Śrīmad Bhāgavatam|Canto 10 Chapter 62
The Meeting of Ūṣā and Aniruddha
bāṇasya tanayām ūṣām
tatra yuddham abhūd ghoraṁ
etat sarvaṁ mahā-yogin
samākhyātuṁ tvam arhasi
śrī-rājā uvāca — the King (Parīkṣit Mahārāja) said; bāṇasya — of the demon Bāṇa; tanayām — the daughter; ūṣām — named Ūṣā; upayeme — married; yadu-uttamaḥ — the best of the Yadus (Aniruddha); tatra — in connection with that; yuddham — a battle; abhūt — occurred; ghoram — fearsome; hari-śaṅkarayoḥ — between Lord Hari (Kṛṣṇa) and Lord Śaṅkara (Śiva); mahat — great; etat — this; sarvam — all; mahā-yogin — O great mystic; samākhyātum — to explain; tvam — you; arhasi — deserve.
King Parīkṣit said: The best of the Yadus married Bāṇāsura’s daughter, Ūṣā, and as a result a great, fearsome battle occurred between Lord Hari and Lord Śaṅkara. Please explain everything about this incident, O most powerful of mystics.
baler āsīn mahātmanaḥ
haraye ’dāyi medinī
tasyaurasaḥ suto bānaḥ
mānyo vadānyo dhīmāṁś ca
śoṇitākhye pure ramye
sa rājyam akarot purā
tasya śambhoḥ prasādena
kiṅkarā iva te ’marāḥ
tāṇdave ’toṣayan mṛḍam
śrī-śukaḥ uvāca — Śukadeva Gosvāmī said; bāṇaḥ — Bāṇa; putra — of sons; śata — one hundred; jyeṣṭhaḥ — the oldest; baleḥ — of Mahārāja Bali; āsīt — was; mahā-ātmanaḥ — of the great soul; yena — by whom (Bali); vāmana-rūpāya — in the form of the dwarf, Vāmanadeva; haraye — to the Supreme Lord Hari; adāyi — was given; medinī — the earth; tasya — his; aurasaḥ — from the semen; sutaḥ — the son; bāṇaḥ — Bāṇa; śiva-bhakti — in devotion for Lord Śiva; rataḥ — fixed; sada — always; mānyaḥ — respectable; vadānyaḥ — magnanimous; dhī-man — intelligent; ca — and; satya-sandhaḥ — truthful; dṛḍha-vrataḥ — firm in his vows; śoṇita-ākhye — known as Śoṇita; pure — in the city; ramye — charming; saḥ — he; rājyam akarot — made his kingdom; purā — in the past; tasya — upon him; śambhoḥ — of Lord Śambhu (Śiva); prasādena — by the pleasure; kinkarāḥ — servants; iva — as if; te — they; amarāḥ — the demigods; sahasra — one thousand; bāhuḥ — having arms; vādyena — with the playing of musical instruments; tāṇḍave — while he (Lord Śiva) was dancing his tāṇḍava-nṛtya; atoṣayat — he satisfied; mṛḍam — Lord Śiva.
Śukadeva Gosvāmī said: Bāṇa was the oldest of the hundred sons fathered by the great saint Bali Mahārāja, who gave the whole earth in charity to Lord Hari when He appeared as Vāmanadeva. Bāṇāsura, born from Bali’s semen, became a great devotee of Lord Śiva. His behavior was always respectable, and he was generous, intelligent, truthful and firm in his vows. The beautiful city of Śoṇitapura was under his dominion. Because Lord Śiva had favored him, the very demigods waited on Bāṇāsura like menial servants. Once, when Śiva was dancing his tāṇḍava-nṛtya, Bāṇa especially satisfied the lord by playing a musical accompaniment with his one thousand arms.
vareṇa chandayām āsa
sa taṁ vavre purādhipam
bhagavān — the lord; sarva — of all; bhūta — created beings; īśaḥ — the master; śaraṇyaḥ — the giver of shelter; bhakta — to his devotees; vatsalaḥ — compassionate; vareṇa — with a choice of benedictions; chandayām āsa — gratified him; saḥ — he, Bāṇa; tam — him, Lord Śiva; vavre — chose; pura — of his city; adhipam — as the guardian.
The lord and master of all created beings, the compassionate refuge of his devotees, gladdened Bāṇāsura by offering him the benediction of his choice. Bāṇa chose to have him, Lord Śiva, as the guardian of his city.
sa ekadāha giriśaṁ
saḥ — he, Bāṇāsura; ekadā — once; āha — said; giri-śam — to Lord Śiva; pārśva — at his side; stham — present; vīrya — by his strength; durmadaḥ — intoxicated; kirīṭena — with his helmet; arka — like the sun; varṇena — whose color; saṁspṛśan — touching; tat — his, Lord Śiva’s; pada-ambujam — lotus feet.
Bāṇāsura was intoxicated with his strength. One day, when Lord Śiva was standing beside him, Bāṇāsura touched the lord’s lotus feet with his helmet, which shone like the sun, and spoke to him as follows.
namasye tvāṁ mahā-deva
lokānāṁ gurum īśvaram
namasye — I bow down; tvām — to you; mahā-deva — O greatest of gods; lokānām — of the worlds; gurum — to the spiritual master; īśvaram — to the controller; puṁsām — for men; apūrṇa — unfulfilled; kāmānām — whose desires; kāma-pūra — fulfilling desires; amara-aṅghripam — (like) a tree of heaven.
[Bāṇāsura said:] O Lord Mahādeva, I bow down to you, the spiritual master and controller of the worlds. You are like the heavenly tree that fulfills the desires of those whose desires are unfulfilled.
doḥ-sahasraṁ tvayā dattaṁ
paraṁ bhārāya me ’bhavat
na labhe tvad ṛte samam
doḥ — the arms; sahasram — one thousand; tvayā — by you; dattam — given; param — only; bhārāya — a burden; me — for me; abhavat — have become; tri-lokyam — in the three worlds; pratiyoddhāram — an opposing fighter; na labhe — I do not find; tvat — you; ṛte — except for; samam — equal.
These one thousand arms you bestowed upon me have become merely a heavy burden. Besides you, I find no one in the three worlds worthy to fight.
kaṇḍūtyā nibhṛtair dorbhir
yuyutsur dig-gajān aham
ādyāyāṁ cūrṇayann adrīn
bhītās te ’pi pradudruvuḥ
kaṇḍūtyā — with itching; nibhṛtaiḥ — filled; dorbhiḥ — with my arms; yuyutsuḥ — eager to fight; dik — of the directions; gajān — the elephants; aham — I; ādya — O primeval one; ayam — went; cūrṇayan — crushing to powder; adrīn — mountains; bhītāḥ — frightened; te — they; api — even; pradudruvuḥ — ran away.
Eager to fight with the elephants who rule the directions, O primeval lord, I went forth, pulverizing mountains with my arms, which were itching for battle. But even those great elephants fled in fear.
tac chrutvā bhagavān kruddhaḥ
ketus te bhajyate yadā
tvad-darpa-ghnaṁ bhaven mūḍha
saṁyugaṁ mat-samena te
tat — that; śrutva — hearing; bhagavān — the lord; kruddhaḥ — angry; ketuḥ — flag; te — your; bhajyate — is broken; yadā — when; tvat — your; darpa — pride; ghnam — destroyed; bhavet — will be; mūḍha — O fool; saṁyugam — battle; mat — to me; samena — with Him who is equal; te — your.
Hearing this, Lord Śiva became angry and replied, “Your flag will be broken, fool, when you have done battle with one who is my equal. That fight will vanquish your conceit.”
ity uktaḥ kumatir hṛṣṭaḥ
sva-gṛhaṁ prāviśan nṛpa
iti — thus; uktaḥ — spoken to; ku-matiḥ — foolish; hṛṣṭaḥ — delighted; sva — his own; gṛham — home; prāviśat — entered; nṛpa — O King (Parīkṣit); pratīkṣan — waiting for; giriśa — of Lord Śiva; ādeśam — prediction; sva-vīrya — of his prowess; naśanam — the destruction; ku-dhīḥ — unintelligent.
Thus advised, unintelligent Bāṇāsura was delighted. The fool then went home, O King, to wait for that which Lord Giriśa had predicted: the destruction of his prowess.
tasyoṣā nāma duhitā
svapne prādyumninā ratim
prāg adṛṣṭa-śrutena sā
tasya — his; ūṣā nāma — named Ūṣā; duhitā — daughter; svapne — in a dream; prādyumninā — with the son of Pradyumna (Aniruddha); ratim — an amorous encounter; kanyā — the unmarried maiden; alabhata — obtained; kāntena — with her lover; prāk — previously; adṛṣṭa — never seen; śrutena — or heard of; sā — she.
In a dream Bāṇa’s daughter, the maiden Ūṣā, had an amorous encounter with the son of Pradyumna, though she had never before seen or heard of her lover.
sā tatra tam apaśyantī
kvāsi kānteti vādinī
sakhīnāṁ madhya uttasthau
vihvalā vrīḍitā bhṛśam
sā — she; tatra — there (in her dream); tam — Him; apaśyantī — not seeing; kva — where; asi — are You; kānta — my lover; iti — thus; vādinī — speaking; sakhīnām — of her girlfriends; madhye — in the midst; uttasthau — arose; vihvalā — disturbed; vrīḍitā — embarrassed; bhṛśam — greatly.
Losing sight of Him in her dream, Ūṣā suddenly sat up in the midst of her girlfriends, crying out “Where are You, my lover?” She was greatly disturbed and embarrassed.
bāṇasya mantrī kumbhāṇḍaś
citralekhā ca tat-sutā
sakhy apṛcchat sakhīm ūṣāṁ
bāṇasya — of Bāṇa; mantrī — the minister; kumbhāṇḍaḥ — Kumbhāṇḍa; Citralekhā — citralekhā; ca — and; tat — his; sutā — daughter; sakhī — the girlfriend; apṛcchat — she asked; sakhīm — her girīfriend; ūṣām — Ūṣā; kautūhala — with curiosity; samanvitā — full.
Bāṇāsura had a minister named Kumbhāṇḍa, whose daughter was Citralekhā. A companion of Ūṣā’s, she was filled with curiosity, and thus she inquired from her friend.
kaṁ tvaṁ mṛgayase su-bhru
kīdṛśas te manorathaḥ
hasta-grāhaṁ na te ’dyāpi
kam — who; tvam — you; mṛgayase — are looking for; su-bhru — O beautiful-browed one; kīdṛṣaḥ — of what sort; te — your; manaḥ-rathaḥ — hankering; hasta — of the hand; grāham — a taker; na — not; te — your; adya api — up until now; rāja-putri — O princess; upalakṣaye — do I see.
[Citralekhā said:] Who are you searching for, O fine-browed one? What is this hankering you’re feeling? Until now, O princess, I haven’t seen any man take your hand in marriage.
dṛṣṭaḥ kaścin naraḥ svapne
dṛṣṭaḥ — seen; kaścit — a certain; naraḥ — man; svapne — in my dream; śyāmaḥ — dark blue; kamala — lotuslike; locanaḥ — whose eyes; pīta — yellow; vāsāḥ — whose clothing; bṛhat — mighty; bāhuḥ — whose arms; yoṣitām — of women; hṛdayam — the hearts; gamaḥ — touching.
[Ūṣā said:] In my dream I saw a certain man who had a darkblue complexion, lotus eyes, yellow garments and mighty arms. He was the kind who touches women’s hearts.
tam ahaṁ mṛgaye kāntaṁ
kvāpi yātaḥ spṛhayatīṁ
kṣiptvā māṁ vṛjinārṇave
tam — Him; aham — I; mṛgaye — am seeking; kāntam — lover; pāyayitvā — having made drink; ādharam — of His lips; madhu — the honey; kva api — somewhere; yātaḥ — has gone; spṛhayatīm — hankering for Him; kṣiptvā — having thrown; mām — me; vṛjina — of distress; arṇave — in the ocean.
It is that lover I search for. After making me drink the honey of His lips, He has gone elsewhere, and thus He has thrown me, hankering fervently for Him, into the ocean of distress.
vyasanaṁ te ’pakarṣāmi
tri-lokyāṁ yadi bhāvyate
tam āneṣye varaṁ yas te
mano-hartā tam ādiśa
citralekhā uvāca — Citralekhā said; vyasanam — distress; te — your; apakarṣāmi — I will take away; tri-lokyām — within the three worlds; yadi — if; bhāvyate — He is to be found; tam — Him; āneṣye — I will bring; varam — husband-to-be; yaḥ — who; te — your; manaḥ — of the heart; hartā — the thief; tam — Him; ādiśa — please point out.
Citralekhā said: I will remove your distress. If He is to be found anywhere in the three worlds, I will bring this future husband of yours who has stolen your heart. Please show me who He is.
ity uktvā deva-gandharva
manujāṁś ca yathālikhat
iti — thus; uktvā — saying; deva-gandharva — demigods and Gandharvas; siddha-cāraṇa-pannagān — Siddhas, Cāraṇas and Pannagas; daitya-vidyādharān — demons and Vidyādharas; yakṣān — Yakṣas; manu-jān — humans; ca — also; yathā — accurately; alikhat — she drew.
Saying this, Citralekhā proceeded to draw accurate pictures of various demigods, Gandharvas, Siddhas, Cāraṇas, Pannagas, Daityas, Vidyādharas, Yakṣas and humans.
manujeṣu ca sā vṛṣnīn
vyalikhad rāma-kṛṣṇau ca
pradyumnaṁ vīkṣya lajjitā
so ’sāv asāv iti prāha
manujeṣu — among the humans; ca — and; sā — she (Citralekhā); vṛṣṇīn — the Vṛṣṇis; śūram — Śūrasena; ānakadundubhim — Vasudeva; vyalikhat — drew; rāma-kṛṣṇau — Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa; ca — and; pradyumnam — Pradyumna; vīkṣya — seeing; lajjitā — becoming shy; aniruddham — Aniruddha; vilikhitam — drawn; vīkṣya — seeing; ūṣā — Ūṣā; avāk — bending down; mukhī — her head; hriyā — out of embarrassment; saḥ asau asau iti — “That’s the one! That’s the one!”; prāha — she said; smayamānā — smiling; mahī-pate — O King.
O King, among the humans, Citralekhā drew pictures of the Vṛṣṇis, including Śūrasena, Ānakadundubhi, Balarāma and Kṛṣṇa. When Ūṣā saw the picture of Pradyumna she became bashful, and when she saw Aniruddha’s picture she bent her head down in embarrassment. Smiling, she exclaimed, “He’s the one! It’s Him!”
citralekhā tam ājñāya
pautraṁ kṛṣṇasya yoginī
yayau vihāyasā rājan
citralekhā — Citralekhā; tam — Him; ājñāya — recognizing; pautram — as the grandson; kṛṣṇasya — of Lord Kṛṣṇa; yoginī — female mystic; yayau — she went; vihāyasā — by the mystic skyways; rājan — O King; dvārakām — to Dvārakā; kṛṣṇa-pālitām — protected by Kṛṣṇa.
Citralekhā, endowed with mystic powers, recognized Him as Kṛṣṇa’s grandson [Aniruddha]. My dear King, she then traveled by the mystic skyway to Dvārakā, the city under Lord Kṛṣṇa’s protection.
tatra suptaṁ su-paryaṅke
prādyumniṁ yogam āsthitā
sakhyai priyam adarśayat
tatra — there; suptam — asleep; su — excellent; paryaṅke — on a bed; pradyumnim — the son of Pradyumna; yogam — mystic power; āsthitā — using; gṛhītvā — taking Him; śoṇita-puram — to Śoṇitapura, Bāṇāsura’s capital; salshyai — to her girlfriend, Ūṣā; priyam — her beloved; adarśayat — she showed.
There she found Pradyumna’s son Aniruddha sleeping upon a fine bed. With her yogic power she took Him away to Śoṇitapura, where she presented her girlfriend Ūṣā with her beloved.
sā ca taṁ sundara-varaṁ
duṣprekṣye sva-gṛhe pumbhī
reme prādyumninā samam
sā — she; ca — and; tam — Him; sundara-varam — the most beautiful man; vilokya — beholding; mudita — joyful; ānanā — her face; duṣprekṣye — which was not to be seen; sva — in her own; gṛhe — quarters; pumbhiḥ — by men; reme — she enjoyed; pradyumninā samam — together with the son of Pradyumna.
When Ūṣā beheld Him, the most beautiful of men, her face lit up with joy. She took the son of Pradyumna to her private quarters, which men were forbidden even to see, and there enjoyed with Him.
gūḍhaḥ kanyā-pure śaśvat-
nāhar-gaṇān sa bubudhe
parārdhya — priceless; vāsaḥ — with garments; srak — garlands; gandha — fragrances; dhūpa — incense; dīpa — lamps; āsana — sitting places; ādibhiḥ — and so on; pāna — with beverages; bhojana — food that is chewed; bhakṣyaiḥ — food that is not chewed; ca — also; vākyaiḥ — with words; śuśrūṣaṇa — by faithful service; arcitaḥ — worshiped; gūḍhaḥ — kept hidden; kanyā-pure — in the quarters for unmarried girls; śaśvat — continuously; pravṛddha — greatly increasing; snehayā — whose affection; tayā — by her; na — not; ahaḥ-gaṇān — the days; saḥ — He; bubudhe — noticed; ūṣayā — by Ūṣā; apahṛta — diverted; indriyaḥ — His senses.
Ūṣā worshiped Aniruddha with faithful service, offering Him priceless garments, along with garlands, fragrances, incense, lamps, sitting places and so on. She also offered Him beverages, all types of food, and sweet words. As He thus remained hidden in the young ladies’ quarters, Aniruddha did not notice the passing of the days, for His senses were captivated by Ūṣā, whose affection for Him ever increased.
tāṁ tathā yadu-vīreṇa
hetubhir lakṣayāṁ cakrur
bhaṭā āvedayāṁ cakrū
rājaṁs te duhitur vayam
tām — her; tathā — thus; yadu-vīreṇa — by the hero of the Yadus; bhujyamānām — being enjoyed; hata — broken; vratām — whose (virgin) vow; hetubhiḥ — by symptoms; lakṣayām cakruḥ — they ascertained; ā-prītām — who was extremely happy; duravacchadaiḥ — impossible to disguise; bhaṭāḥ — the female guards; āvedayām cakruḥ — announced; rājan — O King; te — your; duhituḥ — of the daughter; vayam — we; viceṣṭitam — improper behavior; lakṣayāmaḥ — have noted; kanyāyāḥ — of an unmarried girl; kula — the family; dūṣaṇam — besmirching.
The female guards eventually noticed unmistakable symptoms of romantic involvement in Ūṣā, who, having broken her maiden vow, was being enjoyed by the Yadu hero and showing signs of conjugal happiness. The guards went to Bāṇāsura and told him, “O King, we have detected in your daughter the kind of improper behavior that spoils the reputation of a young girl’s family.
guptāyāś ca gṛhe prabho
kanyāyā dūṣaṇaṁ pumbhir
duṣprekṣyāyā na vidmahe
anapāyibhiḥ — who have never gone away; asmābhiḥ — by us; guptāyāḥ — of her who has been well guarded; ca — and; gṛhe — within the palace; prabho — O master; kanyāyāḥ — of the maiden; dūṣaṇam — the polluting; pumbhiḥ — by men; duṣprekṣyāyāḥ — impossible to be seen; na vidmahe — we do not understand.
“We have been carefully watching over her, never leaving our posts, O master, so we cannot understand how this maiden, whom no man can even see, has been corrupted within the palace.”
tataḥ pravyathito bāṇo
prāpto ’drākṣīd yadūdvaham
tataḥ — then; pravyathitaḥ — very agitated; bāṇaḥ — Bāṇāsura; duhituḥ — of his daughter; śruta — having heard of; dūṣaṇaḥ — the corruption; tvaritaḥ — quickly; kanyakā — of the unmarried girls; āgāram — the quarters; prāptaḥ — reaching; adrākṣīt — he saw; yadu-udvaham — the most eminent of the Yadus.
Very agitated to hear of his daughter’s corruption, Bāṇāsura rushed at once to the maidens’ quarters. There he saw the pride of the Yadus, Aniruddha.
kāmātmajaṁ taṁ bhuvanaika-sundaraṁ
śyāmaṁ piśaṅgāmbaram ambujekṣaṇam
smitāvalokena ca maṇḍitānanam
dīvyantam akṣaiḥ priyayābhinṛmṇayā
bāhvor dadhānaṁ madhu-mallikāśritāṁ
tasyāgra āsīnam avekṣya vismitaḥ
kāma — of Cupid (Pradyumna); ātmajam — the son; tam — Him; bhuvana — of all the worlds; eka — the exclusive; sundaram — beauty; śyāmam — dark blue in complexion; piśaṅga — yellow; ambaram — whose clothing; ambuja — like lotuses; īkṣaṇam — whose eyes; bṛhat — mighty; bhujam — whose arms; kuṇḍala — of His earrings; kuntala — and of the locks of His hair; tviṣā — with the glow; smita — smiling; avalokena — with glances; ca — also; maṇḍita — ornamented; ānanam — whose face; dīvyantam — playing; akṣaiḥ — with dice; priyayā — along with His beloved; abhinṛmṇayā — all-auspicious; tat — with her; aṅga — physical; saṅga — because of the contact; stana — from her breasts; kuṅkuma — having the kuṅkuma; srajam — a flower garland; bāhvoḥ — between His arms; dadhānam — wearing; madhu — springtime; mallikā — of jasmines; āśritām — composed; tasyāḥ — of her; agre — in the front; āsīnam — sitting; avekṣya — seeing; vismitaḥ — amazed.
Bāṇāsura saw before him Cupid’s own son, possessed of unrivaled beauty, with dark-blue complexion, yellow garments, lotus eyes and formidable arms. His face was adorned with effulgent earrings and hair, and also with smiling glances. As He sat opposite His most auspicious lover, playing with her at dice, there hung between His arms a garland of spring jasmines that had been smeared with kuṅkuma powder from her breasts when He had embraced her. Bāṇāsura was astonished to see all this.
sa taṁ praviṣṭaṁ vṛtam ātatāyibhir
bhaṭair anīkair avalokya mādhavaḥ
udyamya maurvaṁ parighaṁ vyavasthito
yathāntako daṇḍa-dharo jighāṁsayā
saḥ — He, Aniruddha; tam — him, Bāṇāsura; praviṣṭam — entered; vṛtam — surrounded; ātatāyibhiḥ — who were carrying weapons; bhaṭaiḥ — by guards; anīkaiḥ — numerous; avalokya — seeing; mādhavaḥ — Aniruddha; udyamya — raising; maurvam — made of muru iron; parigham — His club; vyavasthitaḥ — standing firm; yathā — like; anṭakaḥ — death personified; daṇḍa — the rod of punishment; dharaḥ — bearing; jighāṁsayā — ready to strike.
Seeing Bāṇāsura enter with many armed guards, Aniruddha raised His iron club and stood resolute, ready to strike anyone who attacked Him. He resembled death personified holding his rod of punishment.
jighṛkṣayā tān paritaḥ prasarpataḥ
śuno yathā śūkara-yūthapo ’hanat
te hanyamānā bhavanād vinirgatā
jighṛkṣayā — wanting to grab Him; tān — them; paritaḥ — on all sides; prasarpataḥ — approaching; śunaḥ — dogs; yathā — as; śūkara — of hogs; yūtha — of a group; paḥ — the leader; ahanat — He struck; te — they; hanyamānāḥ — being struck; bhavanāt — from the palace; vinirgatāḥ — went out; nirbhinna — broken; mūrdha — their heads; ūru — thighs; bhujāḥ — and arms; pradudruvuḥ — they fled.
As the guards converged on Him from all sides, trying to capture Him, Aniruddha struck them just as the leader of a pack of boars strikes back at dogs. Hit by His blows, the guards fled the palace, running for their lives with shattered heads, thighs and arms.
taṁ nāga-pāśair bali-nandano balī
ghnantaṁ sva-sainyaṁ kupito babandha ha
ūṣā bhṛśaṁ śoka-viṣāda-vihvalā
baddhaṁ niśamyāśru-kalākṣy arautsīt
tam — Him; nāga-pāśaiḥ — with the mystic nāga noose; bali-nandanaḥ — the son of Bali (Bāṇāsura); balī — powerful; ghnantam — as He was striking; sva — at his own; sainyam — army; kupitaḥ — angered; babandha ha — he captured; ūṣā — Ūṣā; bhṛśam — extremely; śoka — by sorrow; viṣāda — and discouragement; vihvalā — overwhelmed; baddham — captured; niśamya — hearing; aśru-kalā — with teardrops; akṣī — in her eyes; arautsīt — cried.
But even as Aniruddha was striking down the army of Bāṇa, that powerful son of Bali angrily caught Him with the mystic nāga-pāśa ropes. When Ūṣā heard of Aniruddha’s capture, she was overwhelmed with grief and depression; her eyes filled with tears, and she wept.