhagavān — the Supreme Lord; kāla-rūpa — the form of time; dhṛk — assuming; loka-tantrāya — to regulate planetary motion; carati — travels; pṛthak — separately; dvādaśabhiḥ — with twelve; gaṇaiḥ — sets of associates.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead, manifesting His potency of time as the sun-god, travels about in each of the twelve months, beginning with Madhu, to regulate planetary motion within the universe. Traveling with the sun-god in each of the twelve months is a different set of six associates.
dhātā kṛtasthalī hetir
vāsukī rathakṛn mune
pulastyas tumburur iti
madhu-māsaṁ nayanty amī
dhātā kṛtasthalī hetiḥ — Dhātā, Kṛtasthalī and Heti; vāsukiḥ rathakṛt — Vāsuki and Rathakṛt; mune — O sage; pulastyaḥ tumburuḥ — Pulastya and Tumburu; iti — thus; madhu-māsam — the month of Madhu (Caitra, at the time of the spring equinox); nayanti — lead forth; amī — these.
My dear sage, Dhātā as the sun-god, Kṛtasthalī as the Apsarā, Heti as the Rākṣasa, Vāsuki as the Nāga, Rathakṛt as the Yakṣa, Pulastya as the sage and Tumburu as the Gandharva rule the month of Madhu.
aryamā pulaho ’thaujāḥ
nāradaḥ kacchanīraś ca
nayanty ete sma mādhavam
aryamā pulahaḥ athaujāḥ — Aryamā, Pulaha and Athaujā; prahetiḥ puñjikasthalī — Praheti and Puñjikasthalī; nāradaḥ kacchanīraḥ — Nārada and Kacchanīra; ca — also; nayanti — rule; ete — these; sma — indeed; mādhavam — the month of Mādhava (Vaiśākha).
Aryamā as the sun-god, Pulaha as the sage, Athaujā as the Yakṣa, Praheti as the Rākṣasa, Puñjikasthalī as the Apsarā, Nārada as the Gandharva and Kacchanīra as the Nāga rule the month of Mādhava.
mitro ’triḥ pauruṣeyo ’tha
takṣako menakā hahāḥ
rathasvana iti hy ete
śukra-māsaṁ nayanty amī
mitraḥ atriḥ pauruṣeyaḥ — Mitra, Atri and Pauruṣeya; atha — as well; takṣakaḥ menakā hahāḥ — Takṣaka, Menakā and Hāhā; rathasvanaḥ — Rathasvana; iti — thus; hi — indeed; ete — these; śukra-māsam — the month of Śukra (Jyaiṣṭha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Mitra as the sun-god, Atri as the sage, Pauruṣeya as the Rākṣasa, Takṣaka as the Nāga, Menakā as the Apsarā, Hāhā as the Gandharva and Rathasvana as the Yakṣa rule the month of Śukra.
vasiṣṭho varuṇo rambhā
sahajanyas tathā huhūḥ
śukraś citrasvanaś caiva
śuci-māsaṁ nayanty amī
vasiṣṭhaḥ varuṇaḥ rambhā — Vasiṣṭha, Varuṇa and Rambhā; sahajanyaḥ — Sahajanya; tathā — also; huhūḥ — Hūhū; śukraḥ citrasvanaḥ — Śukra and Citrasvana; ca eva — as well; śuci-māsam — the month of Śuci (Āṣāḍha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Vasiṣṭha as the sage, Varuṇa as the sun-god, Rambhā as the Apsarā, Sahajanya as the Rākṣasa, Hūhū as the Gandharva, Śukra as the Nāga and Citrasvana as the Yakṣa rule the month of Śuci.
indro viśvāvasuḥ śrotā
pramlocā rākṣaso varyo
nabho-māsaṁ nayanty amī
indraḥ viśvāvasuḥ śrotāḥ — Indra, Viśvāvasu and Śrotā; elāpatraḥ — Elāpatra; tathā — and; aṅgirāḥ — Aṅgirā; pramlocā — Pramlocā; rākṣasaḥ varyaḥ — the Rākṣasa named Varya; nabhaḥ-māsam — the month of Nabhas (Śrāvaṇa); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Indra as the sun-god, Viśvāvasu as the Gandharva, Śrotā as the Yakṣa, Elāpatra as the Nāga, Aṅgirā as the sage, Pramlocā as the Apsarā and Varya as the Rākṣasa rule the month of Nabhas.
vivasvān ugrasenaś ca
vyāghra āsāraṇo bhṛguḥ
nabhasyākhyaṁ nayanty amī
vivasvān ugrasenaḥ — Vivasvān and Ugrasena; ca — also; vyāghraḥ āsāraṇaḥ bhṛguḥ — Vyāghra, Āsāraṇa and Bhṛgu; anumlocā śaṅkhapālaḥ — Anumlocā and Śaṅkhapāla; nabhasya-ākhyam — the month named Nabhasya (Bhādra); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Vivasvān as the sun-god, Ugrasena as the Gandharva, Vyāghra as the Rākṣasa, Āsāraṇa as the Yakṣa, Bhṛgu as the sage, Anumlocā as the Apsarā and Śaṅkhapāla as the Nāga rule the month of Nabhasya.
pūṣā dhanañjayo vātaḥ
suṣeṇaḥ surucis tathā
ghṛtācī gautamaś ceti
tapo-māsaṁ nayanty amī
pūṣā dhanañjayaḥ vātaḥ — Pūṣā, Dhanañjaya and Vāta; suṣeṇaḥ suruciḥ — Suṣeṇa and Suruci; tathā — also; ghṛtācī gautamaḥ — Ghṛtācī and Gautama; ca — as well; iti — thus; tapaḥ-māsam — the month of Tapas (Māgha); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Pūṣā as the sun-god, Dhanañjaya as the Nāga, Vāta as the Rākṣasa, Suṣeṇa as the Gandharva, Suruci as the Yakṣa, Ghṛtācī as the Apsarā and Gautama as the sage rule the month of Tapas.
ṛtur varcā bharadvājaḥ
parjanyaḥ senajit tathā
viśva airāvataś caiva
tapasyākhyaṁ nayanty amī
ṛtuḥ varcā bharadvājaḥ — Ṛtu, Varcā and Bharadvāja; parjanyaḥ senajit — Parjanya and Senajit; tathā — also; viśvaḥ airāvataḥ — Viśva and Airāvata; ca eva — also; tapasya-ākhyam — the month known as Tapasya (Phālguna); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Ṛtu as the Yakṣa, Varcā as the Rākṣasa, Bharadvāja as the sage, Parjanya as the sun-god, Senajit as the Apsarā, Viśva as the Gandharva and Airāvata as the Nāga rule the month known as Tapasya.
athāṁśuḥ kaśyapas tārkṣya
saho-māsaṁ nayanty amī
atha — then; aṁśuḥ kaśyapaḥ tārkṣyaḥ — Aṁśu, Kaśyapa and Tārkṣya; ṛtasenaḥ — Ṛtasena; tathā — and; urvaśī — Urvaśī; vidyucchatruḥ mahāśaṅkhaḥ — Vidyucchatru and Mahāśaṅkha; sahaḥ-māsam — the month of Sahas (Mārgaśīrṣa); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Aṁśu as the sun-god, Kaśyapa as the sage, Tārkṣya as the Yakṣa, Ṛtasena as the Gandharva, Urvaśī as the Apsarā, Vidyucchatru as the Rākṣasa and Mahāśaṅkha as the Nāga rule the month of Sahas.
bhagaḥ sphūrjo ’riṣṭanemir
ūrṇa āyuś ca pañcamaḥ
puṣya-māsaṁ nayanty amī
bhagaḥ sphūrjaḥ ariṣṭanemiḥ — Bhaga, Sphūrja and Ariṣṭanemi; ūrṇaḥ — Ūrṇa; āyuḥ — Āyur; ca — and; pañcamaḥ — the fifth associate; karkoṭakaḥ pūrvacittiḥ — Karkoṭaka and Pūrvacitti; puṣya-māsam — the month of Puṣya; nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Bhaga as the sun-god, Sphūrja as the Rākṣasa, Ariṣṭanemi as the Gandharva, Ūrṇa as the Yakṣa, Āyur as the sage, Karkoṭaka as the Nāga and Pūrvacitti as the Apsarā rule the month of Puṣya.
kambalaś ca tilottamā
brahmāpeto ’tha satajid
tvaṣṭā — Tvaṣṭā; ṛcīka-tanayaḥ — the son of Ṛcīka (Jamadagni); kambalaḥ — Kambala; ca — and; tilottamā — Tilottamā; brahmāpetaḥ — Brahmāpeta; atha — and; śatajit — Śatajit; dhṛtarāṣṭraḥ — Dhṛtarāṣṭra; iṣam-bharāḥ — the maintainers of the month Iṣa (Āśvina).
Tvaṣṭā as the sun-god; Jamadagni, the son of Ṛcīka, as the sage; Kambalāśva as the Nāga; Tilottamā as the Apsarā; Brahmāpeta as the Rākṣasa; Śatajit as the Yakṣa; and Dhṛtarāṣṭra as the Gandharva maintain the month of Iṣa.
viṣṇur aśvataro rambhā
sūryavarcāś ca satyajit
ūrja-māsaṁ nayanty amī
viṣṇuḥ aśvataraḥ rambhā — Viṣṇu, Aśvatara and Rambhā; sūryavarcāḥ — Sūryavarcā; ca — and; satyajit — Satyajit; viśvāmitraḥ makhāpetaḥ — Viśvāmitra and Makhāpeta; ūrja-māsam — the month of Ūrja (Kārttika); nayanti — rule; amī — these.
Viṣṇu as the sun-god, Aśvatara as the Nāga, Rambhā as the Apsarā, Sūryavarcā as the Gandharva, Satyajit as the Yakṣa, Viśvāmitra as the sage and Makhāpeta as the Rākṣasa rule the month of Ūrja.
etā bhagavato viṣṇor
smaratāṁ sandhyayor nṝṇāṁ
haranty aṁho dine dine
etāḥ — these; bhagavataḥ — of the Personality of Godhead; viṣṇoḥ — Lord Viṣṇu; ādityasya — of the sun-god; vibhūtayaḥ — the opulences; smaratām — for those who remember; sandhyayoḥ — at the junctures of the day; nṝṇām — for such men; haranti — they take away; aṁhaḥ — sinful reactions; dine dine — day after day.
All these personalities are the opulent expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, in the form of the sun-god. These deities take away all the sinful reactions of those who remember them each day at dawn and sunset.
dvādaśasv api māseṣu
devo ’sau ṣaḍbhir asya vai
caran samantāt tanute
paratreha ca san-matim
dvādaśasu — in each of the twelve; api — indeed; māseṣu — months; devaḥ — the lord; asau — this; ṣaḍbhiḥ — with his six types of associates; asya — for the population of this universe; vai — certainly; caran — traveling; samantāt — in all directions; tanute — spreads; paratra — in the next life; iha — in this life; ca — and; sat-matim — pure consciousness.
Thus, throughout the twelve months, the lord of the sun travels in all directions with his six types of associates, disseminating among the inhabitants of this universe purity of consciousness for both this life and the next.
ṛṣayaḥ saṁstuvanty amum
gandharvās taṁ pragāyanti
nṛtyanty apsaraso ’grataḥ
unnahyanti rathaṁ nāgā
codayanti rathaṁ pṛṣṭhe
sāma-ṛk-yajurbhiḥ — with the hymns of the Sāma, Ṛg and Yajur Vedas; tat-liṅgaiḥ — which reveal the sun; ṛṣayaḥ — the sages; saṁstuvanti — glorify; amum — him; gandharvāḥ — the Gandharvas; tam — about him; pragāyanti — sing loudly; nṛtyanti — dance; apsarasaḥ — the Apsarās; agrataḥ — in front; unnahyanti — bind up; ratham — the chariot; nāgāḥ — the Nāgas; grāmaṇyaḥ — the Yakṣas; ratha-yojakāḥ — those who harness the horses to the chariot; codayanti — drive; ratham — the chariot; pṛṣṭhe — from the rear; nairṛtāḥ — the Rākṣasas; bala-śālinaḥ — strong.
While the sages glorify the sun-god with the hymns of the Sāma, Ṛg and Yajur Vedas, which reveal his identity, the Gandharvas also sing his praises and the Apsarās dance before his chariot. The Nāgas arrange the chariot ropes and the Yakṣas harness the horses to the chariot, while the powerful Rākṣasas push from behind.
ṣaṣṭir brahmarṣayo ’malāḥ
purato ’bhimukhaṁ yānti
stuvanti stutibhir vibhum
vālakhilyāḥ — the Vālakhilyas; sahasrāṇi — thousands; ṣaṣṭiḥ — sixty; brahma-ṛṣayaḥ — great sages among the brāhmaṇas; amalāḥ — pure; purataḥ — in front; abhimukham — facing the chariot; yānti — they go; stuvanti — they offer praise; stutibhiḥ — with Vedic prayers; vibhum — to the almighty lord.
Facing the chariot, the sixty thousand brāhmaṇa sages known as Vālakhilyas travel in front and offer prayers to the almighty sun-god with Vedic mantras.
evaṁ hy anādi-nidhano
bhagavān harir īśvaraḥ
kalpe kalpe svam ātmānaṁ
vyūhya lokān avaty ajaḥ
evam — thus; hi — indeed; anādi — without beginning; nidhanaḥ — or end; bhagavān — the Personality of Godhead; hariḥ — Lord Hari; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; kalpe kalpe — in each day of Brahmā; svam ātmānam — Himself; vyūhya — expanding into various forms; lokān — the worlds; avati — protects; ajaḥ — the unborn Lord.
For the protection of all the worlds, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Hari, who is unborn and without beginning or end, thus expands Himself during each day of Brahmā into these specific categories of His personal representations.