Śrīmad Bhāgavatam |Canto 10 Chapter 8
Lord Kṛṣṇa Shows the Universal Form Within His Mouth
gargaḥ purohito rājan
vrajaṁ jagāma nandasya
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; gargaḥ — Garga Muni; purohitaḥ — the priest; rājan — O King Parīkṣit; yadūnām — of the Yadu dynasty; su-mahā-tapāḥ — highly elevated in austerity and penance; vrajam — to the village known as Vrajabhūmi; jagāma — went; nandasya — of Mahārāja Nanda; vasudeva-pracoditaḥ — being inspired by Vasudeva.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, the priest of the Yadu dynasty, namely Garga Muni, who was highly elevated in austerity and penance, was then inspired by Vasudeva to go see Nanda Mahārāja at his home.
taṁ dṛṣṭvā parama-prītaḥ
tam — him (Garga Muni); dṛṣṭvā — after seeing; parama-prītaḥ — Nanda Mahārāja was very much pleased; pratyutthāya — standing up to receive him; kṛta-añjaliḥ — with folded hands; ānarca — worshiped; adhokṣaja-dhiyā — although Garga Muni was visible to the senses, Nanda Mahārāja maintained a very high respect for him; praṇipāta-puraḥsaram — Nanda Mahārāja fell down before him and offered obeisances.
When Nanda Mahārāja saw Garga Muni present at his home, Nanda was so pleased that he stood up to receive him with folded hands. Although seeing Garga Muni with his eyes, Nanda Mahārāja could appreciate that Garga Muni was adhokṣaja; that is, he was not an ordinary person seen by material senses.
girā sūnṛtayā munim
pūrṇasya karavāma kim
su-upaviṣṭam — when Garga Muni was seated very comfortably; kṛta-ātithyam — and he had been properly received as a guest; girā — by words; sūnṛtayā — very sweet; munim — Garga Muni; nandayitvā — pleasing him in this way; abravīt — said; brahman — O brāhmaṇa; pūrṇasya — of one who is full in everything; karavāma kim — what can I do for you (kindly order me).
When Garga Muni had been properly received as a guest and was very comfortably seated, Nanda Mahārāja submitted with gentle and submissive words: Dear sir, because you are a devotee, you are full in everything. Yet my duty is to serve you. Kindly order me. What can I do for you?
kalpate nānyathā kvacit
mahat-vicalanam — the movement of great personalities; nṝṇām — in the houses of ordinary persons; gṛhiṇām — especially householders; dīna-cetasām — who are very simple-minded, being engaged in family maintenance and nothing more; niḥśreyasāya — a great personality has no reason to go to the gṛhastha but to benefit him; bhagavan — O most powerful devotee; kalpate — is to be taken that way; na anyathā — not for any other purpose; kvacit — at any time.
O my lord, O great devotee, persons like you move from one place to another not for their own interests but for the sake of poor-hearted gṛhasthas [householders]. Otherwise they have no interest in going from one place to another.
jyotiṣām ayanaṁ sākṣād
yat taj jñānam atīndriyam
praṇītaṁ bhavatā yena
pumān veda parāvaram
jyotiṣām — knowledge of astrology (along with other aspects of culture in human society, and specifically in civilized society, there must be knowledge of astrology); ayanam — the movements of the stars and planets in relationship to human society; sākṣāt — directly; yat tat jñānam — such knowledge; ati-indriyam — which an ordinary person cannot understand because it is beyond his vision; praṇītam bhavatā — you have prepared a perfect book of knowledge; yena — by which; pumān — any person; veda — can understand; para-avaram — the cause and effect of destiny.
O great saintly person, you have compiled the astrological knowledge by which one can understand past and present unseen things. By the strength of this knowledge, any human being can understand what he has done in his past life and how it affects his present life. This is known to you.
tvaṁ hi brahma-vidāṁ śreṣṭhaḥ
saṁskārān kartum arhasi
bālayor anayor nṝṇāṁ
janmanā brāhmaṇo guruḥ
tvam — Your Holiness; hi — indeed; brahma-vidām — of all brāhmaṇas, or persons who understand what is Brahman (brahma jānātīti brāhmaṇaḥ); śreṣṭhaḥ — you are the best; saṁskārān — ceremonies performed for reformation (because by these reformatory activities one takes one’s second birth: saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ); kartum arhasi — because you have kindly come here, kindly execute; bālayoḥ — of these two sons (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma); anayoḥ — of both of Them; nṝṇām — not only of Them, but of all human society; janmanā — as soon as he takes birth; brāhmaṇaḥ — immediately the brāhmaṇa becomes; guruḥ — the guide*.
My lord, you are the best of the brāhmaṇas, especially because you are fully aware of the jyotiḥ-śāstra, the astrological science. Therefore you are naturally the spiritual master of every human being. This being so, since you have kindly come to my house, kindly execute the reformatory activities for my two sons.
yadūnām aham ācāryaḥ
khyātaś ca bhuvi sarvadā
sutaṁ mayā saṁskṛtaṁ te
śrī-gargaḥ uvāca — Garga Muni said; yadūnām — of the Yadu dynasty; aham — I am; ācāryaḥ — the priestly guide, or purohita; khyātaḥ ca — this is already known; bhuvi — everywhere; sarvadā — always; sutam — the son; mayā — by me; saṁskṛtam — having undergone the purificatory process; te — of you; manyate — would be considered; devakī-sutam — the son of Devakī.
Garga Muni said: My dear Nanda Mahārāja, I am the priestly guide of the Yadu dynasty. This is known everywhere. Therefore, if I perform the purificatory process for your sons, Kaṁsa will consider Them the sons of Devakī.
kaṁsaḥ pāpa-matiḥ sakhyaṁ
devakyā aṣṭamo garbho
na strī bhavitum arhati
iti sañcintayañ chrutvā
api hantā gatāśaṅkas
tarhi tan no ’nayo bhavet
kaṁsaḥ — King Kaṁsa; pāpa-matiḥ — very, very sinful, having a polluted mind; sakhyam — friendship; tava — your; ca — also; ānaka-dundubheḥ — of Vasudeva; devakyāḥ — of Devakī; aṣṭamaḥ garbhaḥ — the eighth pregnancy; na — not; strī — a woman; bhavitum arhati — is possible to be; iti — in this way; sañcintayan — considering; śrutvā — and hearing (this news); devakyāḥ — of Devakī; dārikā-vacaḥ — the message from the daughter; api — although there was; hantā gata-āśaṅkaḥ — there is a possibility that Kaṁsa would take steps to kill this child; tarhi — therefore; tat — that incident; naḥ — for us; anayaḥ bhavet — may not be very good.
Kaṁsa is both a great diplomat and a very sinful man. Therefore, having heard from Yoga-māyā, the daughter of Devakī, that the child who will kill him has already been born somewhere else, having heard that the eighth pregnancy of Devakī could not bring forth a female child, and having understood your friendship with Vasudeva, Kaṁsa, upon hearing that the purificatory process has been performed by me, the priest of the Yadu dynasty, may certainly consider all these points and suspect that Kṛṣṇa is the son of Devakī and Vasudeva. Then he might take steps to kill Kṛṣṇa. That would be a catastrophe.
alakṣito ’smin rahasi
māmakair api go-vraje
śrī-nandaḥ uvāca — Nanda Mahārāja said (to Garga Muni); alakṣitaḥ — without Kaṁsa’s knowledge; asmin — in this cow shed; rahasi — in a very solitary place; māmakaiḥ — even by my relatives; api — a still more secluded place; go-vraje — in the cow shed; kuru — just execute; dvijāti-saṁskāram — the purificatory process of second birth (saṁskārād bhaved dvijaḥ); svasti-vācana-pūrvakam — by chanting the Vedic hymns to perform the purificatory process.
Nanda Mahārāja said: My dear great sage, if you think that your performing this process of purification will make Kaṁsa suspicious, then secretly chant the Vedic hymns and perform the purifying process of second birth here in the cow shed of my house, without the knowledge of anyone else, even my relatives, for this process of purification is essential.
evaṁ samprārthito vipraḥ
sva-cikīrṣitam eva tat
gūḍho rahasi bālayoḥ
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; evam — in this way; samprārthitaḥ — being eagerly requested; vipraḥ — the brāhmaṇa Garga Muni; sva-cikīrṣitam eva — which he already desired to do and for which he had gone there; tat — that; cakāra — performed; nāma-karaṇam — the name-giving ceremony; gūḍhaḥ — confidentially; rahasi — in a secluded place; bālayoḥ — of the two boys (Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma).
Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: Having thus been especially requested by Nanda Mahārāja to do that which he already desired to do, Garga Muni performed the name-giving ceremony for Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma in a solitary place.
ayaṁ hi rohiṇī-putro
ramayan suhṛdo guṇaiḥ
ākhyāsyate rāma iti
balādhikyād balaṁ viduḥ
saṅkarṣaṇam uśanty api
śrī-gargaḥ uvāca — Garga Muni said; ayam — this; hi — indeed; rohiṇī-putraḥ — the son of Rohiṇī; ramayan — pleasing; suhṛdaḥ — all His friends and relatives; guṇaiḥ — by transcendental qualities; ākhyāsyate — will be called; rāmaḥ — by the name Rāma, the supreme enjoyer; iti — in this way; bala-ādhikyāt — because of extraordinary strength; balam viduḥ — will be known as Balarāma; yadūnām — of the Yadu dynasty; apṛthak-bhāvāt — because of not being separated from you; saṅkarṣaṇam — by the name Saṅkarṣaṇa, or uniting two families; uśanti — attracts; api — also.
Garga Muni said: This child, the son of Rohiṇī, will give all happiness to His relatives and friends by His transcendental qualities. Therefore He will be known as Rāma. And because He will manifest extraordinary bodily strength, He will also be known as Bala. Moreover, because He unites two families — Vasudeva’s family and the family of Nanda Mahārāja — He will be known as Saṅkarṣaṇa.
āsan varṇās trayo hy asya
gṛhṇato ’nuyugaṁ tanūḥ
śuklo raktas tathā pīta
idānīṁ kṛṣṇatāṁ gataḥ
āsan — were assumed; varṇāḥ trayaḥ — three colors; hi — indeed; asya — of your son Kṛṣṇa; gṛhṇataḥ — accepting; anuyugam tanūḥ — transcendental bodies according to the different yugas; śuklaḥ — sometimes white; raktaḥ — sometimes red; tathā — as well as; pītaḥ — sometimes yellow; idānīm kṛṣṇatām gataḥ — at the present moment He has assumed a blackish color.
Your son Kṛṣṇa appears as an incarnation in every millennium. In the past, He assumed three different colors — white, red and yellow — and now He has appeared in a blackish color. [In another Dvāpara-yuga, He appeared (as Lord Rāmacandra) in the color of śuka, a parrot. All such incarnations have now assembled in Kṛṣṇa.]
prāg ayaṁ vasudevasya
kvacij jātas tavātmajaḥ
vāsudeva iti śrīmān
prāk — before; ayam — this child; vasudevasya — of Vasudeva; kvacit — sometimes; jātaḥ — was born; tava — your; ātmajaḥ — Kṛṣṇa, who has taken birth as your child; vāsudevaḥ — therefore He may be given the name Vāsudeva; iti — thus; śrīmān — very beautiful; abhijñāḥ — those who are learned; sampracakṣate — also say that Kṛṣṇa is Vāsudeva.
For many reasons, this beautiful son of yours sometimes appeared previously as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore, those who are learned sometimes call this child Vāsudeva.
bahūni santi nāmāni
rūpāṇi ca sutasya te
tāny ahaṁ veda no janāḥ
bahūni — various; santi — there are; nāmāni — names; rūpāṇi — forms; ca — also; sutasya — of the son; te — your; guṇa-karma-anu-rūpāṇi — according to His attributes and activities; tāni — them; aham — I; veda — know; no janāḥ — not ordinary persons.
For this son of yours there are many forms and names according to His transcendental qualities and activities. These are known to me, but people in general do not understand them.
eṣa vaḥ śreya ādhāsyad
yūyam añjas tariṣyatha
eṣaḥ — this child; vaḥ — for all of you people; śreyaḥ — the most auspicious; ādhāsyat — will act all-auspiciously; gopa-gokula-nandanaḥ — just like a cowherd boy, born in a family of cowherd men as the son of the estate of Gokula; anena — by Him; sarva-durgāṇi — all kinds of miserable conditions; yūyam — all of you; añjaḥ — easily; tariṣyatha — will overcome.
To increase the transcendental bliss of the cowherd men of Gokula, this child will always act auspiciously for you. And by His grace only, you will surpass all difficulties.
jigyur dasyūn samedhitāḥ
purā — formerly; anena — by Kṛṣṇa; vraja-pate — O King of Vraja; sādhavaḥ — those who were honest; dasyu-pīḍitāḥ — being disturbed by rogues and thieves; arājake — when there was an irregular government; rakṣyamāṇāḥ — were protected; jigyuḥ — conquered; dasyūn — the rogues and thieves; samedhitāḥ — flourished.
O Nanda Mahārāja, as recorded in history, when there was an irregular, incapable government, Indra having been dethroned, and people were being harassed and disturbed by thieves, this child appeared in order to protect the people and enable them to flourish, and He curbed the rogues and thieves.
ya etasmin mahā-bhāgāḥ
prītiṁ kurvanti mānavāḥ
nārayo ’bhibhavanty etān
ye — those persons who; etasmin — unto this child; mahā-bhāgāḥ — very fortunate; prītim — affection; kurvanti — execute; mānavāḥ — such persons; na — not; arayaḥ — the enemies; abhibhavanti — do overcome; etān — those who are attached to Kṛṣṇa; viṣṇu-pakṣān — the demigods, who always have Lord Viṣṇu on their side; iva — like; asurāḥ — the demons.
Demons [asuras] cannot harm the demigods, who always have Lord Viṣṇu on their side. Similarly, any person or group attached to Kṛṣṇa is extremely fortunate. Because such persons are very much affectionate toward Kṛṣṇa, they cannot be defeated by demons like the associates of Kaṁsa [or by the internal enemies, the senses].
tasmān nandātmajo ’yaṁ te
tasmāt — therefore; nanda — O Nanda Mahārāja; ātmajaḥ — your son; ayam — this; te — of you; nārāyaṇa-samaḥ — is as good as Nārāyaṇa (Nārāyaṇa Himself showing transcendental qualities); guṇaiḥ — by qualities; śriyā — by opulence; kīrtyā — especially by His name and fame; anubhāvena — and by His influence; gopāyasva — just raise this child; samāhitaḥ — with great attention and precaution.
In conclusion, therefore, O Nanda Mahārāja, this child of yours is as good as Nārāyaṇa. In His transcendental qualities, opulence, name, fame and influence, He is exactly like Nārāyaṇa. You should all raise this child very carefully and cautiously.
ity ātmānaṁ samādiśya
garge ca sva-gṛhaṁ gate
nandaḥ pramudito mene
ātmānaṁ pūrṇam āśiṣām
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; iti — thus; ātmānam — about the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Soul; samādiśya — after fully instructing; garge — when Garga Muni; ca — also; sva-gṛham — to his own abode; gate — had departed; nandaḥ — Mahārāja Nanda; pramuditaḥ — became extremely pleased; mene — considered; ātmānam — his own self; pūrṇam āśiṣām — full of all good fortune.
Śrīla Śukadeva Gosvāmī continued: After Garga Muni, having instructed Nanda Mahārāja about Kṛṣṇa, departed for his own home, Nanda Mahārāja was very pleased and considered himself full of all good fortune.
jānubhyāṁ saha pāṇibhyāṁ
kālena — of time; vrajatā — passing; alpena — a very small duration; gokule — in Gokula, Vraja-dhāma; rāma-keśavau — both Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa; jānubhyām — by the strength of Their knees; saha pāṇibhyām — resting on Their hands; riṅgamāṇau — crawling; vijahratuḥ — enjoyed childhood play.
After a short time passed, both brothers, Rāma and Kṛṣṇa, began to crawl on the ground of Vraja with the strength of Their hands and knees and thus enjoy Their childhood play.
tāv aṅghri-yugmam anukṛṣya sarīsṛpantau
tan-nāda-hṛṣṭa-manasāv anusṛtya lokaṁ
mugdha-prabhītavad upeyatur anti mātroḥ
tau — Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; aṅghri-yugmam anukṛṣya — dragging Their legs; sarīsṛpantau — crawling like snakes; ghoṣa-praghoṣa-ruciram — producing a sound with Their ankle bells that was very, very sweet to hear; vraja-kardameṣu — in the mud created by cow dung and cow urine on the earth of Vrajabhūmi; tat-nāda — by the sound of those ankle bells; hṛṣṭa-manasau — being very much pleased; anusṛtya — following; lokam — other persons; mugdha — thus being enchanted; prabhīta-vat — then again being afraid of them; upeyatuḥ — immediately returned; anti mātroḥ — toward Their mothers.
When Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma, with the strength of Their legs, crawled in the muddy places created in Vraja by cow dung and cow urine, Their crawling resembled the crawling of serpents, and the sound of Their ankle bells was very charming. Very much pleased by the sound of other people’s ankle bells, They used to follow these people as if going to Their mothers, but when They saw that these were other people, They became afraid and returned to Their real mothers, Yaśodā and Rohiṇī.
tan-mātarau nija-sutau ghṛṇayā snuvantyau
paṅkāṅga-rāga-rucirāv upagṛhya dorbhyām
dattvā stanaṁ prapibatoḥ sma mukhaṁ nirīkṣya
mugdha-smitālpa-daśanaṁ yayatuḥ pramodam
tat-mātarau — Their mothers (Rohiṇī and Yaśodā); nija-sutau — their own respective sons; ghṛṇayā — with great affection; snuvantyau — allowed to suck the flowing milk from their breasts very happily; paṅka-aṅga-rāga-rucirau — whose beautiful transcendental bodies were covered with muddy cow dung and urine; upagṛhya — taking care of; dorbhyām — by their arms; dattvā — delivering Them; stanam — the breast; prapibatoḥ — when the babies were sucking; sma — indeed; mukham — the mouth; nirīkṣya — and seeing; mugdha-smita-alpa-daśanam — smiling with little teeth coming out of Their mouths (they were more and more attracted); yayatuḥ — and enjoyed; pramodam — transcendental bliss.
Dressed with muddy earth mixed with cow dung and cow urine, the babies looked very beautiful, and when They went to Their mothers, both Yaśodā and Rohiṇī picked Them up with great affection, embraced Them and allowed Them to suck the milk flowing from their breasts. While sucking the breast, the babies smiled, and Their small teeth were visible. Their mothers, upon seeing those beautiful teeth, enjoyed great transcendental bliss.
antar-vraje tad abalāḥ pragṛhīta-pucchaiḥ
vatsair itas tata ubhāv anukṛṣyamāṇau
prekṣantya ujjhita-gṛhā jahṛṣur hasantyaḥ
yarhi — when; aṅganā-darśanīya — visible only to the ladies within the house; kumāra-līlau — the pastimes Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma exhibited as children; antaḥ-vraje — within the inside of Vraja, in the house of Nanda Mahārāja; tat — at that time; abalāḥ — all the ladies; pragṛhīta-pucchaiḥ — the ends of their tails having been caught by Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; vatsaiḥ — by the calves; itaḥ tataḥ — here and there; ubhau — both Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma; anukṛṣyamāṇau — being dragged; prekṣantyaḥ — seeing such things; ujjhita — given up; gṛhāḥ — their household affairs; jahṛṣuḥ — enjoyed very much; hasantyaḥ — while laughing.
Within the house of Nanda Mahārāja, the cowherd ladies would enjoy seeing the pastimes of the babies Rāma and Kṛṣṇa. The babies would catch the ends of the calves’ tails, and the calves would drag Them here and there. When the ladies saw these pastimes, they certainly stopped their household activities and laughed and enjoyed the incidents.
krīḍā-parāv aticalau sva-sutau niṣeddhum
gṛhyāṇi kartum api yatra na taj-jananyau
śekāta āpatur alaṁ manaso ’navasthām
śṛṅgī — with the cows; agni — fire; daṁṣṭrī — monkeys and dogs; asi — swords; jala — water; dvija — birds; kaṇṭakebhyaḥ — and thorns; krīḍā-parau ati-calau — the babies, being too restless, engaged in play; sva-sutau — their own two sons; niṣeddhum — just to stop Them; gṛhyāṇi — household duties; kartum api — by executing; yatra — when; na — not; tat-jananyau — Their mothers (Rohiṇī and Yaśodā); śekāte — able; āpatuḥ — obtained; alam — indeed; manasaḥ — of the mind; anavasthām — equilibrium.
When mother Yaśodā and Rohiṇī were unable to protect the babies from calamities threatened by horned cows, by fire, by animals with claws and teeth such as monkeys, dogs and cats, and by thorns, swords and other weapons on the ground, they were always in anxiety, and their household engagements were disturbed. At that time, they were fully equipoised in the transcendental ecstasy known as the distress of material affection, for this was aroused within their minds.
rāmaḥ kṛṣṇaś ca gokule
kālena alpena — within a very short time; rājarṣe — O King (Mahārāja Parīkṣit); rāmaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ ca — both Rāma and Kṛṣṇa; gokule — in the village of Gokula; aghṛṣṭa-jānubhiḥ — without the help of crawling on Their knees; padbhiḥ — by Their legs alone; vicakramatuḥ — began to walk; añjasā — very easily.
O King Parīkṣit, within a very short time both Rāma and Kṛṣṇa began to walk very easily in Gokula on Their legs, by Their own strength, without the need to crawl.
tatas tu bhagavān kṛṣṇo
cikrīḍe janayan mudam
tataḥ — thereafter; tu — but; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; kṛṣṇaḥ — Lord Kṛṣṇa; vayasyaiḥ — with Their playmates; vraja-bālakaiḥ — with other small children in Vraja; saha-rāmaḥ — along with Balarāma; vraja-strīṇām — of all the ladies of Vraja; cikrīḍe — played very happily; janayan — awakening; mudam — transcendental bliss.
Thereafter, Lord Kṛṣṇa, along with Balarāma, began to play with the other children of the cowherd men, thus awakening the transcendental bliss of the cowherd women.
kṛṣṇasya gopyo ruciraṁ
śṛṇvantyāḥ kila tan-mātur
iti hocuḥ samāgatāḥ
kṛṣṇasya — of Kṛṣṇa; gopyaḥ — all the gopīs; ruciram — very attractive; vīkṣya — observing; kaumāra-cāpalam — the restlessness of the childish pastimes; śṛṇvantyāḥ — just to hear them again and again; kila — indeed; tat-mātuḥ — in the presence of His mother; iti — thus; ha — indeed; ūcuḥ — said; samāgatāḥ — assembled there.
Observing the very attractive childish restlessness of Kṛṣṇa, all the gopīs in the neighborhood, to hear about Kṛṣṇa’s activities again and again, would approach mother Yaśodā and speak to her as follows.
vatsān muñcan kvacid asamaye krośa-sañjāta-hāsaḥ
steyaṁ svādv atty atha dadhi-payaḥ kalpitaiḥ steya-yogaiḥ
markān bhokṣyan vibhajati sa cen nātti bhāṇḍaṁ bhinnatti
dravyālābhe sagṛha-kupito yāty upakrośya tokān
vatsān — the calves; muñcan — releasing; kvacit — sometimes; asamaye — at odd times; krośa-sañjāta-hāsaḥ — after this, when the head of the house is angry, Kṛṣṇa begins to smile; steyam — obtained by stealing; svādu — very tasteful; atti — eats; atha — thus; dadhi-payaḥ — pot of curd and milk; kalpitaiḥ — devised; steya-yogaiḥ — by some sort of stealing process; markān — to the monkeys; bhokṣyan — giving to eat; vibhajati — divides their portion; saḥ — the monkey; cet — if; na — not; atti — eats; bhāṇḍam — the pot; bhinnatti — He breaks; dravya-alābhe — when eatables are unavailable or He cannot find such pots; sa-gṛha-kupitaḥ — He becomes angry at the residents of the house; yāti — He goes away; upakrośya — irritating and pinching; tokān — the small children.
“Our dear friend Yaśodā, your son sometimes comes to our houses before the milking of the cows and releases the calves, and when the master of the house becomes angry, your son merely smiles. Sometimes He devises some process by which He steals palatable curd, butter and milk, which He then eats and drinks. When the monkeys assemble, He divides it with them, and when the monkeys have their bellies so full that they won’t take more, He breaks the pots. Sometimes, if He gets no opportunity to steal butter or milk from a house, He will be angry at the householders, and for His revenge He will agitate the small children by pinching them. Then, when the children begin crying, Kṛṣṇa will go away.
hastāgrāhye racayati vidhiṁ pīṭhakolūkhalādyaiś
chidraṁ hy antar-nihita-vayunaḥ śikya-bhāṇḍeṣu tad-vit
dhvāntāgāre dhṛta-maṇi-gaṇaṁ svāṅgam artha-pradīpaṁ
kāle gopyo yarhi gṛha-kṛtyeṣu suvyagra-cittāḥ
hasta-agrāhye — when the destination is out of the reach of His hands; racayati — He arranges to make; vidhim — a means; pīṭhaka — by wooden planks piled together; ulūkhala-ādyaiḥ — and by overturning the stone mortar for grinding spices; chidram — a hole; hi — indeed; antaḥ-nihita — about the contents of the pot; vayunaḥ — with such knowledge; śikya — hanging by a swing; bhāṇḍeṣu — in the pots; tat-vit — expert in that knowledge, or in full knowledge; dhvānta-āgāre — in a very dark room; dhṛta-maṇi-gaṇam — because of being decorated with valuable jewels; sva-aṅgam — His own body; artha-pradīpam — is the light required for seeing in darkness; kāle — after that, in due course of time; gopyaḥ — the elderly gopīs; yarhi — as soon as; gṛha-kṛtyeṣu — in discharging household affairs; su-vyagra-cittāḥ — are busily engaged.
“When the milk and curd are kept high on a swing hanging from the ceiling and Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma cannot reach it, They arrange to reach it by piling up various planks and turning upside down the mortar for grinding spices. Being quite aware of the contents of a pot, They poke holes in it. While the elderly gopīs go about their household affairs, Kṛṣṇa and Balarāma sometimes go into a dark room, brightening the place with the valuable jewels and ornaments on Their bodies and taking advantage of this light by stealing.
evaṁ dhārṣṭyāny uśati kurute mehanādīni vāstau
steyopāyair viracita-kṛtiḥ supratīko yathāste
itthaṁ strībhiḥ sa-bhaya-nayana-śrī-mukhālokinībhir
vyākhyātārthā prahasita-mukhī na hy upālabdhum aicchat
evam — in this way; dhārṣṭyāni — naughty activities; uśati — in a neat and clean place; kurute — sometimes does; mehana-ādīni — passing stool and urine; vāstau — in our houses; steya-upāyaiḥ — and by inventing different devices to steal butter and milk; viracita-kṛtiḥ — is very expert; su-pratīkaḥ — is now sitting down here like a very good, well-behaved child; yathā āste — while staying here; ittham — all these topics of conversation; strībhiḥ — by the gopīs; sa-bhaya-nayana — just now sitting there with fearful eyes; śrī-mukha — such a beautiful face; ālokinībhiḥ — by the gopīs, who were enjoying the pleasure of seeing; vyākhyāta-arthā — and while complaining against Him before mother Yaśodā; prahasita-mukhī — they were smiling and enjoying; na — not; hi — indeed; upālabdhum — to chastise and threaten (rather, she enjoyed how Kṛṣṇa was sitting there as a very good boy); aicchat — she desired.
“When Kṛṣṇa is caught in His naughty activities, the master of the house will say to Him, ‘Oh, You are a thief,’ and artificially express anger at Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa will then reply, ‘I am not a thief. You are a thief.’ Sometimes, being angry, Kṛṣṇa passes urine and stool in a neat, clean place in our houses. But now, our dear friend Yaśodā, this expert thief is sitting before you like a very good boy.” Sometimes all the gopīs would look at Kṛṣṇa sitting there, His eyes fearful so that His mother would not chastise Him, and when they saw Kṛṣṇa’s beautiful face, instead of chastising Him they would simply look upon His face and enjoy transcendental bliss. Mother Yaśodā would mildly smile at all this fun, and she would not want to chastise her blessed transcendental child.
ekadā krīḍamānās te
kṛṣṇo mṛdaṁ bhakṣitavān
iti mātre nyavedayan
ekadā — once upon a time; krīḍamānāḥ — now Kṛṣṇa, being still more grown up, was playing with other children of the same age; te — they; rāma-ādyāḥ — Balarāma and others; gopa-dārakāḥ — other boys born in the same neighborhood of the cowherd men; kṛṣṇaḥ mṛdam bhakṣitavān — O Mother, Kṛṣṇa has eaten earth (a complaint was lodged); iti — thus; mātre — unto mother Yaśodā; nyavedayan — they submitted.
One day while Kṛṣṇa was playing with His small playmates, including Balarāma and other sons of the gopas, all His friends came together and lodged a complaint to mother Yaśodā. “Mother,” they submitted, “Kṛṣṇa has eaten earth.”
sā gṛhītvā kare kṛṣṇam
sā — mother Yaśodā; gṛhītvā — taking; kare — within the hands (being anxious about what Kṛṣṇa might have eaten); kṛṣṇam — Kṛṣṇa; upālabhya — wanted to chastise Him; hita-eṣiṇī — because she was anxious for the welfare of Kṛṣṇa, she became very much agitated, thinking, “How is it that Kṛṣṇa has eaten earth?”; yaśodā — mother Yaśodā; bhaya-sambhrānta-prekṣaṇa-akṣam — began to look very carefully within Kṛṣṇa’s mouth in fear, to see if Kṛṣṇa had eaten something dangerous; abhāṣata — began to address Kṛṣṇa.
Upon hearing this from Kṛṣṇa’s playmates, mother Yaśodā, who was always full of anxiety over Kṛṣṇa’s welfare, picked Kṛṣṇa up with her hands to look into His mouth and chastise Him. Her eyes fearful, she spoke to her son as follows.
kasmān mṛdam adāntātman
bhavān bhakṣitavān rahaḥ
vadanti tāvakā hy ete
kumārās te ’grajo ’py ayam
kasmāt — why; mṛdam — dirt; adānta-ātman — You restless boy; bhavān — You; bhakṣitavān — have eaten; rahaḥ — in a solitary place; vadanti — are lodging this complaint; tāvakāḥ — Your friends and playmates; hi — indeed; ete — all of them; kumārāḥ — boys; te — Your; agrajaḥ — older brother; api — also (confirms); ayam — this.
Dear Kṛṣṇa, why are You so restless that You have eaten dirt in a solitary place? This complaint has been lodged against You by all Your playmates, including Your elder brother, Balarāma. How is this?
nāhaṁ bhakṣitavān amba
yadi satya-giras tarhi
samakṣaṁ paśya me mukham
na — not; aham — I; bhakṣitavān — have eaten dirt; amba — My dear mother; sarve — all of them; mithya-abhiśaṁsinaḥ — all liars, simply complaining against Me so that you may chastise Me; yadi — if it is actually a fact; satya-giraḥ — that they have spoken the truth; tarhi — then; samakṣam — directly; paśya — see; me — My; mukham — mouth.
Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa replied: My dear mother, I have never eaten dirt. All My friends complaining against Me are liars. If you think they are being truthful, you can directly look into My mouth and examine it.
yady evaṁ tarhi vyādehī-
ty uktaḥ sa bhagavān hariḥ
yadi — if; evam — it is so; tarhi — then; vyādehi — open Your mouth wide (I want to see); iti uktaḥ — in this way ordered by mother Yaśodā; saḥ — He; bhagavān — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; hariḥ — the Supreme Lord; vyādatta — opened His mouth; avyāhata-aiśvaryaḥ — without minimizing any potencies of absolute opulence (aiśvaryasya samagrasya); krīḍā — pastimes; manuja-bālakaḥ — exactly like the child of a human being.
Mother Yaśodā challenged Kṛṣṇa, “If You have not eaten earth, then open Your mouth wide.” When challenged by His mother in this way, Kṛṣṇa, the son of Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā, to exhibit pastimes like a human child, opened His mouth. Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Kṛṣṇa, who is full of all opulences, did not disturb His mother’s parental affection, His opulence was automatically displayed, for Kṛṣṇa’s opulence is never lost at any stage, but is manifest at the proper time.
sā tatra dadṛśe viśvaṁ
jagat sthāsnu ca khaṁ diśaḥ
jyotiś-cakraṁ jalaṁ tejo
nabhasvān viyad eva ca
mano mātrā guṇās trayaḥ
etad vicitraṁ saha-jīva-kāla-
sūnos tanau vīkṣya vidāritāsye
vrajaṁ sahātmānam avāpa śaṅkām
sā — mother Yaśodā; tatra — within the wide-open mouth of Kṛṣṇa; dadṛśe — saw; viśvam — the whole universe; jagat — moving entities; sthāsnu — maintenance of nonmoving entities; ca — and; kham — the sky; diśaḥ — the directions; sa-adri — with the mountains; dvīpa — islands; abdhi — and oceans; bhū-golam — the surface of the earth; sa-vāyu — with the blowing wind; agni — fire; indu — the moon; tārakam — stars; jyotiḥ-cakram — the planetary systems; jalam — water; tejaḥ — light; nabhasvān — outer space; viyat — the sky; eva — also; ca — and; vaikārikāṇi — creation by transformation of ahaṅkāra; indriyāṇi — the senses; manaḥ — mind; mātrāḥ — sense perception; guṇāḥ trayaḥ — the three material qualities (sattva, rajas and tamas); etat — all these; vicitram — varieties; saha — along with; jīva-kāla — the duration of life of all living entities; svabhāva — natural instinct; karma-āśaya — resultant action and desire for material enjoyment; liṅga-bhedam — varieties of bodies according to desire; sūnoḥ tanau — in the body of her son; vīkṣya — seeing; vidārita-āsye — within the wide-open mouth; vrajam — Vṛndāvana-dhāma, Nanda Mahārāja’s place; saha-ātmānam — along with herself; avāpa — was struck; śaṅkām — with all doubts and wonder.
When Kṛṣṇa opened His mouth wide by the order of mother Yaśodā, she saw within His mouth all moving and nonmoving entities, outer space, and all directions, along with mountains, islands, oceans, the surface of the earth, the blowing wind, fire, the moon and the stars. She saw the planetary systems, water, light, air, sky, and creation by transformation of ahaṅkāra. She also saw the senses, the mind, sense perception, and the three qualities, goodness, passion and ignorance. She saw the time allotted for the living entities, she saw natural instinct and the reactions of karma, and she saw desires and different varieties of bodies, moving and nonmoving. Seeing all these aspects of the cosmic manifestation, along with herself and Vṛndāvana-dhāma, she became doubtful and fearful of her son’s nature.
kiṁ svapna etad uta devamāyā
kiṁ vā madīyo bata buddhi-mohaḥ
atho amuṣyaiva mamārbhakasya
yaḥ kaścanautpattika ātma-yogaḥ
kim — whether; svapnaḥ — a dream; etat — all this; uta — or otherwise; deva-māyā — an illusory manifestation by the external energy; kim vā — or else; madīyaḥ — my personal; bata — indeed; buddhi-mohaḥ — illusion of intelligence; atho — otherwise; amuṣya — of such; eva — indeed; mama arbhakasya — of my child; yaḥ — which; kaścana — some; autpattikaḥ — natural; ātma-yogaḥ — personal mystic power.
[Mother Yaśodā began to argue within herself:] Is this a dream, or is it an illusory creation by the external energy? Has this been manifested by my own intelligence, or is it some mystic power of my child?
atho yathāvan na vitarka-gocaraṁ
yad-āśrayaṁ yena yataḥ pratīyate
sudurvibhāvyaṁ praṇatāsmi tat-padam
atho — therefore she decided to surrender unto the Supreme Lord; yathā-vat — as perfectly as one can perceive; na — not; vitarka-gocaram — beyond all arguments, reason and sense perception; cetaḥ — by consciousness; manaḥ — by mind; karma — by activities; vacobhiḥ — or by words; añjasā — taking all of them together, we cannot understand them; yat-āśrayam — under whose control; yena — by whom; yataḥ — from whom; pratīyate — can be conceived only that from Him everything emanates; su-durvibhāvyam — beyond our sense perception or consciousness; praṇatā asmi — let me surrender; tat-padam — at His lotus feet.
Therefore let me surrender unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead and offer my obeisances unto Him, who is beyond the conception of human speculation, the mind, activities, words and arguments, who is the original cause of this cosmic manifestation, by whom the entire cosmos is maintained, and by whom we can conceive of its existence. Let me simply offer my obeisances, for He is beyond my contemplation, speculation and meditation. He is beyond all of my material activities.
ahaṁ mamāsau patir eṣa me suto
gopyaś ca gopāḥ saha-godhanāś ca me
yan-māyayetthaṁ kumatiḥ sa me gatiḥ
aham — my existence (“I am something”); mama — my; asau — Nanda Mahārāja; patiḥ — husband; eṣaḥ — this (Kṛṣṇa); me sutaḥ — is my son; vraja-īśvarasya — of my husband, Nanda Mahārāja; akhila-vitta-pā — I am the possessor of unlimited opulence and wealth; satī — because I am his wife; gopyaḥ ca — and all the damsels of the cowherd men; gopāḥ — all the cowherd men (are my subordinates); saha-godhanāḥ ca — with the cows and calves; me — my; yat-māyayā — all such things addressed by me are, after all, given by the mercy of the Supreme; ittham — thus; kumatiḥ — I am wrongly thinking they are my possessions; saḥ me gatiḥ — He is therefore my only shelter (I am simply instrumental).
It is by the influence of the Supreme Lord’s māyā that I am wrongly thinking that Nanda Mahārāja is my husband, that Kṛṣṇa is my son, and that because I am the queen of Nanda Mahārāja, all the wealth of cows and calves are my possessions and all the cowherd men and their wives are my subjects. Actually, I also am eternally subordinate to the Supreme Lord. He is my ultimate shelter.
gopikāyāṁ sa īśvaraḥ
vaiṣṇavīṁ vyatanon māyāṁ
ittham — in this way; vidita-tattvāyām — when she understood the truth of everything philosophically; gopikāyām — unto mother Yaśodā; saḥ — the Supreme Lord; īśvaraḥ — the supreme controller; vaiṣṇavīm — Viṣṇu-māyā, or Yoga-māyā; vyatanot — expanded; māyām — Yoga-māyā; putra-sneha-mayīm — very much attached because of maternal affection for her son; vibhuḥ — the Supreme Lord.
Mother Yaśodā, by the grace of the Lord, could understand the real truth. But then again, the supreme master, by the influence of the internal potency, Yoga-māyā, inspired her to become absorbed in intense maternal affection for her son.
sadyo naṣṭa-smṛtir gopī
hṛdayāsīd yathā purā
sadyaḥ — after all these philosophical speculations, mother Yaśodā fully surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead; naṣṭa-smṛtiḥ — having gotten rid of the memory of seeing the universal form within Kṛṣṇa’s mouth; gopī — mother Yaśodā; sā — she; āropya — seating; āroham — on the lap; ātmajam — her son; pravṛddha — increased; sneha — by affection; kalila — affected; hṛdayā — the core of her heart; āsīt — became situated; yathā purā — as she was formerly.
Immediately forgetting Yoga-māyā’s illusion that Kṛṣṇa had shown the universal form within His mouth, mother Yaśodā took her son on her lap as before, feeling increased affection in her heart for her transcendental child.
trayyā copaniṣadbhiś ca
sāṅkhya-yogaiś ca sātvataiḥ
trayyā — by studying the three Vedas (Sāma, Yajur and Atharva); ca — also; upaniṣadbhiḥ ca — and by studying the Vedic knowledge of the Upaniṣads; sāṅkhya-yogaiḥ — by reading the literature of sāṅkhya-yoga; ca — and; sātvataiḥ — by the great sages and devotees, or by reading Vaiṣṇava-tantra, Pañcarātras; upagīyamāna-māhātmyam — whose glories are worshiped (by all these Vedic literatures); harim — unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sā — she; amanyata — considered (ordinary); ātmajam — as her own son.
The glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead are studied through the three Vedas, the Upaniṣads, the literature of Sāṅkhya-yoga, and other Vaiṣṇava literature, yet mother Yaśodā considered that Supreme Person her ordinary child.
nandaḥ kim akarod brahman
śreya evaṁ mahodayam
yaśodā ca mahā-bhāgā
papau yasyāḥ stanaṁ hariḥ
śrī-rājā uvāca — Mahārāja Parīkṣit further inquired (from Śukadeva Gosvāmī); nandaḥ — Mahārāja Nanda; kim — what; akarot — performed; brahman — O learned brāhmaṇa; śreyaḥ — auspicious activities, like performing penances and austerities; evam — as exhibited by him; mahā-udayam — from which they achieved the greatest perfection; yaśodā — mother Yaśodā; ca — also; mahā-bhāgā — most fortunate; papau — drank; yasyāḥ — of whom; stanam — the breast milk; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Having heard of the great fortune of mother Yaśodā, Parīkṣit Mahārāja inquired from Śukadeva Gosvāmī: O learned brāhmaṇa, mother Yaśodā’s breast milk was sucked by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. What past auspicious activities did she and Nanda Mahārāja perform to achieve such perfection in ecstatic love?
gāyanty adyāpi kavayo
pitarau — the actual father and mother of Kṛṣṇa; na — not; anvavindetām — enjoyed; kṛṣṇa — of Kṛṣṇa; udāra — magnanimous; arbhaka-īhitam — the childhood pastimes He performed; gāyanti — are glorifying; adya api — even today; kavayaḥ — great, great sages and saintly persons; yat — which is; loka-śamala-apaham — by hearing of which the contamination of the whole material world is vanquished.
Although Kṛṣṇa was so pleased with Vasudeva and Devakī that He descended as their son, they could not enjoy Kṛṣṇa’s magnanimous childhood pastimes, which are so great that simply chanting about them vanquishes the contamination of the material world. Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā, however, enjoyed these pastimes fully, and therefore their position is always better than that of Vasudeva and Devakī.
droṇo vasūnāṁ pravaro
dharayā bhāryayā saha
brahmaṇas tam uvāca ha
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; droṇaḥ — by the name Droṇa; vasūnām — of the eight Vasus (a type of demigod); pravaraḥ — who was the best; dharayā — with Dharā; bhāryayā — his wife; saha — with; kariṣyamāṇaḥ — just to execute; ādeśān — the orders; brahmaṇaḥ — of Lord Brahmā; tam — unto him; uvāca — said; ha — in the past.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: To follow the orders of Lord Brahmā, Droṇa, the best of the Vasus, along with his wife, Dharā, spoke to Lord Brahmā in this way.
jātayor nau mahādeve
bhuvi viśveśvare harau
bhaktiḥ syāt paramā loke
yayāñjo durgatiṁ taret
jātayoḥ — after we two have taken birth; nau — both husband and wife, Droṇa and Dharā; mahādeve — in the Supreme Person, the Supreme Personality of Godhead; bhuvi — on the earth; viśva-īśvare — in the master of all the planetary systems; harau — in the Supreme Lord; bhaktiḥ — devotional service; syāt — will be spread; paramā — the ultimate goal of life; loke — in the world; yayā — by which; añjaḥ — very easily; durgatim — miserable life; taret — one can avoid and be delivered.
Droṇa and Dharā said: Please permit us to be born on the planet earth so that after our appearance, the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead, the supreme controller and master of all planets, will also appear and spread devotional service, the ultimate goal of life, so that those born in this material world may very easily be delivered from the miserable condition of materialistic life by accepting this devotional service.
astv ity uktaḥ sa bhagavān
vraje droṇo mahā-yaśāḥ
jajñe nanda iti khyāto
yaśodā sā dharābhavat
astu — when Brahmā agreed, “Yes, it is all right”; iti uktaḥ — thus being ordered by him; saḥ — he (Droṇa); bhagavān — eternally the father of Kṛṣṇa (Bhagavān’s father is also Bhagavān); vraje — in Vrajabhūmi, Vṛndāvana; droṇaḥ — Droṇa, the most powerful Vasu; mahā-yaśāḥ — the very famous transcendentalist; jajñe — appeared; nandaḥ — as Nanda Mahārāja; iti — thus; khyātaḥ — is celebrated; yaśodā — as mother Yaśodā; sā — she; dharā — the same Dharā; abhavat — appeared.
When Brahmā said, “Yes, let it be so,” the most fortune Droṇa, who was equal to Bhagavān, appeared in Vrajapura, Vṛndāvana, as the most famous Nanda Mahārāja, and his wife, Dharā, appeared as mother Yaśodā.
tato bhaktir bhagavati
dampatyor nitarām āsīd
tataḥ — thereafter; bhaktiḥ bhagavati — the cult of bhakti, devotional service unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead; putrī-bhūte — in the Lord, who had appeared as the son of mother Yaśodā; janārdane — in Lord Kṛṣṇa; dam-patyoḥ — of both husband and wife; nitarām — continuously; āsīt — there was; gopa-gopīṣu — all the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, the gopas and the gopīs, associating with Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā and following in their footsteps; bhārata — O Mahārāja Parīkṣit.
Thereafter, O Mahārāja Parīkṣit, best of the Bhāratas, when the Supreme Personality of Godhead became the son of Nanda Mahārāja and Yaśodā, they maintained continuous, unswerving devotional love in parental affection. And in their association, all the other inhabitants of Vṛndāvana, the gopas and gopīs, developed the culture of kṛṣṇa-bhakti.
kṛṣṇo brahmaṇa ādeśaṁ
satyaṁ kartuṁ vraje vibhuḥ
saha-rāmo vasaṁś cakre
teṣāṁ prītiṁ sva-līlayā
kṛṣṇaḥ — the Supreme Personality, Kṛṣṇa; brahmaṇaḥ — of Lord Brahmā; ādeśam — the order; satyam — truthful; kartum — to make; vraje — in Vrajabhūmi, Vṛndāvana; vibhuḥ — the supreme powerful; saha-rāmaḥ — along with Balarāma; vasan — residing; cakre — increased; teṣām — of all the inhabitants of Vṛndāvana; prītim — the pleasure; sva-līlayā — by His transcendental pastimes.
Thus the Supreme Personality, Kṛṣṇa, along with Balarāma, lived in Vrajabhūmi, Vṛndāvana, just to substantiate the benediction of Brahmā. By exhibiting different pastimes in His childhood, He increased the transcendental pleasure of Nanda and the other inhabitants of Vṛndāvana.