Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 11 Chapter 13
The Haṁsa-avatāra Answers the Questions of the Sons of Brahmā
sattvaṁ rajas tama iti
guṇā buddher na cātmanaḥ
sattvaṁ sattvena caiva hi
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; sattvam — goodness; rajaḥ — passion; tamaḥ — ignorance; iti — thus known; guṇāḥ — the modes of material nature; buddheḥ — pertain to material intelligence; na — not; ca — also; ātmanaḥ — to the soul; sattvena — by the material mode of goodness; anyatamau — the other two (passion and ignorance); hanyāt — may be destroyed; sattvam — the material mode of goodness; sattvena — by purified goodness; ca — also (may be destroyed); eva — certainly; hi — indeed.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: The three modes of material nature, namely goodness, passion and ignorance, pertain to material intelligence and not to the spirit soul. By development of material goodness one can conquer the modes of passion and ignorance, and by cultivation of transcendental goodness one may free oneself even from material goodness.
sattvād dharmo bhaved vṛddhāt
tato dharmaḥ pravartate
sattvāt — from the mode of goodness; dharmaḥ — religious principles; bhavet — arise; vṛddhāt — which are strengthened; puṁsaḥ — of a person; mat-bhakti — by devotional service to Me; lakṣaṇaḥ — characterized; sāttvika — of things in the mode of goodness; upāsayā — by serious cultivation; sattvam — the mode of goodness; tataḥ — from that mode; dharmaḥ — religious principles; pravartate — arise.
When the living entity becomes strongly situated in the mode of goodness, then religious principles, characterized by devotional service to Me, become prominent. One can strengthen the mode of goodness by cultivation of those things that are already situated in goodness, and thus religious principles arise.
dharmo rajas tamo hanyāt
āśu naśyati tan-mūlo
hy adharma ubhaye hate
dharmaḥ — religious principles based on devotional service; rajaḥ — the mode of passion; tamaḥ — the mode of ignorance; hanyāt — destroy; sattva — of goodness; vṛddhiḥ — by the increase; anuttamaḥ — the greatest; āśu — quickly; naśyati — is destroyed; tat — of passion and ignorance; mūlaḥ — the root; hi — certainly; adharmaḥ — irreligion; ubhaye hate — when both are destroyed.
Religious principles, strengthened by the mode of goodness, destroy the influence of passion and ignorance. When passion and ignorance are overcome, their original cause, irreligion, is quickly vanquished.
āgamo ’paḥ prajā deśaḥ
kālaḥ karma ca janma ca
dhyānaṁ mantro ’tha saṁskāro
āgamaḥ — religious scriptures; apaḥ — water; prajāḥ — association with people in general or one’s children; deśaḥ — place; kālaḥ — time; karma — activities; ca — also; janma — birth; ca — also; dhyānam — meditation; mantraḥ — chanting of mantras; atha — and; saṁskāraḥ — rituals for purification; daśa — ten; ete — these; guṇa — of the modes of nature; hetavaḥ — causes.
According to the quality of religious scriptures, water, one’s association with one’s children or with people in general, the particular place, the time, activities, birth, meditation, chanting of mantras, and purificatory rituals, the modes of nature become differently prominent.
tat tat sāttvikam evaiṣāṁ
yad yad vṛddhāḥ pracakṣate
nindanti tāmasaṁ tat tad
tat tat — those things; sāttvikam — in the mode of goodness; eva — indeed; eṣām — among the ten items; yat yat — whatever; vṛddhāḥ — the sages of the past, such as Vyāsadeva, who are expert in Vedic knowledge; pracakṣate — they praise; nindanti — they scorn; tāmasam — in the mode of ignorance; tat tat — those things; rājasam — in the mode of passion; tat — by the sages; upekṣitam — left alone, neither praised nor criticized.
Among the ten items I have just mentioned, the great sages who understand Vedic knowledge have praised and recommended those that are in the mode of goodness, criticized and rejected those in the mode of ignorance, and shown indifference to those in the mode of passion.
sāttvikāny eva seveta
tato dharmas tato jñānaṁ
yāvat smṛtir apohanam
sāttvikāni — things in the mode of goodness; eva — indeed; seveta — he should cultivate; pumān — a person; sattva — the mode of goodness; vivṛddhaye — in order to increase; tataḥ — from that (increase in goodness); dharmaḥ — one is fixed in religious principles; tataḥ — from that (religion); jñānam — knowledge is manifest; yāvat — until; smṛtiḥ — self-realization, remembering one’s eternal identity; apohanam — driving away (the illusory identification with the material body and mind).
Until one revives one’s direct knowledge of the spirit soul and drives away the illusory identification with the material body and mind caused by the three modes of nature, one must cultivate those things in the mode of goodness. By increasing the mode of goodness, one automatically can understand and practice religious principles, and by such practice transcendental knowledge is awakened.
dagdhvā śāmyati tad-vanam
dehaḥ śāmyati tat-kriyaḥ
veṇu — of bamboo; saṅgharṣa-jaḥ — generated by the friction; vahniḥ — fire; dagdhvā — having burned; śāmyati — is pacified; tat — of bamboo; vanam — the forest; evam — thus; guṇa — of the modes of nature; vyatyaya-jaḥ — generated by interaction; dehaḥ — the material body; śāmyati — is pacified; tat — as the fire; kriyaḥ — performing the same action.
In a bamboo forest the wind sometimes rubs the bamboo stalks together, and such friction generates a blazing fire that consumes the very source of its birth, the bamboo forest. Thus, the fire is automatically calmed by its own action. Similarly, by the competition and interaction of the material modes of nature, the subtle and gross material bodies are generated. If one uses his mind and body to cultivate knowledge, then such enlightenment destroys the influence of the modes of nature that generated one’s body. Thus, like the fire, the body and mind are pacified by their own actions in destroying the source of their birth.
vidanti martyāḥ prāyeṇa
viṣayān padam āpadām
tathāpi bhuñjate kṛṣṇa
tat kathaṁ śva-kharāja-vat
śrī-uddhavaḥ uvāca — Śrī Uddhava said; vidanti — they know; martyāḥ — human beings; prāyeṇa — generally; viṣayān — sense gratification; padam — a situation; āpadām — of many miserable conditions; tathā api — even so; bhuñjate — they enjoy; kṛṣṇa — O Kṛṣṇa; tat — such sense gratification; katham — how is it possible; śva — dogs; khara — asses; aja — and goats; vat — just like.
Śrī Uddhava said: My dear Kṛṣṇa, generally human beings know that material life brings great future unhappiness, and still they try to enjoy material life. My dear Lord, how can one in knowledge act just like a dog, an ass or a goat?
aham ity anyathā-buddhiḥ
pramattasya yathā hṛdi
utsarpati rajo ghoraṁ
tato vaikārikaṁ manaḥ
tataḥ kāmo guṇa-dhyānād
duḥsahaḥ syād dhi durmateḥ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; aham — false identification with the material body and mind; iti — thus; anyathā-buddhiḥ — illusory knowledge; pramattasya — of one who is bereft of actual intelligence; yathā — accordingly; hṛdi — within the mind; utsarpati — arises; rajaḥ — passion; ghoram — which brings terrible suffering; tataḥ — then; vaikārikam — (originally) in the mode of goodness; manaḥ — the mind; rajaḥ — in passion; yuktasya — of that which is engaged; manasaḥ — of the mind; saṅkalpaḥ — material determination; sa-vikalpakaḥ — along with variation and alternation; tataḥ — from that; kāmaḥ — full-fledged material desire; guṇa — in the modes of nature; dhyānāt — from concentration; duḥsahaḥ — unbearable; syāt — it must so be; hi — certainly; durmateḥ — of a foolish person.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, a person bereft of intelligence first falsely identifies himself with the material body and mind, and when such false knowledge arises within one’s consciousness, material passion, the cause of great suffering, pervades the mind, which by nature is situated in goodness. Then the mind, contaminated by passion, becomes absorbed in making and changing many plans for material advancement. Thus, by constantly thinking of the modes of material nature, a foolish person is afflicted with unbearable material desires.
karoti — performs; kāma — of material desires; vaśa — under the control; gaḥ — having gone; karmāṇi — fruitive activities; avijita — uncontrolled; indriyaḥ — whose senses; duḥkha — unhappiness; udarkāṇi — bringing as a future result; sampaśyan — seeing clearly; rajaḥ — of the mode of passion; vega — by the force; vimohitaḥ — bewildered.
One who does not control the material senses comes under the control of material desires and is thus bewildered by the strong waves of the mode of passion. Such a person executes material activities, although clearly seeing that the result will be future unhappiness.
rajas-tamobhyāṁ yad api
vidvān vikṣipta-dhīḥ punaḥ
atandrito mano yuñjan
doṣa-dṛṣṭir na sajjate
rajaḥ-tamobhyām — by the modes of passion and ignorance; yat api — even though; vidvān — a learned person; vikṣipta — bewildered; dhīḥ — the intelligence; punaḥ — again; atandritaḥ — carefully; manaḥ — the mind; yuñjan — engaging; doṣa — the contamination of material attachment; dṛṣṭiḥ — seeing clearly; na — not; sajjate — becomes attached.
Although the intelligence of a learned person may be bewildered by the modes of passion and ignorance, he should again carefully bring the mind under control. By clearly seeing the contamination of the modes of nature, he does not become attached.
mano mayy arpayañ chanaiḥ
apramattaḥ — attentive and grave; anuyuñjīta — one should fix; manaḥ — the mind; mayi — in Me; arpayan — placing; śanaiḥ — gradually, step by step; anirviṇṇaḥ — without being lazy or morose; yathā-kālam — at least three times a day (dawn, noon and sunset); jita — having conquered; śvāsaḥ — the breathing process; jita — having conquered; āsanaḥ — the sitting postures.
A person should be attentive and grave and never lazy or morose. Mastering the yoga procedures of breathing and sitting properly, one should practice fixing the mind on Me at dawn, noon and sunset, and thus gradually the mind should be completely absorbed in Me.
etāvān yoga ādiṣṭo
sarvato mana ākṛṣya
mayy addhāveśyate yathā
etāvān — actually this; yogaḥ — yoga system; ādiṣṭaḥ — instructed; mat-śiṣyaiḥ — by My devotees; sanaka-ādibhiḥ — headed by Sanaka-kumāra; sarvataḥ — from all sides; manaḥ — the mind; ākṛṣya — withdrawing; mayi — in Me; addhā — directly; āveśyate — is absorbed; yathā — accordingly.
The actual yoga system as taught by My devotees, headed by Sanaka-kumāra, is simply this: Having withdrawn the mind from all other objects, one should directly and appropriately absorb it in Me.
yadā tvaṁ sanakādibhyo
yena rūpeṇa keśava
yogam ādiṣṭavān etad
rūpam icchāmi veditum
śrī-uddhavaḥ uvāca — Śrī Uddhava said; yadā — when; tvam — You; sanaka-ādibhyaḥ — to Sanaka, etc; yena — by which; rūpeṇa — form; keśava — my dear Keśava; yogam — the process of fixing the mind in the Absolute Truth; ādiṣṭavān — You have instructed; etat — that; rūpam — form; icchāmi — I desire; veditum — to know.
Śrī Uddhava said: My dear Keśava, at what time and in what form did You instruct the science of yoga to Sanaka and his brothers? I now desire to know about these things.
papracchuḥ pitaraṁ sūkṣmāṁ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; putrāḥ — the sons; hiraṇya-garbhasya — of Lord Brahmā; mānasāḥ — born of the mind; sanaka-ādayaḥ — headed by Sanaka Ṛṣi; papracchuḥ — inquired; pitaram — from their father (Brahmā); sūkṣmām — subtle and therefore difficult to understand; yogasya — of the science of yoga; ekāntikīm — the supreme; gatim — destination.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Once, the mental sons of Lord Brahmā, namely, the sages headed by Sanaka, inquired from their father about the difficult subject matter of the supreme goal of yoga.
guṇeṣv āviśate ceto
guṇāś cetasi ca prabho
sanaka-ādayaḥ ūcuḥ — the sages headed by Sanaka said; guṇeṣu — in the sense objects; āviśate — directly enters; cetaḥ — the mind; guṇāḥ — the sense objects; cetasi — within the mind; ca — also (enter); prabho — O Lord; katham — what is the process; anyonya — of the mutual relationship between the sense objects and the mind; santyāgaḥ — renunciation; mumukṣoḥ — of one desiring liberation; atititīrṣoḥ — of one desiring to cross over sense gratification.
The sages headed by Sanaka said: O Lord, people’s minds are naturally attracted to material sense objects, and similarly the sense objects in the form of desire enter within the mind. Therefore, how can a person who desires liberation, who desires to cross over activities of sense gratification, destroy this mutual relationship between the sense objects and the mind? Please explain this to us.
evaṁ pṛṣṭo mahā-devaḥ
śrī-bhagavān uvāca — the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; evam — thus; pṛṣṭaḥ — questioned; mahā-devaḥ — the great god Brahmā; svayam-bhūḥ — without material birth (born directly from the body of Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu); bhūta — of all conditioned souls; bhāvanaḥ — the creator (of their conditioned life); dhyāyamānaḥ — seriously considering; praśna — of the question; bījam — the essential truth; na abhyapadyata — did not reach; karma-dhīḥ — intelligence bewildered by his own activities of creation.
The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: My dear Uddhava, Brahmā himself, who is born directly from the body of the Lord and who is the creator of all living entities within the material world, being the best of the demigods, seriously contemplated the question of his sons headed by Sanaka. The intelligence of Brahmā, however, was affected by his own activities of creation, and thus he could not discover the essential answer to this question.
sa mām acintayad devaḥ
sakāśam agamaṁ tadā
saḥ — he (Lord Brahmā); mām — Me; acintayat — remembered; devaḥ — the original demigod; praśna — of the question; pāra — the end, conclusion (the answer); titīrṣayā — with a desire to attain, understand; tasya — unto him; aham — I; haṁsa-rūpeṇa — in My form of Haṁsa; sakāśam — visible; agamam — became; tadā — at that time.
Lord Brahmā desired to attain the answer to the question that was puzzling him, and thus he fixed his mind on Me, the Supreme Lord. At that time, in My form of Haṁsa, I became visible to Lord Brahmā.
dṛṣṭvā māṁ ta upavrajya
brahmāṇam agrataḥ kṛtvā
papracchuḥ ko bhavān iti
dṛṣṭvā — thus seeing; mām — Me; te — they (the sages); upavrajya — approaching; kṛtvā — offering; pāda — at the lotus feet; abhivandanam — obeisances; brahmāṇam — Lord Brahmā; agrataḥ — in front; kṛtvā — keeping; papracchuḥ — they asked; kaḥ bhavān — “who are You, sir?”; iti — thus.
Thus seeing Me, the sages, placing Brahmā in the lead, came forward and worshiped My lotus feet. Then they frankly asked Me, “Who are You?”
ity ahaṁ munibhiḥ pṛṣṭas
yad avocam ahaṁ tebhyas
tad uddhava nibodha me
iti — thus; aham — I; munibhiḥ — by the sages; pṛṣṭaḥ — questioned; tattva — the truth about the goal of yoga; jijñāsubhiḥ — by those desiring to know; tadā — at that time; yat — that which; avocam — spoke; aham — I; tebhyaḥ — unto them; tat — that; uddhava — My dear Uddhava; nibodha — please learn; me — from Me.
My dear Uddhava, the sages, being eager to understand the ultimate truth of the yoga system, thus inquired from Me. Now please hear as I explain that which I spoke unto the sages.
vastuno yady anānātva
ātmanaḥ praśna īdṛśaḥ
kathaṁ ghaṭeta vo viprā
vaktur vā me ka āśrayaḥ
vastunaḥ — of the essential reality; yadi — if; anānātve — in the concept of nonindividuality; ātmanaḥ — of the jīva soul; praśnaḥ — question; īdṛśaḥ — such; katham — how; ghaṭeta — is it possible or appropriate; vaḥ — of you who are asking; viprāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; vaktuḥ — of the speaker; vā — or; me — of Me; kaḥ — what is; āśrayaḥ — the real situation or resting place.
My dear brāhmaṇas, if, when asking Me who I am, you believe that I am also a jīva soul and that there is no ultimate difference between us — since all souls are ultimately one without individuality — then how is your question possible or appropriate? Ultimately, what is the real situation or resting place both of yourselves and of Me?
samāneṣu ca vastutaḥ
ko bhavān iti vaḥ praśno
vācārambho hy anarthakaḥ
pañca — of five elements; ātmakeṣu — made of; bhūteṣu — thus existing; samāneṣu — being the same; ca — also; vastutaḥ — in essence; kaḥ — who; bhavān — are You; iti — thus; vaḥ — your; praśnaḥ — question; vācā — merely with words; ārambhaḥ — such an endeavor; hi — certainly; anarthakaḥ — without real meaning or purpose.
If by asking Me “Who are You?” you were referring to the material body, then I must point out that all material bodies are constituted of five elements, namely earth, water, fire, air and ether. Thus, you should have asked, “Who are you five?” If you consider that all material bodies are ultimately one, being constituted essentially of the same elements, then your question is still meaningless, since there would be no deep purpose in distinguishing one body from another. Thus, it appears that in asking My identity, you are merely speaking words, without any real meaning or purpose.
manasā vacasā dṛṣṭyā
gṛhyate ’nyair apīndriyaiḥ
aham eva na matto ’nyad
iti budhyadhvam añjasā
manasā — by the mind; vacasā — by speech; dṛṣṭyā — by sight; gṛhyate — is perceived and thus accepted; anyaiḥ — by others; api — even; indriyaiḥ — senses; aham — I; eva — indeed; na — not; mattaḥ — besides Me; anyat — anything else; iti — thus; budhyadhvam — you should all understand; añjasā — by straightforward analysis of the facts.
Within this world, whatever is perceived by the mind, speech, eyes or other senses is Me alone and nothing besides Me. All of you please understand this by a straightforward analysis of the facts.
guṇeṣv āviśate ceto
guṇāś cetasi ca prajāḥ
jīvasya deha ubhayaṁ
guṇāś ceto mad-ātmanaḥ
guṇeṣu — in the sense objects; āviśate — enters; cetaḥ — the mind; guṇāḥ — the sense objects; cetasi — in the mind; ca — also (enter); prajāḥ — My dear sons; jīvasya — of the living entity; dehaḥ — the outward body, existing as designation; ubhayam — both of these; guṇāḥ — the sense objects; cetaḥ — the mind; mat-ātmanaḥ — having Me as the Supreme Soul.
My dear sons, the mind has a natural proclivity to enter into the material sense objects, and similarly the sense objects enter into the mind; but both this material mind and the sense objects are merely designations that cover the spirit soul, who is part and parcel of Me.
guṇeṣu cāviśac cittam
guṇāś ca citta-prabhavā
mad-rūpa ubhayaṁ tyajet
guṇeṣu — in the sense objects; ca — and; āviśat — entered; cittam — the mind; abhīkṣṇam — again and again; guṇa-sevayā — by sense gratification; guṇāḥ — and the material sense objects; ca — also; citta — within the mind; prabhavāḥ — existing prominently; mat-rūpaḥ — one who has realized that he is not different from Me, and who is thus absorbed in My form, pastimes, etc; ubhayam — both (the mind and sense objects); tyajet — should give up.
A person who has thus achieved Me by understanding that he is not different from Me realizes that the material mind is lodged within the sense objects because of constant sense gratification, and that the material objects are existing prominently within the material mind. Having understood My transcendental nature, he gives up both the material mind and its objects.
jāgrat svapnaḥ suṣuptaṁ ca
tāsāṁ vilakṣaṇo jīvaḥ
jāgrat — being awake; svapnaḥ — dreaming; su-suptam — deep sleep; ca — also; guṇataḥ — caused by the modes of nature; buddhi — of intelligence; vṛttayaḥ — the functions; tāsām — from such functions; vilakṣaṇaḥ — possessing different characteristics; jīvaḥ — the living entity; sākṣitvena — with the characteristic of being a witness; viniścitaḥ — is ascertained.
Waking, sleeping and deep sleep are the three functions of the intelligence and are caused by the modes of material nature. The living entity within the body is ascertained to possess characteristics different from these three states and thus remains as a witness to them.
yarhi saṁsṛti-bandho ’yam
mayi turye sthito jahyāt
tyāgas tad guṇa-cetasām
yarhi — whereas; saṁsṛti — of material intelligence or material existence; bandhaḥ — bondage; ayam — this is; ātmanaḥ — of the soul; guṇa — in the modes of nature; vṛtti-daḥ — that which gives occupations; mayi — in Me; turye — in the fourth element (beyond wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep); sthitaḥ — being situated; jahyāt — one should give up; tyāgaḥ — renunciation; tat — at that time; guṇa — of the material sense objects; cetasām — and of the material mind.
The spirit soul is trapped in the bondage of material intelligence, which awards him constant engagement in the illusory modes of nature. But I am the fourth stage of consciousness, beyond wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep. Becoming situated in Me, the soul should give up the bondage of material consciousness. At that time, the living entity will automatically renounce the material sense objects and the material mind.
vidvān nirvidya saṁsāra-
cintāṁ turye sthitas tyajet
ahaṅkāra — by false ego; kṛtam — produced; bandham — bondage; ātmanaḥ — of the soul; artha — of that which is really valuable; viparyayam — being the opposite; vidvān — one who knows; nirvidya — being detached; saṁsāra — in material existence; cintām — constant thoughts; turye — in the fourth element, the Lord; sthitaḥ — being situated; tyajet — should give up.
The false ego of the living entity places him in bondage and awards him exactly the opposite of what he really desires. Therefore, an intelligent person should give up his constant anxiety to enjoy material life and remain situated in the Lord, who is beyond the functions of material consciousness.
yāvan nānārtha-dhīḥ puṁso
na nivarteta yuktibhiḥ
jāgarty api svapann ajñaḥ
svapne jāgaraṇaṁ yathā
yāvat — as long as; nānā — of many; artha — values; dhīḥ — the conception; puṁsaḥ — of a person; na — does not; nivarteta — subside; yuktibhiḥ — by the appropriate methods (described by Me); jāgarti — being awake; api — although; svapan — sleeping, dreaming; ajñaḥ — one who does not see things as they are; svapne — in a dream; jāgaraṇam — being awake; yathā — just as.
According to My instructions, one should fix the mind on Me alone. If, however, one continues to see many different values and goals in life rather than seeing everything within Me, then although apparently awake, one is actually dreaming due to incomplete knowledge, just as one may dream that one has wakened from a dream.
asattvād ātmano ’nyeṣāṁ
bhāvānāṁ tat-kṛtā bhidā
gatayo hetavaś cāsya
mṛṣā svapna-dṛśo yathā
asattvāt — because of lacking factual existence; ātmanaḥ — from the Supreme Personality of Godhead; anyeṣām — of others; bhāvānām — states of existence; tat — by them; kṛtā — created; bhidā — difference or separation; gatayaḥ — destinations such as going to heaven; hetavaḥ — fruitive activities, which are the cause of future rewards; ca — also; asya — of the living entity; mṛṣā — false; svapna — of a dream; dṛśaḥ — of the seer; yathā — just as.
Those states of existence that are conceived of as separate from the Supreme Personality of Godhead have no actual existence, although they create a sense of separation from the Absolute Truth. Just as the seer of a dream imagines many different activities and rewards, similarly, because of the sense of an existence separate from the Lord’s existence, the living entity falsely performs fruitive activities, thinking them to be the cause of future rewards and destinations.
yo jāgare bahir anukṣaṇa-dharmiṇo ’rthān
bhuṅkte samasta-karaṇair hṛdi tat-sadṛkṣān
svapne suṣupta upasaṁharate sa ekaḥ
smṛty-anvayāt tri-guṇa-vṛtti-dṛg indriyeśaḥ
yaḥ — the living entity who; jāgare — while awake; bahiḥ — external; anukṣaṇa — momentary; dharmiṇaḥ — qualities; arthān — the body and mind and their experiences; bhuṅkte — enjoys; samasta — with all; karaṇaiḥ — the senses; hṛdi — within the mind; tat-sadṛkṣān — experiences similar to those in wakefulness; svapne — in dreams; suṣupte — in deep dreamless sleep; upasaṁharate — merges into ignorance; saḥ — he; ekaḥ — one; smṛti — of memory; anvayāt — by the succession; tri-guṇa — of the three stages wakefulness, dream and dreamless sleep; vṛtti — functions; dṛk — seeing; indriya — of the senses; īśaḥ — becomes the lord.
While awake the living entity enjoys with all of his senses the fleeting characteristics of the material body and mind; while dreaming he enjoys similar experiences within the mind; and in deep dreamless sleep all such experiences merge into ignorance. By remembering and contemplating the succession of wakefulness, dreaming and deep sleep, the living entity can understand that he is one throughout the three stages of consciousness and is transcendental. Thus, he becomes the lord of the senses.
evaṁ vimṛśya guṇato manasas try-avasthā
man-māyayā mayi kṛtā iti niścitārthāḥ
sañchidya hārdam anumāna-sad-ukti-tīkṣṇa-
jñānāsinā bhajata mākhila-saṁśayādhim
evam — thus; vimṛśya — considering; guṇataḥ — by the modes of nature; manasaḥ — of the mind; tri-avasthāḥ — the three states of consciousness; mat-māyayā — by the influence of My illusory potency; mayi — in Me; kṛtāḥ — imposed; iti — thus; niścita-arthāḥ — those who have ascertained the actual meaning of the soul; sañchidya — cutting off; hārdam — situated in the heart; anumāna — by logic; sat-ukti — and by the instructions of sages and the Vedic literatures; tīkṣṇa — sharpened; jñāna — of knowledge; asinā — by the sword; bhajata — all of you worship; mā — Me; akhila — of all; saṁśaya — doubts; ādhim — the cause (false ego).
You should consider how, by the influence of My illusory energy, these three states of the mind, caused by the modes of nature, have been artificially imagined to exist in Me. Having definitely ascertained the truth of the soul, you should utilize the sharpened sword of knowledge, acquired by logical reflection and from the instructions of sages and Vedic literatures, to completely cut off the false ego, which is the breeding ground of all doubts. All of you should then worship Me, who am situated within the heart.
īkṣeta vibhramam idaṁ manaso vilāsaṁ
dṛṣṭaṁ vinaṣṭam ati-lolam alāta-cakram
vijñānam ekam urudheva vibhāti māyā
svapnas tridhā guṇa-visarga-kṛto vikalpaḥ
īkṣeta — one should see; vibhramam — as illusion or mistake; idam — this (material world); manasaḥ — of the mind; vilāsam — appearance or jumping; dṛṣṭam — here today; vinaṣṭam — gone tomorrow; ati-lolam — extremely flickering; alāta-cakram — just like the moving red line created by whirling a fiery stick; vijñānam — the spirit soul, by nature fully conscious; ekam — is one; urudhā — in many divisions; iva — as if; vibhāti — appears; māyā — this is illusion; svapnaḥ — merely a dream; tridhā — in three divisions; guṇa — of the modes of nature; visarga — by the transformation; kṛtaḥ — created; vikalpaḥ — variety of perception or imagination.
One should see that the material world is a distinct illusion appearing in the mind, because material objects have an extremely flickering existence and are here today and gone tomorrow. They can be compared to the streaking red line created by whirling a fiery stick. The spirit soul by nature exists in the single state of pure consciousness. However, in this world he appears in many different forms and stages of existence. The modes of nature divide the soul’s consciousness into normal wakefulness, dreaming and dreamless sleep. All such varieties of perception, however, are actually māyā and exist only like a dream.
dṛṣṭiṁ tataḥ pratinivartya nivṛtta-tṛṣṇas
tūṣṇīṁ bhaven nija-sukhānubhavo nirīhaḥ
sandṛśyate kva ca yadīdam avastu-buddhyā
tyaktaṁ bhramāya na bhavet smṛtir ā-nipātāt
dṛṣṭim — sight; tataḥ — from that illusion; pratinivartya — pulling away; nivṛtta — ceased; tṛṣṇaḥ — material hankering; tūṣṇīm — silent; bhavet — one should become; nija — one’s own (of the soul); sukha — happiness; anubhavaḥ — perceiving; nirīhaḥ — without material activities; sandṛśyate — is observed; kva ca — sometimes; yadi — if; idam — this material world; avastu — of not being reality; buddhyā — by the consciousness; tyaktam — given up; bhramāya — further illusion; na — not; bhavet — may become; smṛtiḥ — remembrance; ā-nipātāt — until giving up the material body.
Having understood the temporary illusory nature of material things, and thus having pulled one’s vision away from illusion, one should remain without material desires. By experiencing the happiness of the soul, one should give up material speaking and activities. If sometimes one must observe the material world, one should remember that it is not ultimate reality and therefore one has given it up. By such constant remembrance up till the time of death, one will not again fall into illusion.
dehaṁ ca naśvaram avasthitam utthitaṁ vā
siddho na paśyati yato ’dhyagamat svarūpam
daivād apetam atha daiva-vaśād upetaṁ
vāso yathā parikṛtaṁ madirā-madāndhaḥ
deham — the material body; ca — also; naśvaram — to be destroyed; avasthitam — seated; utthitam — risen; vā — or; siddhaḥ — one who is perfect; na paśyati — does not see; yataḥ — because; adhyagamat — he has achieved; sva-rūpam — his actual spiritual identity; daivāt — by destiny; apetam — departed; atha — or thus; daiva — of destiny; vaśāt — by the control; upetam — achieved; vāsaḥ — clothes; yathā — just as; parikṛtam — placed on the body; madirā — of liquor; mada — by the intoxication; andhaḥ — blinded.
Just as a drunken man does not notice if he is wearing his coat or shirt, similarly, one who is perfect in self-realization and who has thus achieved his eternal identity does not notice whether the temporary body is sitting or standing. Indeed, if by God’s will the body is finished or if by God’s will he obtains a new body, a self-realized soul does not notice, just as a drunken man does not notice the situation of his outward dress.
deho ’pi daiva-vaśa-gaḥ khalu karma yāvat
svārambhakaṁ pratisamīkṣata eva sāsuḥ
taṁ sa-prapañcam adhirūḍha-samādhi-yogaḥ
svāpnaṁ punar na bhajate pratibuddha-vastuḥ
dehaḥ — the body; api — even; daiva — of the Supreme; vaśa-gaḥ — under the control; khalu — indeed; karma — the chain of fruitive activities; yāvat — as long as; sva-ārambhakam — that which initiates or perpetuates itself; pratisamīkṣate — goes on living and waiting; eva — certainly; sa-asuḥ — along with the vital air and senses; tam — that (body); sa-prapañcam — with its variety of manifestations; adhirūḍha — highly situated; samādhi — the stage of perfection; yogaḥ — in the yoga system; svāpnam — just like a dream; punaḥ — again; na bhajate — does not worship or cultivate; pratibuddha — one who is enlightened; vastuḥ — in the supreme reality.
The material body certainly moves under the control of supreme destiny and therefore must continue to live along with the senses and vital air as long as one’s karma is in effect. A self-realized soul, however, who is awakened to the absolute reality and who is thus highly situated in the perfect stage of yoga, will never again surrender to the material body and its manifold manifestations, knowing it to be just like a body visualized in a dream.
mayaitad uktaṁ vo viprā
guhyaṁ yat sāṅkhya-yogayoḥ
jānīta māgataṁ yajñaṁ
mayā — by Me; etat — this (knowledge); uktam — has been spoken; vaḥ — unto you; viprāḥ — O brāhmaṇas; guhyam — confidential; yat — which; sāṅkhya — of the philosophical method of distinguishing matter from spirit; yogayoḥ — and the aṣṭāṅga-yoga system; jānīta — please understand; mā — Me; āgatam — who have arrived; yajñam — as Viṣṇu, the Supreme Lord of sacrifice; yuṣmat — your; dharma — religious duties; vivakṣayā — with the desire to explain.
My dear brāhmaṇas, I have now explained to you the confidential knowledge of Sāṅkhya, by which one philosophically distinguishes matter from spirit, and of aṣṭāṅga-yoga, by which one links up with the Supreme. Please understand that I am the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Viṣṇu, and that I have appeared before you desiring to explain your actual religious duties.
ahaṁ yogasya sāṅkhyasya
śriyaḥ kīrter damasya ca
aham — I; yogasya — of the yoga system; sāṅkhyasya — of the system of analytic philosophy; satyasya — of virtuous action; ṛtasya — of truthful religious principles; tejasaḥ — of power; para-ayaṇam — the ultimate shelter; dvija-śreṣṭhāḥ — O best of the brāhmaṇas; śriyaḥ — of beauty; kīrteḥ — of fame; damasya — of self-control; ca — also.
O best of the brāhmaṇas, please know that I am the supreme shelter of the yoga system, analytic philosophy, virtuous action, truthful religious principles, power, beauty, fame and self-control.
māṁ bhajanti guṇāḥ sarve
suhṛdaṁ priyam ātmānaṁ
mām — Me; bhajanti — serve and take shelter of; guṇāḥ — qualities; sarve — all; nirguṇam — free from the modes of nature; nirapekṣakam — detached; su-hṛdam — the well-wisher; priyam — the most dear; ātmānam — the Supersoul; sāmya — being equally situated everywhere; asaṅga — detachment; ādayaḥ — and so on; aguṇāḥ — free from the transformation of the material modes.
All superior transcendental qualities, such as being beyond the modes of nature, detached, the well-wisher, the most dear, the Supersoul, equally situated everywhere, and free from material entanglement — all such qualities, free from the transformations of material qualities, find their shelter and worshipable object in Me.
iti me chinna-sandehā
iti — thus; me — by Me; chinna — destroyed; sandehāḥ — all their doubts; munayaḥ — the sages; sanaka-ādayaḥ — headed by Sanaka-kumāra; sabhājayitvā — fully worshiping Me; parayā — characterized by transcendental love; bhaktyā — with devotion; agṛṇata — they chanted My glories; saṁstavaiḥ — with beautiful hymns.
[Lord Kṛṣṇa continued:] My dear Uddhava, thus all of the doubts of the sages headed by Sanaka were destroyed by My words. Fully worshiping Me with transcendental love and devotion, they chanted My glories with excellent hymns.
tair ahaṁ pūjitaḥ saṁyak
pratyeyāya svakaṁ dhāma
taiḥ — by them; aham — I; pūjitaḥ — worshiped; saṁyak — perfectly; saṁstutaḥ — perfectly glorified; parama-ṛṣibhiḥ — by the greatest of sages; pratyeyāya — I returned; svakam — to My own; dhāma — abode; paśyataḥ parameṣṭhinaḥ — as Lord Brahmā looked on.
The greatest of sages, headed by Sanaka Ṛṣi, thus perfectly worshiped and glorified Me, and as Lord Brahmā looked on, I returned to My own abode.