Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 11 Chapter 19
The Perfection of Spiritual Knowledge
māyā-mātram idaṁ jñātvā
jñānaṁ ca mayi sannyaset
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; yaḥ — one who; vidyā — with realized knowledge; śruta — and preliminary scriptural knowledge; sampannaḥ — endowed; ātma-vān — self-realized; na — not; ānumānikaḥ — engaged in impersonal speculation; māyā — illusion; mātram — only; idam — this universe; jñātvā — knowing; jñānam — such knowledge and the means of achieving it; ca — also; mayi — to Me; sannyaset — one should surrender.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: A self-realized person who has cultivated scriptural knowledge up to the point of enlightenment and who is free from impersonal speculation, understanding the material universe to be simply illusion, should surrender unto Me both that knowledge and the means by which he achieved it.
jñāninas tv aham eveṣṭaḥ
svārtho hetuś ca sammataḥ
svargaś caivāpavargaś ca
nānyo ’rtho mad-ṛte priyaḥ
jñāninaḥ — of a learned self-realized philosopher; tu — indeed; aham — I; eva — alone; iṣṭaḥ — the object of worship; sva-arthaḥ — the desired goal of life; hetuḥ — the means for achieving the goal of life; ca — also; sammataḥ — the settled conclusion; svargaḥ — the cause of all happiness in elevation to heaven; ca — also; eva — indeed; apavargaḥ — freedom from all unhappiness; ca — also; na — not; anyaḥ — any other; arthaḥ — purpose; mat — Me; rte — without; priyaḥ — dear object.
For learned, self-realized philosophers I am the only object of worship, the desired goal of life, the means for achieving that goal, and the settled conclusion of all knowledge. Indeed, because I am the cause of their happiness and their freedom from unhappiness, such learned souls have no effective purpose or dear object in life except Me.
padaṁ śreṣṭhaṁ vidur mama
jñānī priyatamo ’to me
jñānenāsau bibharti mām
jñāna — in scriptural knowledge; vijñāna — and realized spiritual understanding; saṁsiddhāḥ — completely perfected; padam — the lotus feet; śreṣṭham — the supreme object; viduḥ — they know; mama — My; jñānī — a learned transcendentalist; priya-tamaḥ — most dear; ataḥ — thus; me — to Me; jñānena — by spiritual knowledge; asau — that learned person; bibharti — maintains (in happiness); mām — Me.
Those who have achieved complete perfection through philosophical and realized knowledge recognize My lotus feet to be the supreme transcendental object. Thus the learned transcendentalist is most dear to Me, and by his perfect knowledge he maintains Me in happiness.
tapas tīrthaṁ japo dānaṁ
nālaṁ kurvanti tāṁ siddhiṁ
yā jñāna-kalayā kṛtā
tapaḥ — austerity; tīrtham — visiting holy places; japaḥ — offering silent prayers; dānam — charity; pavitrāṇi — pious activities; itarāṇi — other; ca — also; na — not; alam — up to the same standard; kurvanti — they award; tām — this; siddhim — perfection; yā — which; jñāna — of spiritual knowledge; kalayā — by a fraction; kṛtā — is awarded.
That perfection which is produced by a small fraction of spiritual knowledge cannot be duplicated by performing austerities, visiting holy places, chanting silent prayers, giving in charity or engaging in other pious activities.
tasmāj jñānena sahitaṁ
jñātvā svātmānam uddhava
bhaja māṁ bhakti-bhāvataḥ
tasmāt — therefore; jñānena — knowledge; sahitam — with; jñātvā — knowing; sva-ātmānam — your own self; uddhava — My dear Uddhava; jñāna — in Vedic knowledge; vijñāna — and clear realization; sampannaḥ — accomplished; bhaja — worship; mām — Me; bhakti — of loving devotion; bhāvataḥ — in the mood.
Therefore, My dear Uddhava, through knowledge you should understand your actual self. Then, advancing by clear realization of Vedic knowledge, you should worship Me in the mood of loving devotion.
mām iṣṭvātmānam ātmani
sarva-yajña-patiṁ māṁ vai
saṁsiddhiṁ munayo ’gaman
jñāna — of Vedic knowledge; vijñāna — and spiritual enlightenment; yajñena — by the sacrifice; mām — Me; iṣṭvā — having worshiped; ātmānam — the Supreme Lord within everyone’s heart; ātmani — within themselves; sarva — of all; yajña — sacrifices; patim — the Lord; mām — Me; vai — certainly; saṁsiddhim — the supreme perfection; munayaḥ — the sages; agaman — achieved.
Formerly, great sages, through the sacrifice of Vedic knowledge and spiritual enlightenment, worshiped Me within themselves, knowing Me to be the Supreme Lord of all sacrifice and the Supersoul in everyone’s heart. Thus coming to Me, these sages achieved the supreme perfection.
tvayy uddhavāśrayati yas tri-vidho vikāro
māyāntarāpatati nādy-apavargayor yat
janmādayo ’sya yad amī tava tasya kiṁ syur
ādy-antayor yad asato ’sti tad eva madhye
tvayi — in you; uddhava — O Uddhava; āśrayati — enters and remains; yaḥ — which; tri-vidhaḥ — in three divisions, according to the modes of nature; vikāraḥ — (the material body and mind, which are subject to) constant transformation; māyā — illusion; antarā — during the present; āpatati — suddenly appears; na — not; ādi — in the beginning; apavargayoḥ — nor at the end; yat — since; janma — birth; ādayaḥ — and so on (growth, procreation, maintenance, dwindling and death); asya — of the body; yat — when; amī — these; tava — in relation to you; tasya — in relation to your spiritual nature; kim — what relationship; syuḥ — could they have; ādi — in the beginning; antayoḥ — and in the end; yat — since; asataḥ — of that which does not exist; asti — exists; tat — that; eva — indeed; madhye — only in the middle, at present.
My dear Uddhava, the material body and mind, composed of the three modes of material nature, attach themselves to you, but they are actually illusion, since they appear only at the present, having no original or ultimate existence. How is it possible, therefore, that the various stages of the body, namely birth, growth, reproduction, maintenance, dwindling and death, can have any relation to your eternal self? These phases relate only to the material body, which previously did not exist and ultimately will not exist. The body exists merely at the present moment.
jñānaṁ viśuddhaṁ vipulaṁ yathaitad
ākhyāhi viśveśvara viśva-mūrte
tvad-bhakti-yogaṁ ca mahad-vimṛgyam
śrī-uddhavaḥ uvāca — Śrī Uddhava said; jñānam — knowledge; viśuddham — transcendental; vipulam — extensive; yathā — just as; etat — this; vairagya — detachment; vijñāna — and direct perception of the truth; yutam — including; purāṇam — traditional among great philosophers; ākhyāhi — please explain; viśva-īśvara — O Lord of the universe; viśva-mūrte — O form of the universe; tvat — unto You; bhakti-yogam — loving devotional service; ca — also; mahat — by great souls; vimṛgyam — sought after.
Śrī Uddhava said: O Lord of the universe! O form of the universe! Please explain to me that process of knowledge which automatically brings detachment and direct perception of the truth, which is transcendental, and which is traditional among great spiritual philosophers. This knowledge, sought by elevated personalities, describes loving devotional service unto Your Lordship.
paśyāmi nānyac charaṇaṁ tavāṅghri-
tāpa — by the miseries; trayeṇa — threefold; abhihatasya — of one overwhelmed; ghore — which is terrible; santapyamānasya — being tormented; bhava — of material existence; adhvani — in the path; īśa — O Lord; paśyāmi — I see; na — none; anyat — other; śaraṇam — shelter; tava — Your; aṅghri — lotus feet; dvandva — of the two; ātapatrāt — than the umbrella; amṛta — of nectar; abhivarṣāt — the shower.
My dear Lord, for one who is being tormented on the terrible path of birth and death and is constantly overwhelmed by the threefold miseries, I do not see any possible shelter other than Your two lotus feet, which are just like a refreshing umbrella that pours down showers of delicious nectar.
daṣṭaṁ janaṁ sampatitaṁ bile ’smin
vacobhir āsiñca mahānubhāva
daṣṭam — bitten; janam — the person; sampatitam — hopelessly fallen; bile — in the dark hole; asmin — this; kāla — of time; ahinā — by the serpent; kṣudra — insignificant; sukha — having happiness; uru — and tremendous; tarṣam — hankering; samuddhara — please uplift; enam — this person; kṛpayā — by Your causeless mercy; āpavargyaiḥ — that awaken one to liberation; vacobhiḥ — by Your words; āsiñca — please pour; mahā-anubhāva — O mighty Lord.
O almighty Lord, please be merciful and uplift this hopeless living entity who has fallen into the dark hole of material existence, where the snake of time has bitten him. In spite of such abominable conditions, this poor living entity has tremendous desire to relish the most insignificant material happiness. Please save me, my Lord, by pouring down the nectar of Your instructions, which awaken one to spiritual freedom.
ittham etat purā rājā
bhīṣmaṁ dharma-bhṛtāṁ varam
sarveṣāṁ no ’nuśṛṇvatām
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; ittham — thus; etat — this; purā — formerly; rājā — the King; bhīṣmam — unto Bhīṣma; dharma — of religious principles; bhṛtām — of the upholders; varam — unto the best; ajāta-śatruḥ — King Yudhiṣṭhira, who considered no one his enemy; papraccha — asked; sarveṣām — while all; naḥ — of us; anuśṛṇvatām — were carefully listening.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, just as you are now inquiring from Me, similarly, in the past King Yudhiṣṭhira, who considered no one his enemy, inquired from the greatest of the upholders of religious principles, Bhīṣma, while all of us were carefully listening.
nivṛtte bhārate yuddhe
śrutvā dharmān bahūn paścān
nivṛtte — when it ended; bhārate — of the descendants of Bhārata (the Kurus and Pāṇḍavas); yuddhe — the war; suhṛt — of his beloved well-wishers; nidhana — by the destruction; vihvalaḥ — overwhelmed; śrutvā — having heard; dharmān — religious principles; bahūn — many; paścāt — at last; mokṣa — concerning liberation; dharmān — religious principles; apṛcchata — asked about.
When the great Battle of Kurukṣetra had ended, King Yudhiṣṭhira was overwhelmed by the death of many beloved well-wishers, and thus, after listening to instructions about many religious principles, he finally inquired about the path of liberation.
tān ahaṁ te ’bhidhāsyāmi
tān — those; aham — I; te — unto you; abhidhāsyāmi — will describe; deva-vrata — of Bhīṣmadeva; mukhāt — from the mouth; śrutān — heard; jñāna — Vedic knowledge; vairāgya — detachment; vijñāna — self-realization; śraddhā — faith; bhakti — and devotional service; upa-bṛṁhitān — consisting of.
I will now speak unto you those religious principles of Vedic knowledge, detachment, self-realization, faith and devotional service that were heard directly from the mouth of Bhīṣmadeva.
navaikādaśa pañca trīn
bhāvān bhūteṣu yena vai
īkṣetāthaikam apy eṣu
taj jñānaṁ mama niścitam
nava — nine; ekādaśa — eleven; pañca — five; trīn — and three; bhāvān — elements; bhūteṣu — in all living beings (from Lord Brahmā down to the immovable living entities); yena — by which knowledge; vai — certainly; īkṣeta — one may see; atha — thus; ekam — one element; api — indeed; eṣu — within these twenty-eight elements; tat — that; jñānam — knowledge; mama — by Me; niścitam — is authorized.
I personally approve of that knowledge by which one sees the combination of nine, eleven, five and three elements in all living entities, and ultimately one element within those twenty-eight.
etad eva hi vijñānaṁ
na tathaikena yena yat
etat — this; eva — indeed; hi — actually; vijñānam — realized knowledge; na — not; tathā — in that way; ekena — by the one (Personality of Godhead); yena — by whom; yat — which (universe); sthiti — maintenance; utpatti — creation; apyayān — and annihilation; paśyet — one should see; bhāvānām — of all material elements; tri-guṇa — of the three modes of nature; ātmanām — composed.
When one no longer sees the twenty-eight separated material elements, which arise from a single cause, but rather sees the cause itself, the Personality of Godhead — at that time one’s direct experience is called vijñāna, or self-realization.
ādāv ante ca madhye ca
sṛjyāt sṛjyaṁ yad anviyāt
yac chiṣyeta tad eva sat
ādau — in the causal stage; ante — in the termination of the causal function; ca — also; madhye — in the phase of maintenance; ca — also; sṛjyāt — from one production; sṛjyam — to another production; yat — which; anviyāt — accompanies; punaḥ — again; tat — of all material phases; pratisaṅkrāme — in the annihilation; yat — which; śiṣyeta — remains; tat — that; eva — indeed; sat — the one eternal.
Commencement, termination and maintenance are the stages of material causation. That which consistently accompanies all these material phases from one creation to another and remains alone when all material phases are annihilated is the one eternal.
śrutiḥ pratyakṣam aitihyam
vikalpāt sa virajyate
śrutiḥ — Vedic knowledge; pratyakṣam — direct experience; aitihyam — traditional wisdom; anumānam — logical induction; catuṣṭayam — fourfold; pramāneṣu — among all types of evidence; anavasthānāt — due to the flickering nature; vikalpāt — from material diversity; saḥ — a person; virajyate — becomes detached.
From the four types of evidence — Vedic knowledge, direct experience, traditional wisdom and logical induction — one can understand the temporary, insubstantial situation of the material world, by which one becomes detached from the duality of this world.
vipaścin naśvaraṁ paśyed
adṛṣṭam api dṛṣṭa-vat
karmaṇām — of material activities; pariṇāmitvāt — because of being subject to transformation; ā — up to; viriñcyāt — the planet of Lord Brahmā; amaṅgalam — inauspicious unhappiness; vipaścit — an intelligent person; naśvaram — as temporary; paśyet — should see; adṛṣṭam — that which he has not yet experienced; api — indeed; dṛṣṭa-vat — just like that already experienced.
An intelligent person should see that any material activity is subject to constant transformation and that even on the planet of Lord Brahmā there is thus simply unhappiness. Indeed, a wise man can understand that just as all that he has seen is temporary, similarly, all things within the universe have a beginning and an end.
prīyamāṇāya te ’nagha
punaś ca kathayiṣyāmi
mad-bhakteḥ kāraṇaṁ paraṁ
bhakti-yogaḥ — devotional service to the Lord; purā — previously; eva — indeed; uktaḥ — explained; prīyamāṇāya — who has developed love; te — unto you; anagha — O sinless Uddhava; punaḥ — again; ca — also; kathayiṣyāmi — I will explain; mat — unto Me; bhakteḥ — of devotional service; kāraṇam — the actual means; param — supreme.
O sinless Uddhava, because you love Me, I previously explained to you the process of devotional service. Now I will again explain the supreme process for achieving loving service unto Me.
pariniṣṭhā ca pūjāyāṁ
stutibhiḥ stavanaṁ mama
mad-artheṣv aṅga-ceṣṭā ca
mayy arpaṇaṁ ca manasaḥ
bhogasya ca sukhasya ca
iṣṭaṁ dattaṁ hutaṁ japtaṁ
mad-arthaṁ yad vrataṁ tapaḥ
evaṁ dharmair manuṣyāṇām
mayi sañjāyate bhaktiḥ
ko ’nyo ’rtho ’syāvaśiṣyate
śraddhā — faith; amṛta — in the nectar; kathāyām — of narrations; me — about Me; śaśvat — always; mat — of Me; anukīrtanam — chanting the glories; pariniṣṭhā — fixed in attachment; ca — also; pūjāyām — in worshiping Me; stutibhiḥ — with beautiful hymns; stavanam — formal prayers; mama — in relation to Me; ādaraḥ — great respect; paricaryāyām — for My devotional service; sarva-aṅgaiḥ — with all the limbs of the body; abhivandanam — offering obeisances; mat — My; bhakta — of the devotees; pūjā — worship; abhyadhikā — preeminent; sarva-bhūteṣu — in all living entities; mat — of Me; matiḥ — consciousness; mat-artheṣu — for the sake of serving Me; aṅga-ceṣṭā — ordinary, bodily activities; ca — also; vacasā — with words; mat-guṇa — My transcendental qualities; īraṇam — declaring; mayi — in Me; arpaṇam — placing; ca — also; manasaḥ — of the mind; sarva-kāma — of all material desires; vivarjanam — rejection; mat-arthe — for My sake; artha — of wealth; parityāgaḥ — the giving up; bhogasya — of sense gratification; ca — also; sukhasya — of material happiness; ca — also; iṣṭam — desirable activities; dattam — charity; hutam — offering of sacrifice; japtam — chanting the holy names of the Lord; mat-artham — for the sake of achieving Me; yat — which; vratam — vows, such as fasting on Ekādaśī; tapaḥ — austerities; evam — thus; dharmaiḥ — by such religious principles; manuṣyānām — of human beings; uddhava — Mv dear Uddhava; ātma-nivedinām — who are surrendered souls; mayi — to Me; sañjāyate — arises; bhaktiḥ — loving devotion; kaḥ — what; anyaḥ — other; arthaḥ — purpose; asya — of My devotee; avaśiṣyate — remains.
Firm faith in the blissful narrations of My pastimes, constant chanting of My glories, unwavering attachment to ceremonial worship of Me, praising Me through beautiful hymns, great respect for My devotional service, offering obeisances with the entire body, performing first-class worship of My devotees, consciousness of Me in all living entities, offering of ordinary, bodily activities in My devotional service, use of words to describe My qualities, offering the mind to Me, rejection of all material desires, giving up wealth for My devotional service, renouncing material sense gratification and happiness, and performing all desirable activities such as charity, sacrifice, chanting, vows and austerities with the purpose of achieving Me — these constitute actual religious principles, by which those human beings who have actually surrendered themselves to Me automatically develop love for Me. What other purpose or goal could remain for My devotee?
yadātmany arpitaṁ cittaṁ
dharmaṁ jñānaṁ sa vairāgyam
yadā — when; ātmani — in the Supreme Lord; arpitam — fixed; cittam — consciousness; śāntam — peaceful; sattva — by the mode of goodness; upabṛṁhitam — strengthened; dharmam — religiosity; jñānam — knowledge; saḥ — he; vairāgyam — detachment; aiśvaryam — opulence; ca — also; abhipadyate — achieves.
When one’s peaceful consciousness, strengthened by the mode of goodness, is fixed on the Personality of Godhead, one achieves religiosity, knowledge, detachment and opulence.
yad arpitaṁ tad vikalpe
cittaṁ viddhi viparyayam
yat — when; arpitam — fixed; tat — this (consciousness); vikalpe — in material variety (the body, home, family, etc); indriyaiḥ — with the senses; paridhāvati — chasing all around; rajaḥ-valam — strengthened by the mode of passion; ca — also; asat — to that which has no permanent reality; niṣṭham — dedicated; cittam — consciousness; viddhi — you should understand; viparyayam — the opposite (of what was previously mentioned).
When consciousness is fixed on the material body, home and other, similar objects of sense gratification, one spends one’s life chasing after material objects with the help of the senses. Consciousness, thus powerfully affected by the mode of passion, becomes dedicated to impermanent things, and in this way irreligion, ignorance, attachment and wretchedness arise.
dharmo mad-bhakti-kṛt prokto
guṇesv asaṅgo vairāgyam
dharmaḥ — religion; mat — My; bhakti — devotional service; kṛt — producing; proktaḥ — it is declared; jñānam — knowledge; ca — also; aikātmya — the presence of the Supreme Soul; darśanam — seeing; guṇeṣu — in the objects of sense gratification; asaṅgaḥ — having no interest; vairāgyam — detachment; aiśvaryam — opulence; ca — also; aṇimā — the mystic perfection called aṇimā; ādayaḥ — and so forth.
Actual religious principles are stated to be those that lead one to My devotional service. Real knowledge is the awareness that reveals My all-pervading presence. Detachment is complete disinterest in the objects of material sense gratification, and opulence is the eight mystic perfections, such as aṇimā-siddhi.
yamaḥ kati-vidhaḥ prokto
kaḥ śamaḥ ko damaḥ kṛṣṇa
kā titikṣā dhṛtiḥ prabho
kiṁ dānaṁ kiṁ tapaḥ śauryaṁ
kim satyam ṛtam ucyate
kas tyāgaḥ kiṁ dhanaṁ ceṣṭaṁ
ko yajñaḥ kā ca dakṣiṇā
puṁsaḥ kiṁ svid balaṁ śrīman
bhago lābhaś ca keśava
kā vidyā hrīḥ parā kā śrīḥ
kiṁ sukhaṁ duḥkham eva ca
kaḥ paṇḍitaḥ kaś ca mūrkhaḥ
kaḥ panthā utpathaś ca kaḥ
kaḥ svargo narakaḥ kaḥ svit
ko bandhur uta kiṁ gṛham
ka āḍhyaḥ ko daridro vā
kṛpaṇaḥ kaḥ ka īśvaraḥ
etān praśnān mama brūhi
viparītāṁś ca sat-pate
śrī-uddhavaḥ uvāca — Śrī Uddhava said; yamaḥ — disciplinary regulations; kati-vidhaḥ — how many different types; proktaḥ — are declared to exist; niyamaḥ — regular daily duties; vā — or; ari-karṣaṇa — O Kṛṣṇa, subduer of the enemy; kaḥ — what is; śamaḥ — mental equilibrium; kaḥ — what is; damaḥ — self-control; kṛṣṇa — my dear Kṛṣṇa; kā — what is; titikṣā — tolerance; dhṛtiḥ — steadfastness; prabho — my Lord; kim — what is; dānam — charity; kim — what is; tapaḥ — austerity; śauryam — heroism; kim — what is; satyam — reality; ṛtam — truth; ucyate — is said; kaḥ — what is; tyāgaḥ — renunciation; kim — what is; dhanam — wealth; ca — also; iṣṭam — desirable; kaḥ — what is; yajñaḥ — sacrifice; kā — what is; ca — also; dakṣiṇā — religious remuneration; puṁsaḥ — of a person; kim — what is; svit — indeed; balam — strength; śrī-man — O most fortunate Kṛṣṇa; bhagaḥ — opulence; lābhaḥ — profit; ca — also; keśava — my dear Keśava; kā — what is; vidyā — education; hrīḥ — humility; parā — supreme; kā — what is; śrīḥ — beauty; kim — what is; sukham — happiness; duḥkham — unhappiness; eva — indeed; ca — also; kaḥ — who is; paṇḍitaḥ — learned; kaḥ — who is; ca — also; mūrkhaḥ — a fool; kaḥ — what is; panthāḥ — the real path; utpathaḥ — the false path; ca — also; kaḥ — what is; kaḥ — what is; svargaḥ — heaven; narakaḥ — hell; kaḥ — what is; svit — indeed; kaḥ — who is; bandhuḥ — a friend; uta — and; kim — what is; gṛham — home; kaḥ — who is; āḍhyaḥ — wealthy; kaḥ — who is; daridraḥ — poor; vā — or; kṛpaṇaḥ — a miser; kaḥ — who is; kaḥ — who is; īśvaraḥ — a controller; etān — these; praśnān — subject matters of inquiry; mama — to me; brūhi — please speak; viparītān — the opposite qualities; ca — also; sat-pate — O Lord of the devotees.
Śrī Uddhava said: My dear Lord Kṛṣṇa, O chastiser of the enemies, please tell me how many types of disciplinary regulations and regular daily duties there are. Also, my Lord, tell me what is mental equilibrium, what is self-control, and what is the actual meaning of tolerance and steadfastness. What are charity, austerity and heroism, and how are reality and truth to be described? What is renunciation, and what is wealth? What is desirable, what is sacrifice, and what is religious remuneration? My dear Keśava, O most fortunate one, how am I to understand the strength, opulence and profit of a particular person? What is the best education, what is actual humility, and what is real beauty? What are happiness and unhappiness? Who is learned, and who is a fool? What are the true and the false paths in life, and what are heaven and hell? Who is indeed a true friend, and what is one’s real home? Who is a rich man, and who is a poor man? Who is wretched, and who is an actual controller? O Lord of the devotees, kindly explain these matters to me, along with their opposites.
ahiṁsā satyam asteyam
asaṅgo hrīr asañcayaḥ
āstikyaṁ brahmacaryaṁ ca
maunaṁ sthairyaṁ kṣamābhayam
śaucaṁ japas tapo homaḥ
ete yamāḥ sa-niyamā
ubhayor dvādaśa smṛtāḥ
puṁsām upāsitās tāta
yathā-kāmaṁ duhanti hi
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; ahiṁsā — nonviolence; satyam — truthfulness; asteyam — never coveting or stealing the property of others; asaṅgaḥ — detachment; hrīḥ — humility; asañcayaḥ — being nonpossessive; āstikyam — trust in the principles of religion; brahmacaryam — celibacy; ca — also; maunam — silence; sthairyam — steadiness; kṣamā — forgiving; abhayam — fearless; śaucam — internal and external cleanliness; japaḥ — chanting the holy names of the Lord; tapaḥ — austerity; homaḥ — sacrifice; śraddhā — faith; ātithyam — hospitality; mat-arcanam — worship of Me; tīrtha-aṭanam — visiting holy places; para-artha-īhā — acting and desiring for the Supreme; tuṣṭiḥ — satisfaction; ācārya-sevanam — serving the spiritual master; ete — these; yamāḥ — disciplinary principles; sa-niyamāḥ — along with secondary regular duties; ubhayoḥ — of each; dvādaśa — twelve; smṛtāḥ — are understood; puṁsām — by human beings; upāsitāḥ — being cultivated with devotion; tāta — My dear Uddhava; yathā-kāmam — according to one’s desire; duhanti — they supply; hi — indeed.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Nonviolence, truthfulness, not coveting or stealing the property of others, detachment, humility, freedom from possessiveness, trust in the principles of religion, celibacy, silence, steadiness, forgiveness and fearlessness are the twelve primary disciplinary principles. Internal cleanliness, external cleanliness, chanting the holy names of the Lord, austerity, sacrifice, faith, hospitality, worship of Me, visiting holy places, acting and desiring only for the supreme interest, satisfaction, and service to the spiritual master are the twelve elements of regular prescribed duties. These twenty-four elements bestow all desired benedictions upon those persons who devotedly cultivate them.
śamo man-niṣṭhatā buddher
daṇḍa-nyāsaḥ paraṁ dānaṁ
kāma-tyāgas tapaḥ smṛtam
satyaṁ ca sama-darśanam
anyac ca sunṛtā vāṇī
karmasv asaṅgamaḥ śaucaṁ
tyāgaḥ sannyāsa ucyate
dharma iṣṭaṁ dhanaṁ nṝṇāṁ
yajño ’haṁ bhagavattamaḥ
prāṇāyāmaḥ paraṁ balam
śamaḥ — mental equilibrium; mat — in Me; niṣṭhatā — steady absorption; buddheḥ — of the intelligence; damaḥ — self-control; indriya — of the senses; saṁyamaḥ — perfect discipline; titikṣā — tolerance; duḥkha — unhappiness; sammarṣaḥ — tolerating; jihvā — the tongue; upastha — and genitals; jayaḥ — conquering; dhṛtiḥ — steadiness; daṇḍa — aggression; nyāsaḥ — giving up; param — the supreme; dānam — charity; kāma — lust; tyāgaḥ — giving up; tapaḥ — austerity; smṛtam — is considered; svabhāva — one’s natural tendency to enjoy; vijayaḥ — conquering; śauryam — heroism; satyam — reality; ca — also; sama-darśanam — seeing the Supreme Lord everywhere; anyat — the next element (truthfulness); ca — and; su-nṛtā — pleasing; vāṇī — speech; kavibhiḥ — by the sages; parikīrtitā — is declared to be; karmasu — in fruitive activities; asaṅgamaḥ — detachment; śaucam — cleanliness; tyāgaḥ — renunciation; sannyāsaḥ — the sannyāsa order of life; ucyate — is said to be; dharmaḥ — religiousness; iṣṭam — desirable; dhanam — wealth; nṝṇām — for human beings; yajñaḥ — sacrifice; aham — I am; bhagavat-tamaḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; dakṣiṇā — religious remuneration; jñāna-sandeśaḥ — the instruction of perfect knowledge; prāṇāyāmaḥ — the yogic system of controlling the breath; param — the supreme; balam — strength.
Absorbing the intelligence in Me constitutes mental equilibrium, and complete discipline of the senses is self-control. Tolerance means patiently enduring unhappiness, and steadfastness occurs when one conquers the tongue and genitals. The greatest charity is to give up all aggression toward others, and renunciation of lust is understood to be real austerity. Real heroism is to conquer one’s natural tendency to enjoy material life, and reality is seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead everywhere. Truthfulness means to speak the truth in a pleasing way, as declared by great sages. Cleanliness is detachment in fruitive activities, whereas renunciation is the sannyāsa order of life. The true desirable wealth for human beings is religiousness, and I, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, am sacrifice. Religious remuneration is devotion to the ācārya with the purpose of acquiring spiritual instruction, and the greatest strength is the prāṇāyāma system of breath control.
bhago ma aiśvaro bhāvo
lābho mad-bhaktir uttamaḥ
jugupsā hrīr akarmasu
śrīr guṇā nairapekṣyādyāḥ
panthā man-nigamaḥ smṛtaḥ
bandhur gurur ahaṁ sakhe
gṛhaṁ śarīraṁ mānuṣyaṁ
guṇāḍhyo hy āḍhya ucyate
daridro yas tv asantuṣṭaḥ
kṛpaṇo yo ’jitendriyaḥ
guṇeṣv asakta-dhīr īśo
eta uddhava te praśnāḥ
sarve sādhu nirūpitāḥ
kiṁ varṇitena bahunā
bhagaḥ — opulence; me — My; aiśvaraḥ — divine; bhāvaḥ — nature; lābhaḥ — gain; mat-bhaktiḥ — devotional service unto Me; uttamaḥ — supreme; vidyā — education; ātmani — in the soul; bhidā — duality; bādhaḥ — nullifying; jugupsā — disgust; hrīḥ — modesty; akarmasu — in sinful activities; śrīḥ — beauty; guṇāḥ — good qualities; nairapekṣya — detachment from material things; ādyāḥ — and so on; sukham — happiness; duḥkha — material unhappiness; sukha — and material happiness; atyayaḥ — transcending; duḥkham — unhappiness; kāma — of lust; sukha — on the happiness; apekṣā — meditating; paṇḍitaḥ — a wise man; bandha — from bondage; mokṣa — liberation; vit — one who knows; mūrkhaḥ — a fool; deha — with the body; ādi — and so forth (the mind); aham-buddhiḥ — one who identifies himself; panthāḥ — the true path; mat — to Me; nigamaḥ — leading; smṛtaḥ — is to be understood; utpathaḥ — the wrong path; citta — of consciousness; vikṣepaḥ — bewilderment; svargaḥ — heaven; sattva-guṇa — of the mode of goodness; udayaḥ — the predominance; narakaḥ — hell; tamaḥ — of the mode of ignorance; unnāhaḥ — the predominance; bandhuḥ — the real friend; guruḥ — the spiritual master; aham — I am; sakhe — My dear friend, Uddhava; gṛham — one’s home; śarīram — the body; mānuṣyam — human; guṇa — with good qualities; āḍhyaḥ — enriched; hi — indeed; āḍhyaḥ — a rich person; ucyate — is stated to be; daridraḥ — a poor person; yaḥ — one who; tu — indeed; asantuṣṭaḥ — unsatisfied; kṛpaṇaḥ — a wretched person; yaḥ — one who; ajita — has not conquered; indriyaḥ — the senses; guṇeṣu — in material sense gratification; asakta — not attached; dhīḥ — whose intelligence; īśaḥ — a controller; guṇa — to sense gratification; saṅgaḥ — attached; viparyayaḥ — the opposite, a slave; ete — these; uddhava — My dear Uddhava; te — your; praśnāḥ — subjects of inquiry; sarve — all; sādhu — properly; nirūpitāḥ — elucidated; kim — what is the value; varṇitena — of describing; bahunā — elaborately; lakṣaṇam — the characteristics; guṇa — of good qualities; doṣayoḥ — and of bad qualities; guṇa-doṣa — good and bad qualities; dṛśiḥ — seeing; doṣaḥ — a fault; guṇaḥ — the real good quality; tu — indeed; ubhaya — from both of them; varjitaḥ — distinct.
Actual opulence is My own nature as the Personality of Godhead, through which I exhibit the six unlimited opulences. The supreme gain in life is devotional service to Me, and actual education is nullifying the false perception of duality within the soul. Real modesty is to be disgusted with improper activities, and beauty is to possess good qualities such as detachment. Real happiness is to transcend material happiness and unhappiness, and real misery is to be implicated in searching for sex pleasure. A wise man is one who knows the process of freedom from bondage, and a fool is one who identifies with his material body and mind. The real path in life is that which leads to Me, and the wrong path is sense gratification, by which consciousness is bewildered. Actual heaven is the predominance of the mode of goodness, whereas hell is the predominance of ignorance. I am everyone’s true friend, acting as the spiritual master of the entire universe, and one’s home is the human body. My dear friend Uddhava, one who is enriched with good qualities is actually said to be rich, and one who is unsatisfied in life is actually poor. A wretched person is one who cannot control his senses, whereas one who is not attached to sense gratification is a real controller. One who attaches himself to sense gratification is the opposite, a slave. Thus, Uddhava, I have elucidated all of the matters about which you inquired. There is no need for a more elaborate description of these good and bad qualities, since to constantly see good and bad is itself a bad quality. The best quality is to transcend material good and evil.