Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 11 Chapter 28
na praśaṁsen na garhayet
viśvam ekātmakaṁ paśyan
prakṛtyā puruṣeṇa ca
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; para — anyone else’s; svabhāva — nature; karmāṇi — and activities; na praśaṁset — one should not praise; na garhayet — one should not criticize; viśvam — the world; eka-ātmakam — based on one reality; paśyan — seeing; prakṛtyā — along with nature; puruṣeṇa — with the enjoying soul; ca — also.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: One should neither praise nor criticize the conditioned nature and activities of other persons. Rather, one should see this world as simply the combination of material nature and the enjoying souls, all based on the one Absolute Truth.
yaḥ praśaṁsati nindati
sa āśu bhraśyate svārthād
para — another’s; svabhāva — personality; karmāṇi — and work; yaḥ — who; praśaṁsati — praises; nindati — criticizes; saḥ — he; āśu — quickly; bhraśyate — falls down; sva-arthāt — from his own interest; asati — in unreality; abhiniveśataḥ — because of becoming entangled.
Whoever indulges in praising or criticizing the qualities and behavior of others will quickly become deviated from his own best interest by his entanglement in illusory dualities.
māyāṁ prāpnoti mṛtyuṁ vā
tadvan nānārtha-dṛk pumān
taijase — when the senses, which are the products of false ego in the mode of passion; nidrayā — by sleep; āpanne — are overcome; piṇḍa — in the shell of the material body; sthaḥ — (the soul) who is situated; naṣṭa-cetanaḥ — having lost his consciousness; māyām — the illusion of dreaming; prāpnoti — he experiences; mṛtyum — the deathlike condition of deep sleep; vā — or; tadvat — in the same way; nānā-artha — in terms of material varieties; dṛk — who sees; pumān — a person.
Just as the embodied spirit soul loses external consciousness when his senses are overcome by the illusion of dreaming or the deathlike state of deep sleep, so a person experiencing material duality must encounter illusion and death.
kiṁ bhadraṁ kim abhadraṁ vā
vācoditaṁ tad anṛtaṁ
manasā dhyātam eva ca
kim — what; bhadram — good; kim — what; abhadram — bad; vā — or; dvaitasya — of this duality; avastunaḥ — insubstantial; kiyat — how much; vācā — by words; uditam — generated; tat — that; anṛtam — false; manasā — by the mind; dhyātam — meditated upon; eva — indeed; ca — and.
That which is expressed by material words or meditated upon by the material mind is not ultimate truth. What, therefore, is actually good or bad within this insubstantial world of duality, and how can the extent of such good and bad be measured?
hy asanto ’py artha-kāriṇaḥ
evaṁ dehādayo bhāvā
yacchanty ā-mṛtyuto bhayam
chāyā — shadows; pratyāhvaya — echoes; ābhāsāḥ — and false appearances; hi — indeed; asantaḥ — nonexistent; api — although; artha — ideas; kāriṇaḥ — creating; evam — in the same way; deha-ādayaḥ — the body and so on; bhāvāḥ — material conceptions; yacchanti — they give; ā-mṛtyutaḥ — up to the point of death; bhayam — fear.
Although shadows, echoes and mirages are only illusory reflections of real things, such reflections do cause a semblance of meaningful or comprehensible perception. In the same way, although the identification of the conditioned soul with the material body, mind and ego is illusory, this identification generates fear within him even up to the moment of death.
ātmaiva tad idaṁ viśvaṁ
sṛjyate sṛjati prabhuḥ
trāyate trāti viśvātmā
tasmān na hy ātmano ’nyasmād
anyo bhāvo nirūpitaḥ
nirūpite ’yaṁ tri-vidhā
nirmūlā bhātir ātmani
idaṁ guṇa-mayaṁ viddhi
tri-vidhaṁ māyayā kṛtam
ātmā — the Supreme Soul; eva — alone; tat idam — this; viśvam — universe; sṛjyate — is created; sṛjati — and creates; prabhuḥ — the Supreme Lord; trāyate — is protected; trāti — protects; viśva-ātmā — the Soul of all that be; hriyate — is withdrawn; harati — withdraws; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; tasmāt — than Him; na — no; hi — indeed; ātmanaḥ — than the Soul; anyasmāt — who is distinct; anyaḥ — other; bhāvaḥ — entity; nirūpitaḥ — is ascertained; nirūpite — thus established; ayam — this; tri-vidhā — threefold; nirmūlā — without basis; bhātiḥ — appearance; ātmani — within the Supersoul; idam — this; guṇa-mayam — consisting of the modes of nature; viddhi — you should know; tri-vidham — threefold; māyayā — by the illusory energy; kṛtam — created.
The Supersoul alone is the ultimate controller and creator of this world, and thus He alone is also the created. Similarly, the Soul of all existence Himself both maintains and is maintained, withdraws and is withdrawn. No other entity can be properly ascertained as separate from Him, the Supreme Soul, who nonetheless is distinct from everything and everyone else. The appearance of the threefold material nature, which is perceived within Him, has no actual basis. Rather, you should understand that this material nature, composed of the three modes, is simply the product of His illusory potency.
etad vidvān mad-uditaṁ
na nindati na ca stauti
loke carati sūrya-vat
etat — this; vidvān — one who knows; mat — by Me; uditam — described; jñāna — in knowledge; vijñāna — and realization; naipuṇam — the status of being fixed; na nindati — does not criticize; na ca — nor; stauti — praise; loke — within the world; carati — he wanders; sūrya-vat — just like the sun.
One who has properly understood the process of becoming firmly fixed in theoretical and realized knowledge, as described herein by Me, does not indulge in material criticism or praise. Like the sun, he wanders freely throughout this world.
ādy-antavad asaj jñātvā
niḥsaṅgo vicared iha
pratyakṣeṇa — by direct perception; anumānena — by logical deduction; nigamena — by the statements of scripture; ātma-saṁvidā — and by one’s own realization; ādi-anta-vat — having a beginning and an end; asat — unreal; jñātvā — knowing; niḥsaṅgaḥ — free from attachment; vicaret — one should move about; iha — in this world.
By direct perception, logical deduction, scriptural testimony and personal realization, one should know that this world has a beginning and an end and so is not the ultimate reality. Thus one should live in this world without attachment.
naivātmano na dehasya
kasya syād upalabhyate
śrī-uddhavaḥ uvāca — Śrī Uddhava said; na — there is not; eva — indeed; ātmanaḥ — of the self; na — nor; dehasya — of the body; saṁsṛtiḥ — material existence; draṣṭṛ-dṛśyayoḥ — of the seer or the seen; anātma — of that which is not spirit; sva-dṛśoḥ — or of him who has innate knowledge; īśa — O Lord; kasya — of whom; syāt — may be; upalabhyate — which is experienced.
Śrī Uddhava said: My dear Lord, it is not possible for this material existence to be the experience of either the soul, who is the seer, or of the body, which is the seen object. On the one hand, the spirit soul is innately endowed with perfect knowledge, and on the other hand, the material body is not a conscious, living entity. To whom, then, does this experience of material existence pertain?
ātmāvyayo ’guṇaḥ śuddhaḥ
agni-vad dāru-vad acid
dehaḥ kasyeha saṁsṛtiḥ
ātmā — the spirit soul; avyayaḥ — inexhaustible; aguṇaḥ — transcendental to the material modes; śuddhaḥ — pure; svayam-jyotiḥ — self-luminous; anāvṛtaḥ — uncovered; agni-vat — like fire; dāru-vat — like firewood; acit — nonliving; dehaḥ — the material body; kasya — of which; iha — in this world; saṁsṛtiḥ — the experience of material life.
The spirit soul is inexhaustible, transcendental, pure, self-luminous and never covered by anything material. It is like fire. But the nonliving material body, like firewood, is dull and unaware. So in this world, who is it that actually undergoes the experience of material life?
saṁsāraḥ phalavāṁs tāvad
apārtho ’py avivekinaḥ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; yāvat — as long as; deha — by the body; indriya — senses; prāṇaiḥ — and vital force; ātmanaḥ — of the soul; sannikarṣaṇam — attraction; saṁsāraḥ — material existence; phala-vān — fruitful; tāvat — for that duration; apārthaḥ — meaningless; api — although; avivekinaḥ — for the undiscriminating.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: As long as the foolish spirit soul remains attracted to the material body, senses and vital force, his material existence continues to flourish, although it is ultimately meaningless.
arthe hy avidyamāne ’pi
saṁsṛtir na nivartate
dhyāyato viṣayān asya
svapne ’narthāgamo yathā
arthe — real cause; hi — certainly; avidyamāne — not existing; api — although; saṁsṛtiḥ — the material existential condition; na — not; nivartate — does cease; dhyāyataḥ — contemplating; viṣayān — objects of the senses; asya — of the living entity; svapne — in a dream; anartha — of disadvantages; āgamaḥ — arrival; yathā — like.
Actually, the living entity is transcendental to material existence. But because of his mentality of lording it over material nature, his material existential condition does not cease, and, just as in a dream, he is affected by all sorts of disadvantages.
yathā hy apratibuddhasya
sa eva pratibuddhasya
na vai mohāya kalpate
yathā — as; hi — indeed; apratibuddhasya — for one who has not awakened; prasvāpaḥ — sleep; bahu — many; anartha — undesirable experiences; bhṛt — presenting; saḥ — that same dream; eva — indeed; pratibuddhasya — for one who has awakened; na — not; vai — certainly; mohāya — confusion; kalpate — generates.
Although while dreaming a person experiences many undesirable things, upon awakening he is no longer confused by the dream experiences.
janma-mṛtyuś ca nātmanaḥ
śoka — lamentation; harṣa — elation; bhaya — fear; krodha — anger; lobha — greed; moha — confusion; spṛhā — hankering; ādayaḥ — and so on; ahaṅkārasya — of false ego; dṛśyante — they appear; janma — birth; mṛtyuḥ — death; ca — and; na — not; ātmanaḥ — of the soul.
Lamentation, elation, fear, anger, greed, confusion and hankering, as well as birth and death, are experiences of the false ego and not of the pure soul.
jīvo ’ntar-ātmā guṇa-karma-mūrtiḥ
sūtraṁ mahān ity urudheva gītaḥ
saṁsāra ādhāvati kāla-tantraḥ
deha — with the material body; indriya — senses; prāṇa — life air; manaḥ — and mind; abhimānaḥ — who is falsely identifying; jīvaḥ — the living entity; antaḥ — situated within; ātmā — the soul; guṇa — according to his material qualities; karma — and work; mūrtiḥ — assuming his form; sūtram — the sūtra-tattva; mahān — the original form of material nature; iti — thus; urudhā — in many different ways; iva — indeed; gītaḥ — described; saṁsāre — in material life; ādhāvati — he runs about; kāla — of time; tantraḥ — under the strict control.
The living entity who falsely identifies with his body, senses, life air and mind, and who dwells within these coverings, assumes the form of his own materially conditioned qualities and work. He is designated variously in relation to the total material energy, and thus, under the strict control of supreme time, he is forced to run here and there within material existence.
amūlam etad bahu-rūpa-rūpitaṁ
cchittvā munir gāṁ vicaraty atṛṣṇaḥ
amūlam — without foundation; etat — this (false ego); bahu-rūpa — in many forms; rūpitam — ascertained; manaḥ — of the mind; vacaḥ — speech; prāṇa — the life air; śarīra — and the gross body; karma — the functions; jñāna — of transcendental knowledge; asinā — by the sword; upāsanayā — through devotional worship (of the spiritual master); śitena — which has been sharpened; chittvā — cutting off; muniḥ — a sober sage; gām — this earth; vicarati — wanders; atṛṣṇaḥ — free from material desires.
Although the false ego has no factual basis, it is perceived in many forms — as the functions of the mind, speech, life air and bodily faculties. But with the sword of transcendental knowledge, sharpened by worship of a bona fide spiritual master, a sober sage will cut off this false identification and live in this world free from all material attachment.
jñānaṁ viveko nigamas tapaś ca
pratyakṣam aitihyam athānumānam
ādy-antayor asya yad eva kevalaṁ
kālaś ca hetuś ca tad eva madhye
jñānam — transcendental knowledge; vivekaḥ — discrimination; nigamaḥ — the scripture; tapaḥ — austerity; ca — and; pratyakṣam — direct perception; aitihyam — the historical accounts of the Purāṇas; atha — and; anumānam — logic; ādi — in the beginning; antayoḥ — and the end; asya — of this creation; yat — which; eva — indeed; kevalam — alone; kālaḥ — the controlling factor of time; ca — and; hetuḥ — the ultimate cause; ca — and; tat — that; eva — alone; madhye — in the middle.
Real spiritual knowledge is based on the discrimination of spirit from matter, and it is cultivated by scriptural evidence, austerity, direct perception, reception of the Purāṇas’ historical narrations, and logical inference. The Absolute Truth, which alone was present before the creation of the universe and which alone will remain after its destruction, is also the time factor and the ultimate cause. Even in the middle stage of this creation’s existence, the Absolute Truth alone is the actual reality.
yathā hiraṇyaṁ sv-akṛtaṁ purastāt
paścāc ca sarvasya hiraṇ-mayasya
tad eva madhye vyavahāryamāṇaṁ
nānāpadeśair aham asya tadvat
yathā — just as; hiraṇyam — gold; su-akṛtam — unmanifest as manufactured products; purastāt — previously; paścāt — subsequently; ca — and; sarvasya — of everything; hiraṇ-mayasya — that is made of gold; tat — that gold; eva — alone; madhye — in the middle; vyavahāryamāṇam — being utilized; nānā — various; apadeśaiḥ — in terms of designations; aham — I; asya — of this created universe; tadvat — in the same way.
Gold alone is present before its manufacture into gold products, the gold alone remains after the products’ destruction, and the gold alone is the essential reality while it is being utilized under various designations. Similarly, I alone exist before the creation of this universe, after its destruction and during its maintenance.
vijñānam etat triy-avastham aṅga
samanvayena vyatirekataś ca
yenaiva turyeṇa tad eva satyam
vijñānam — (the mind, whose symptom is) full knowledge; etat — this; tri-avastham — existing in three conditions (wakeful consciousness, sleep and deep sleep); aṅga — My dear Uddhava; guṇa-trayam — manifesting through the three modes of nature; kāraṇa — as the subtle cause (adhyātma); kārya — the gross product (adhibhūta); kartṛ — and the producer (adhidaiva); samanvayena — in each of them, one after another; vyatirekataḥ — as separate; ca — and; yena — by which; eva — indeed; turyeṇa — fourth factor; tat — that; eva — alone; satyam — is the Absolute Truth.
The material mind manifests in three phases of consciousness — wakefulness, sleep and deep sleep — which are products of the three modes of nature. The mind further appears in three different roles — the perceiver, the perceived and the regulator of perception. Thus the mind is manifested variously throughout these threefold designations. But it is the fourth factor, existing separately from all this, that alone constitutes the Absolute Truth.
na yat purastād uta yan na paścān
madhye ca tan na vyapadeśa-mātram
bhūtaṁ prasiddhaṁ ca pareṇa yad yat
tad eva tat syād iti me manīṣā
na — does not exist; yat — that which; purastāt — previously; uta — nor; yat — which; na — not; paścāt — afterward; madhye — in between; ca — and; tat — that; na — does not exist; vyapadeśa-mātram — merely a designation; bhūtam — created; prasiddham — made known; ca — and; pareṇa — by another; yat yat — whatever; tat — that; eva — only; tat — that other; syāt — actually is; iti — thus; me — My; manīṣā — idea.
That which did not exist in the past and will not exist in the future also has no existence of its own for the period of its duration, but is only a superficial designation. In My opinion, whatever is created and revealed by something else is ultimately only that other thing.
avidyamāno ’py avabhāsate yo
vaikāriko rājasa-sarga eṣaḥ
brahma svayaṁ jyotir ato vibhāti
avidyamānaḥ — actually not existing; api — although; avabhāsate — appears; yaḥ — which; vaikārikaḥ — manifestation of transformations; rājasa — of the mode of passion; sargaḥ — the creation; eṣaḥ — this; brahma — the Absolute Truth (on the other hand); svayam — established in Himself; jyotiḥ — luminous; ataḥ — therefore; vibhāti — becomes manifest; brahma — the Absolute Truth; indriya — of the senses; artha — their objects; ātma — the mind; vikāra — and of the transformations of the five gross elements; citram — as the variety.
Although thus not existing in reality, this manifestation of transformations created from the mode of passion appears real because the self-manifested, self-luminous Absolute Truth exhibits Himself in the form of the material variety of the senses, the sense objects, the mind and the elements of physical nature.
evaṁ sphuṭaṁ brahma-viveka-hetubhiḥ
evam — in this way; sphuṭam — clearly; brahma — of the Absolute Truth; viveka-hetubhiḥ — by discriminating, logical arguments; para — of misidentification with other conceptions; apavādena — by refutation; viśāradena — expert; chittvā — cutting off; ātma — regarding the identity of the self; sandeham — doubt; upārameta — one should desist; sva-ānanda — in his own transcendental ecstasy; tuṣṭaḥ — satisfied; akhila — from all; kāmukebhyaḥ — things of lust.
Thus clearly understanding by discriminating logic the unique position of the Absolute Truth, one should expertly refute one’s misidentification with matter and cut to pieces all doubts about the identity of the self. Becoming satisfied in the soul’s natural ecstasy, one should desist from all lusty engagements of the material senses.
nātmā vapuḥ pārthivam indriyāṇi
devā hy asur vāyur jalam hutāśaḥ
mano ’nna-mātraṁ dhiṣaṇā ca sattvam
ahaṅkṛtiḥ khaṁ kṣitir artha-sāmyam
na — is not; ātmā — the self; vapuḥ — the body; pārthivam — made of earth; indriyāṇi — the senses; devāḥ — the presiding demigods; hi — indeed; asuḥ — the living air; vāyuḥ — the external air; jalam — water; huta-āśaḥ — fire; manaḥ — the mind; anna-mātram — being only matter; dhiṣaṇā — intelligence; ca — and; sattvam — material consciousness; ahaṅkṛtiḥ — false ego; kham — the ether; kṣitiḥ — earth; artha — the objects of sense perception; sāmyam — and the original, undifferentiated state of nature.
The material body made of earth is not the true self; nor are the senses, their presiding demigods or the air of life; nor is the external air, water or fire or one’s mind. All these are simply matter. Similarly, neither one’s intelligence, material consciousness nor ego, nor the elements of ether or earth, nor the objects of sense perception, nor even the primeval state of material equilibrium can be considered the actual identity of the soul.
samāhitaiḥ kaḥ karaṇair guṇātmabhir
guṇo bhaven mat-suvivikta-dhāmnaḥ
vikṣipyamāṇair uta kiṁ nu dūṣaṇaṁ
ghanair upetair vigatai raveḥ kim
samāhitaiḥ — which are perfectly concentrated in meditation; kaḥ — what; karaṇaiḥ — by senses; guṇa-ātmabhiḥ — which are basically manifestations of the modes of nature; guṇaḥ — virtue; bhavet — will be; mat — My; su-vivikta — who has properly ascertained; dhāmnaḥ — the personal identity; vikṣipyamāṇaiḥ — which are being agitated; uta — on the other hand; kim — what; nu — indeed; dūṣaṇam — blame; ghanaiḥ — by clouds; upetaiḥ — which have come; vigataiḥ — or which have gone away; raveḥ — of the sun; kim — what.
For one who has properly realized My personal identity as the Supreme Godhead, what credit is there if his senses — mere products of the material modes — are perfectly concentrated in meditation? And on the other hand, what blame is incurred if his senses happen to become agitated? Indeed, what does it mean to the sun if the clouds come and go?
yathā nabho vāyv-analāmbu-bhū-guṇair
gatāgatair vartu-guṇair na sajjate
ahaṁ-mateḥ saṁsṛti-hetubhiḥ param
yathā — just as; nabhaḥ — the sky; vāyu — of air; anala — fire; ambu — water; bhū — and earth; guṇaiḥ — by the qualities; gata-āgataiḥ — which come and go; vā — or; ṛtu-guṇaiḥ — by the qualities of the seasons (such as heat and cold); na sajjate — is not entangled; tathā — similarly; akṣaram — the Absolute Truth; sattva-rajaḥ-tamaḥ — of the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance; malaiḥ — by the contaminations; aham-mateḥ — of the conception of false ego; saṁsṛti-hetubhiḥ — by the causes of material existence; param — the Supreme.
The sky may display the various qualities of the air, fire, water and earth that pass through it, as well as such qualities as heat and cold, which continually come and go with the seasons. Yet the sky is never entangled with any of these qualities. Similarly, the Supreme Absolute Truth is never entangled with the contaminations of goodness, passion and ignorance, which cause the material transformations of the false ego.
tathāpi saṅgaḥ parivarjanīyo
guṇeṣu māyā-raciteṣu tāvat
mad-bhakti-yogena dṛḍhena yāvad
rajo nirasyeta manaḥ-kaṣāyaḥ
tathā api — nevertheless; saṅgaḥ — association; parivarjanīyaḥ — must be rejected; guṇeṣu — with the modes; māyā-raciteṣu — produced by the illusory material energy; tāvat — for that long; mat-bhakti-yogena — by devotional service to Me; dṛḍhena — firm; yāvat — until; rajaḥ — passionate attraction; nirasyeta — is eliminated; manaḥ — of the mind; kaṣāyaḥ — the dirt.
Nevertheless, until by firmly practicing devotional service to Me one has completely eliminated from his mind all contamination of material passion, one must very carefully avoid associating with the material modes, which are produced by My illusory energy.
yathāmayo ’sādhu cikitsito nṛṇāṁ
punaḥ punaḥ santudati prarohan
evaṁ mano ’pakva-kaṣāya-karma
kuyoginaṁ vidhyati sarva-saṅgam
yathā — as; āmayaḥ — a disease; asādhu — imperfectly; cikitsitaḥ — treated; nṛṇām — of men; punaḥ punaḥ — again and again; santudati — gives distress; prarohan — rising up; evam — in the same way; manaḥ — the mind; apakva — unpurified; kaṣāya — of contamination; karma — from its activities; ku-yoginam — the imperfect yogī; vidhyati — torments; sarva-saṅgam — who is full of all kinds of material attachment.
Just as an improperly treated disease recurs and gives repeated distress to the patient, the mind that is not completely purified of its perverted tendencies will remain attached to material things and repeatedly torment the imperfect yogī.
kuyogino ye vihitāntarāyair
te prāktanābhyāsa-balena bhūyo
yuñjanti yogaṁ na tu karma-tantram
ku-yoginaḥ — those practitioners of yoga whose knowledge is not complete; ye — who; vihita — imposed; antarāyaiḥ — by obstructions; manuṣya-bhūtaiḥ — in the form of human beings (their relatives, disciples and so on); tridaśa — by the demigods; upasṛṣṭaiḥ — sent; te — they; prāktana — of the previous life; abhyāsa — of the accumulated practice; balena — on the strength; bhūyaḥ — once again; yuñjanti — engage; yogam — in spiritual practice; na — never; tu — however; karma-tantram — the entanglement of fruitive work.
Sometimes the progress of imperfect transcendentalists is checked by attachment to family members, disciples or others, who are sent by envious demigods for that purpose. But on the strength of their accumulated advancement, such imperfect transcendentalists will resume their practice of yoga in the next life. They will never again be trapped in the network of fruitive work.
karoti karma kriyate ca jantuḥ
kenāpy asau codita ā-nipātāt
na tatra vidvān prakṛtau sthito ’pi
karoti — he performs; karma — material work; kriyate — is acted upon; ca — also; jantuḥ — the living entity; kena api — by some force or other; asau — he; coditaḥ — impelled; ā-nipātāt — up to the point of death; na — not; tatra — there; vidvān — a wise person; prakṛtau — in material nature; sthitaḥ — situated; api — even though; nivṛtta — having given up; tṛṣṇaḥ — material desire; sva — by his own; sukha — of happiness; anubhūtyā — experience.
An ordinary living entity performs material work and is transformed by the reaction to such work. Thus he is driven by various desires to continue working fruitively up to the very moment of his death. A wise person, however, having experienced his own constitutional bliss, gives up all material desires and does not engage in fruitive work.
tiṣṭhantam āsīnam uta vrajantaṁ
śayānam ukṣantam adantam annam
svabhāvam anyat kim apīhamānam
ātmānam ātma-stha-matir na veda
tiṣṭhantam — standing; āsīnam — sitting; uta — or; vrajantam — walking; śayānam — lying down; ukṣantam — urinating; adantam — eating; annam — food; sva-bhāvam — manifested from his conditioned nature; anyat — other; kim api — whatever; īhamānam — executing; ātmānam — his own bodily self; ātma-stha — fixed in the true self; matiḥ — whose consciousness; na veda — he does not recognize.
The wise man, whose consciousness is fixed in the self, does not even notice his own bodily activities. While standing, sitting, walking, lying down, urinating, eating or performing other bodily functions, he understands that the body is acting according to its own nature.
yadi sma paśyaty asad-indriyārthaṁ
nānānumānena viruddham anyat
na manyate vastutayā manīṣī
svāpnaṁ yathotthāya tirodadhānam
yadi — if; sma — ever; paśyati — he sees; asat — impure; indriya-artham — sense objects; nānā — of their being based on duality; anumānena — by the logical inference; viruddham — refuted; anyat — separate from true reality; na manyate — does not accept; vastutayā — as real; manīṣī — the intelligent man; svāpnam — of a dream; yathā — as if; utthāya — waking; tirodadhānam — which is in the process of disappearing.
Although a self-realized soul may sometimes see an impure object or activity, he does not accept it as real. By logically understanding impure sense objects to be based on illusory material duality, the intelligent person sees them to be contrary to and distinct from reality, in the same way that a man awakening from sleep views his fading dream.
pūrvaṁ gṛhītaṁ guṇa-karma-citram
ajñānam ātmany aviviktam aṅga
nivartate tat punar īkṣayaiva
na gṛhyate nāpi visṛjya ātmā
pūrvam — previously; gṛhītam — accepted; guṇa — of the modes of nature; karma — by the activities; citram — made varied; ajñānam — the ignorance; ātmani — upon the soul; aviviktam — imposed as identical; aṅga — My dear Uddhava; nivartate — ceases; tat — that; punaḥ — again; īkṣayā — by knowledge; eva — alone; na gṛhyate — is not accepted; na — nor; api — indeed; visṛjya — being rejected; ātmā — the soul.
Material nescience, which expands into many varieties by the activities of the modes of nature, is wrongly accepted by the conditioned soul to be identical with the self. But through the cultivation of spiritual knowledge, My dear Uddhava, this same nescience fades away at the time of liberation. The eternal self, on the other hand, is never assumed and never abandoned.
yathā hi bhānor udayo nṛ-cakṣuṣāṁ
tamo nihanyān na tu sad vidhatte
evaṁ samīkṣā nipuṇā satī me
hanyāt tamisraṁ puruṣasya buddheḥ
yathā — as; hi — indeed; bhānoḥ — of the sun; udayaḥ — the rising; nṛ — human; cakṣuṣām — of eyes; tamaḥ — the darkness; nihanyāt — destroys; na — not; tu — but; sat — objects that exist; vidhatte — creates; evam — similarly; samīkṣā — full realization; nipuṇā — potent; satī — true; me — of Me; hanyāt — destroys; tamisram — the darkness; puruṣasya — of a person; buddheḥ — in the intelligence.
When the sun rises it destroys the darkness covering men’s eyes, but it does not create the objects they then see before them, which in fact were existing all along. Similarly, potent and factual realization of Me will destroy the darkness covering a person’s true consciousness.
eṣa svayaṁ-jyotir ajo ’prameyo
eko ’dvitīyo vacasāṁ virāme
yeneṣitā vāg-asavaś caranti
eṣaḥ — this (Supersoul); svayam-jyotiḥ — self-luminous; ajaḥ — unborn; aprameyaḥ — impossible to measure; mahā-anubhūtiḥ — full of transcendental consciousness; sakala-anubhūtiḥ — aware of everything; ekaḥ — one; advitīyaḥ — without a second; vacasām virāme — (realized only) when material words cease; yena — by whom; īṣitāḥ — impelled; vāk — speech; asavaḥ — and the life airs; caranti — move.
The Supreme Lord is self-luminous, unborn and immeasurable. He is pure transcendental consciousness and perceives everything. One without a second, He is realized only after ordinary words cease. By Him the power of speech and the life airs are set into motion.
yad vikalpas tu kevale
ātman ṛte svam ātmānam
avalambo na yasya hi
etāvān — whatever; ātma — of the self; sammohaḥ — delusion; yat — which; vikalpaḥ — idea of duality; tu — but; kevale — in the unique; ātman — in the self; ṛte — without; svam — that very; ātmānam — self; avalambaḥ — basis; na — there is not; yasya — of which (duality); hi — indeed.
Whatever apparent duality is perceived in the self is simply the confusion of the mind. Indeed, such supposed duality has no basis to rest upon apart from one’s own soul.
yan nāmākṛtibhir grāhyaṁ
vyarthenāpy artha-vādo ’yaṁ
yat — which; nāma — by names; ākṛtibhiḥ — and forms; grāhyam — perceivable; pañca-varṇam — consisting of the five material elements; abādhitam — undeniable; vyarthena — in vain; api — indeed; artha-vādaḥ — the imaginative interpretation; ayam — this; dvayam — duality; paṇḍita-māninām — of so-called scholars.
The duality of the five material elements is perceived only in terms of names and forms. Those who say this duality is real are pseudoscholars vainly proposing fanciful theories without basis in fact.
yuñjataḥ kāya utthitaiḥ
tatrāyaṁ vihito vidhiḥ
yoginaḥ — of the yogī; apakva-yogasya — who is immature in the practice of yoga; yuñjataḥ — trying to engage; kāyaḥ — the body; utthitaiḥ — which have arisen; upasargaiḥ — by disturbances; vihanyeta — may be frustrated; tatra — in that connection; ayam — this; vihitaḥ — is prescribed; vidhiḥ — recommended process.
The physical body of the endeavoring yogī who is not yet mature in his practice may sometimes be overcome by various disturbances. Therefore the following process is recommended.
yoga-dhāraṇayā — by yogic meditation; kāṁścit — some disturbances; āsanaiḥ — by prescribed postures; dhāraṇā-anvitaiḥ — together with meditation on controlled breathing; tapaḥ — by special austerities; mantra — magical chants; auṣadhaiḥ — and medicinal herbs; kāṁścit — some; upasargān — obstructions; vinirdahet — can be eradicated.
Some of these obstructions may be counteracted by yogic meditation or by sitting postures, practiced together with concentration on controlled breathing, and others may be counteracted by special austerities, mantras or medicinal herbs.
hanyād aśubha-dān śanaiḥ
kāṁścit — some; mama — of Me; anudhyānena — by constant thought; nāma — of the holy names; saṅkīṛtana — by the loud chanting; ādibhiḥ — and so on; yoga-īśvara — of the great masters of yoga; anuvṛttyā — by following in the footsteps; vā — or; hanyāt — may be destroyed; aśubha-dān — (the obstructions) that create inauspicious situations; śanaiḥ — gradually.
These inauspicious disturbances can be gradually removed by constant remembrance of Me, by congregational hearing and chanting of My holy names, or by following in the footsteps of the great masters of yoga.
kecid deham imaṁ dhīrāḥ
su-kalpaṁ vayasi sthiram
atha yuñjanti siddhaye
kecit — some; deham — the material body; imam — this; dhīrāḥ — self-controlled; su-kalpam — fit; vayasi — in youth; sthiram — fixed; vidhāya — making; vividha — by various; upāyaiḥ — means; atha — thus; yuñjanti — they engage; siddhaye — for the achievement of material perfections.
By various methods, some yogīs free the body from disease and old age and keep it perpetually youthful. Thus they engage in yoga for the purpose of achieving material mystic perfections.
na hi tat kuśalādṛtyaṁ
tad-āyāso hy apārthakaḥ
na — not; hi — indeed; tat — that; kuśala — by those expert in transcendental knowledge; ādṛtyam — to be respected; tat — of that; āyāsaḥ — the endeavor; hi — certainly; apārthakaḥ — useless; anta-vattvāt — because of being subject to destruction; śarīrasya — on the part of the material body; phalasya — of the fruit; iva — just as; vanaspateḥ — of a tree.
This mystic bodily perfection is not valued very highly by those expert in transcendental knowledge. Indeed, they consider endeavor for such perfection useless, since the soul, like a tree, is permanent, but the body, like a tree’s fruit, is subject to destruction.
yogaṁ niṣevato nityaṁ
kāyaś cet kalpatām iyāt
tac chraddadhyān na matimān
yogam utsṛjya mat-paraḥ
yogam — the practice of yoga; niṣevataḥ — of one executing; nityam — regularly; kāyaḥ — the material body; cet — even if; kalpatām — fitness; iyāt — attains; tat — in that; śraddadhyāt — take faith; na — does not; mati-mān — who is intelligent; yogam — the system of mystic yoga; utsṛjya — giving up; mat-paraḥ — the devotee dedicated to Me.
Although the physical body may be improved by various processes of yoga, an intelligent person who has dedicated his life to Me does not place his faith in the prospect of perfecting his physical body through yoga, and in fact he gives up such procedures.
yoga-caryām imāṁ yogī
yoga-caryām — the prescribed process of yoga; imām — this; yogī — the practitioner; vicaran — executing; mat-apāśrayaḥ — having taken shelter of Me; na — not; antarāyaiḥ — by obstacles; vihanyeta — is checked; niḥspṛhaḥ — free from hankering; sva — of the soul; sukha — the happiness; anubhūḥ — experiencing within.
The yogī who has taken shelter of Me remains free from hankering because he experiences the happiness of the soul within. Thus while executing this process of yoga, he is never defeated by obstacles.